daan

mandir mein bhiksha deti stri (raaja ravi varma ki chitrakaari)

daan ka shaabdik arth hai - 'dene ki kriya'. sabhi dharmon mein supaatr ko daan dena param kartavya maana gaya hai. hindu dharm mein daan ki bahut mahima bataayi gayi hai. aadhunik sandarbhon mein daan ka arth kisi jarooratamand ko sahaayata ke roop mein kuchh dena hai.

anukram

parichay

daan kisi vastu par se apna adhikaar samaapt karke doosare ka adhikaar sthaapit karna daan hai. saath hi yeh aavashyak hai ki daan mein di hui vastu ke badle mein kisi prakaar ka vinimay naheen hona chaahiye. is daan ki poorti tabhi kahi gayi hai jabki daan mein di huin vastu ke oopar paane vaale ka adhikaar sthaapit ho jaae. maan liya jaae ki koi vastu daan mein di gayi kintu us vastu par paanevaale ka adhikaar hone se poorv hi yadi vah vastu nasht ho gayi to vah daan naheen kaha ja sakta. aisi paristhiti mein yadyapi daan denevaale ko pratyavaaya naheen lagta tathaapi daata ko daan ke fal ki praapti bhi naheen ho sakti.

prakaar

saatvik, raajas aur taamas, in bhedon se daan teen prakaar ka kaha gaya hai. jo daan pavitra sthaan mein aur uttam samay mein aise vyakti ko diya jaata hai jisne daata par kisi prakaar ka upakaar na kiya ho vah saatvik daan hai. apne oopar kiye hue kisi prakaar ke upakaar ke badle mein athva kisi fal ki aakaanksha se athva vivshataavash jo daan diya jaata hai vah raajas daan kaha jaata hai. apavitr sthaan evam anuchit samay mein bina satkaar ke, avajnyaataarpook evam ayogya vyakti ko jo daan diya jaat hai vah taamas daan kaha gaya hai.

kaayik, vaachik aur maanasik in bhedon se pun: daan ke teen bhed ginaae gaye hain. sankalpapoorvak jo soovarn, rajat aadi daan diya jaata hai vah kaayik daan hai. apne nikat kisi bhayabheet vyakti ke aane par jau abhaya daan diya jaata hai vah vaachik daan hai. jap aur dhyaan prabhruti ka jo arpan kiya jaata hai use maanasik daan kehte hain.

  • vidya daan - vidya dena
  • bhoo daan - bhoomi dena
  • anna daan - khaane dena
  • kanya daan - kanya ko shaadi dena
  • go daan - gaaya dena

daanpaatr

jis vyakti ko daan diya jaata hai use daan ka paatr kehte hain. tapasvi, ved aur shaastr ko jaananevaala aur shaastr mein batalaae hue maargan ke anusaar swayam aacharan karanevaala vyakti daan ka uttam paatr hai. yahaaain guru ka pratham sthaan hai. iske anantar vidya, gun evam vaya ke anupaat se paatrata maani jaati hai. iske atirikt jaamaata, dauhitr tatha bhaagineya bhi daan ke uttam paatr hain. braahman ko diya hua daan shadgunit, kshatriya ko trigunit, vaishya ka dvigunit evam shoodr ko jo daan diya jaata hai vah saamaanya fal ko denevaala kaha gaya hai. uparyukt paatrata ka parignan vishesh daan ke nimitt kiya gaya hai. iske sivaaya yadi ann aur vastr ka daan dena ho to uske liye uparyukt paatrata dekhne ki aavashyakta naheen hai. tadarth bubhukshit aur vivstr hona maatr hi paryaapt paatrata kahi gayi hai.

daatavya

daatavya dravya ke teen bhed ginaae gaye hain - shukl, mishrit aur Krishna. shaastr, tap, yog, parampara, paraakram aur shishya se upalabdh dravya shukl kaha gaya hai. kuseed, krushi aur vaanijya se samaagat dravya mishrit batalaaya gaya hai. seva, dyoot aur chaurya se praapt dravya ko Krishna kaha hai. shukl dravya ke daan se sukh ki praapti hoti hai. mishrit dravya ke daan se sukh evam du:kh, donon ko upalabdhi hoti hai. Krishna dravya ka daan diya jaae to keval du:kh hi milta hai. dravya ki teen hi paristhitiyaaain dekhi jaati hain - daan, bhog aur naash. uttam koti ke vyakti apne dravya ka upayog daan mein karte hain. madhyam purush apne dravya ka vyaya upabhog mein karte hain. in donon se atirikt vyakti apne dravya ka upayog na daan mein hi karte hain na upabhog mein. unka dravya naash ko praapt hota hai. is prakaar ke vyaktiyon ki ganana adham koti mein hoti hai.

