computer program

sanganak program kisi kaarya vishesh ko sanganak dvaara karaane athva karne ke liye sanganak ko samajh aane waali bhaasha me diye gaye nirdesho ke samooh hota hai.

anukram

kramaanudeshan ke vibhinn charan

kisi bhi program ki kramaanudeshan karne ke liye sarvapratham program ke samast nirdishteekaran ko bhali-bhaaainti samajh liya jaata hai. program me prayog ki gayi sabhi sharto ka anupaalan sahi prakaar se ho raha hai ya nahi, yeh bhi jaanch liya jaata hai. ab program ke sabhi nirdishteekaran ko jaanchane-samajhne ke uparaant program ke shuroo se vaanchhit parinaam praapt hone tak ke sabhi nirdesho ko vidhivt kramabadhd kar liya jaata hai arthaat prograamo ki dijaaining kar li jaati hai. program ki design ko bhali-bhaanti jaanchakar, program ki koding ki jaati hai evam program ko kampaail kiya jaata hai. program ko test data input karke program ki jaanch ki jaati hai ki vaastav me sahi parinaam praapt ho raha hai ya nahi. yadi parinaam sahi nahi hote hai to iska arth hai ki program ke kisi nirdesh ka kram galat hai athva nirdesh kisi sthaan par galat diya gaya hai. yadi parinaam sahi praapt hota hai to program me diye gaye nirdesho ke kram ko ekabadhd kar liya jaata hai evam nirdesho ke is kram ko sanganak me sthaapit kar diya jaata hai. is prakaar kramaanudeshan ki sampoorn prakriya sampann hoti hai.

program ke lakshan

kisi bhi uchch koti ke program me nimnaankit lakshan vaanchhaneeya hote hai-

  1. shudhdata-koi bhi program apne uddeshya ko poorn karta hua hona chaahiye. program me vaanchhit parinaam ko praapt karne ki prakriya evam nirdesh poorn roop se satya evam dosh rahit hone chaahiye, arthaat yadi kisi input se galat parinaam praapt hota hai to program par kaarya karne wala upayokta nishchaya hi yeh jaan le ki usase data input karne me hi koi galati hui hai kyonki sahi input se sahi parinaam avashya praapt hota hai.
  2. vishvasaneeyata-program ki vishvasaneeyata se taatparya hai ki prayogakarta is par kaarya karte samay yadi koi truti karta hai to use is galati se sambandhit spasht truti sandesh praapt hona chaahiye taaki vah us truti ko theek karke apna kaarya suchaaroo roop se kar sakein.
  3. sakshamata-program vibhinn stroto se praapt data ke prabandhan me saksham hona chaahiye.
  4. prayog karne me sugam -program me diye gaye nirdesh is prakaar vyavasthit hone chaahiye ki prayogakarta ko is par kaarya karne me samasyaao ka saamana na karna pade. program ko prayog karne me samast sambhaavit samasyaao ko hal karke kaarya ko aage badhaane ke liye sahaayata prayogakarta ko program me hi upalabdh honi chaahiye.
  5. pathaneeyata-program ki pathaneeyata se taatparya hai ki prayogakarta ko program par kaarya karte samay vibhinn parivrtanaanko ke liye spasht soochanaayein praapt ho;arthaat yadi program me kisi sthaan par name input karna hai to program, A usaka parivrtanaank name athaba isse milta- julata hona chaahiye taaki prayogakarta yeh samajh sake ki use yahaan par name input karna hai.

sanganak kramaanudeshan kis prakaar ki jaati hai?