daanavidhi

daan ke mahaadaan, laghudaan aur saamaanaya daan prabhruti anek bhed ginaae gaye hain. mahaadaan bhi 16 tarah ke kahe gaye hain. inmein tulaadaan ko praathamikta mili hain. is tulaadaan ka anushthaan teen dinon mein sampann haata hai. pratham din tulaadaan karanevaala vyakti aur us anushthaan ko sanpaadit karaanevaale vidvaan log doosare din upavaas aur niymapaalan karne ka sankalp karte hain doosare din praat:kaal uthakar apne aavashyak daihik krutya se nivrutt hokar snaan aur dainik aahnik se chhutti paakar anushthaanamandap ke nikat upasthit hote hain. praarambh mein sankalpapoorvak mahaaganapatipoojan, maatrukaapoojan, vasordhaaraapoojan, naandeeshraaddh aur punyaahavaachan hota hai. pratham shuddh ki hui bhoomi par mandap, kund aur vediyon ka jo nirmaan ho chuka hai usaka sanskaar kiya jaata hai vastr, alankaar aur pataaka se mandap ka prasaadhan kiya jaata hai. yajamaan ke dvaara anushthaan ke nimitt aachaarya, brahma aur ritvijon ka varan kiya jaata hai. sabhi vidvaanon ka madhupark se archan hota hai. is prakaar ke mahaadaan ke avsar par chaaron vedon ke jaankaar vidvaanon ki apeksha hoti hai. aachaarya ki jaankaari usi ved ki honi chaahiye jo ved yajamaan ka ho. yajamaan ke ved ke anusaar anushthaan ka samast kaarya hona chaahiye. anya vedon ke jaankaar vidvaanon mein rigvedi vidvaan mandap ke poorv dwaar par, yajurvedi vidvaan dakshin dwaar par, saamavedi vidvaan pashchim dwaar par aur atharvavedi vidvaan uttar dwaar par baithate hain. vaheen par baithe hue raksha evam shaanti ke nimitt vaidik mantrapaath karte hain.

teesare din vaidik shaantipaathapoorvak kund mein savidhi agnisthaapan hota hai. vediyon par devata, dikpaal aur navagrah prabhruti ka sthaapan aur poojan hota hai. hotrugan devata ke preetyarth havan karte hain. anantar dikpaalon ke preetyarth balidaan karke poorvaang krutya ki samaapti hoti hai.

pradhaan krutya ke praarambh mein yajamaan ke dvaara vidvaanon ko shayya "daan" mein di jaati hai. yahaaain yeh bhi jnyaaatavya hai ki anya vidvaanon ko jo diya jaae usase aachaarya ko dvigunit diya jaana chaahiye. shayyaadaan ke anantar mangalavaadya evam mangalageet ke saath pradhaan krutya ka praarambh hota hai. sabhi vidvaan vaidik mantron ka paath karte hue yajamaan ko maangalik snaan karaate hain. anantar yajamaan shuddh vastr evam maala dhaaran kiye hue anjali mein pushp lekar tula ki teen pradakshina karta hai. anjali ke pushpon ko devata ko chadhaakar daahine haath mein dharmaraaj ki aur baaeain haath mein soorya ki suvarnapratima leta hai. poorv ki or muainh kiye hue tula ke uttari bhaag mein padmaasan se baithata hai. apne sammukh sthaapit vishnu ki pratima ko dekhta rahata hai. vidvaan log tula ke dakshin bhaag par suvarnakhand rakhate hain. ye suvarnakhand itne hone chaahiye jo yajamaan ke bojh se kuchh adhik hon. is prakaar kuchh kshan tula par baithakar yajamaan neeche utar aata hai. tula par rakha hua svarn vidvaanon ko arpit kiya jaata hai. is suvarn se atirikt bhoomi, ratn aur dakshina vidvaanon ko di jaani chaahiye. is prakaar tulaadaan ki sankshipt rooparekha yahaaain dikhlaai gayi hain. iske atirikt suvarnaachal, raupyaachal aur dhaanyaachal prabhruti mahaadaan evam saamaanya daan hain jo daan ke vidhaanon ke pratipaadak granthon mein dekhne chaahiye.

daan (jain drushti se) jain granthon mein paatr, sam aur anvaya ke bhed se daan ke chaar prakaar bataae gaye hain. paatron ko diya hua daan paatr, deenadukhiyon ko diya hua daan karuna, sahadhaarmikon ko karaaya hua preetibhoj aadi sam, tatha apni dhanasanpatti ko kisi uttaraadhikaari ko saunp dene ko anvaya daan kaha hai. donon mein aahaar daan, aushadhadaan, muniyon ko dhaarmik upakaranon ka daan tatha unke thaharane ke liye vasatidaan ko mukhya bataaya gaya hai. jnyaaanadaan aur abhayadaan ko bhi shreshth daanon mein gina gaya hai.

vaidik granthon ke anusaar daan karne ke samay snaan karke pehle shuddh sthaan ko gobar se leep le, fir usapar baithakar daan de aur uske baad dakshina de. jahaaain ganga aadi teerth hon unheen sthaanon ko daan ke lipe upayukt kaha hai. in sthaanon par gaaya, til, jameen aur suvarn aadi ka daan karna chaahiye. baalakon ke liye khilaune daan karne se vishesh punya bataaya hai. grahon ki shaanti ke liye bhi daan vidhaan hai.

shraddha, tushti, bhakti, gyaan alobh, kshama aur satya ye saat gun daata ke liye aavashyak hai. padgaahana karna, uchch sthaan dena, charanon ka udak grahan karna, archan karna, pranaam karna, man vachan aur kaaya tatha bhojan ki shuddhi rakhana - in nau prakaaron se daan denevaala daata punya ka bhaagi hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • vidya daan

baahari kadiyaaain