sanganak ke kaarya karne ki prakriya atyant jatil hoti hai. sanganak ki apni smruti to hoti hai lekin buddhi nahi hoti. sanganak maatr vahi kaarya karta hai, jiska ki use nirdesh diya jaata hai;arthaat sanganak ko kaarya ki buddhi kramabaddh nirdesho athva program dvaara di jaati hai. sanganak me program kunyajeepatal par taaip karke feed kiya jaata hai, program me sanganak ko kya kya, kis prakraar karna hai, yeh spasht evam kramabaddh roop me likha jaata hai.
kalpana kijeeye ki kisi vyakti ko do cup chai banaane ka kaarya diya gaya. ab hame sanganak ko chai banaane se sambandhit sabhi nirdesh nishchit kram me dene honge. yadi nirdesh maukhik roop se dene ho to ye nimnaanusaar honge:-
1.rasaui ghar me jaaiye.
2.ek cup lein.
3.paani ki toti khole.
4.cup me paani bharakar toteen ko band kar de.
5.cup ko sleb par rakh de.
6.chai ka bhagona lein.
7.slaib par rakhe cup ka paani chai ke bhagone me ulat de.
8.chai ka bhagona gas barnar par rakh de.
9.gas laaitar jalaaye.
10.ek haath se gas ki naub ko on karein tatha saath hi laaitar bhi jalaaऎ.
11 yadi gas nahi jalati hai to naub ko of kare aur ab kramaank 9 waali kriya ko doharaaye.
12.yadi gas jal jaati hai to chai ke bhagone ke paani ko tab tak garam hone de jab tak ki vah ubalane na lage.
13. paani garam hone ki avadhi me chai va cheeni ka dibba jin par kramash: chai aur cheeni likha hai; aur ek chammach apne paas rakh lein.
14. paani ke ubalane par chai ka dibba kholkar aadha chammach chai aur uske baad cheeni ka dibba kholkar ek chammach cheeni usame daal de.
15.chai va cheeni ke dibbo ko band karke jahaan se uthaaye the vahi rakh de.
16.ab doodh ke bhagone me se ek cup doodh le lein.
17.ab paani ke pun: ubalane par usame cup ka doodh daale.
18.is mishran ke ubalane par gas ki naub ko of kar de.
19.ek tre le.
20.is tre me do plete alag alag rakhiye.
21.tre me rakhi gayi pleto me ek ek cup rakhiye.
22.ab chai chhanni va sandaasi le.
23.sandaasi se chai ke bhagone ko pakadakar chhanani ek cup ke oopar rakhakar chai chhaaniye aur tab tak chhaaniye jab tak ki cup 80% na bhar jaaye.
24.kramaank 23 waali kriya ko doosare cup ke liye doharaaye.
25.dono kapo me chai bhar jaane ke pashchaat chhanani va chai ke bhagone ko sink me rakh dijiye.
aapne dekha ki chai banaane ke liye spasht evam ek nishchchit kram me nirdesh diye gaye. ye nirdesh kisi ऎse vyakti se bhi chai banavaane ke liye paryaapt hai jisne kabhi chai na banaai ho. isi prakaar sanganak se koi kaarya karaane ke liye use spasht evam nishchit kram me nirdesh diye jaate hai;aur yahi prakriya sanganak kramaanudeshan hai.

kramaanudeshan me dhyaan rakhane yogya baate

1.kisi kaarya vishesh ke liye program kai prakaar se taiyaar kiya ja sakta hai.
2.program taiyaar karne hetu vibhinn nirdesh ke liye vishesh shabdo ka prayog kiya jaata hai. ye vishesh shabd command kahalaate hai.
3.program me nirdesh usi kram me likhe jaate hai, jis kram se vah kaarya sampann hota hai.
4.program sanganak ki samajh aane waali bhaashaao arthaat programming language athva un tantraanshon, jinme ki kramaanudeshan karne ki suvidha hai, me likha jaata hai.

sanganak apni bhaasha kis prakaar samajhta hai

sanganak keval masheeni bhaasha samajhta hai. vibhinn kramaanudeshan bhaasha me likhe gaye program me nirdesho ko Assembler, compiler athva Interpreter ki sahaayata se masheeni bhaasha me parivrtit karke sanganak ke maaikoprosesar me bheja jaata hai. tabhi sanganak in nirdesho ka paalan kar upayukt parinaam prastut karta hai. masheeni bhaasha maatr baayanari anko arthaat 0 se 1 ke samooho se bani hoti hai jise sanganak ka maaikoprosesar seedhe samajh sakta hai.
jab ham sanganak ko koi bhi nirdesh kisi input ke maadhyam se dete hai to sanganak svat: in nirdesho ko ASCII Code me parivrtit kar sakta hai. nirdesh dene ke liye hame saamaanyat: aksharo, sankhyaao evam sanketo ke "keej" ko ki-board par dabaana hota hai aur sanganak svat: hi inhe apni bhaasha me badal leta hai.
example-TYPE masheeni bhaasha me -T(01000101) Y(10010101) P(00000101)E(01010100)

sanganak ko nirdesh kis prakaar dete hai

sanganak ko nirdesh program tareeke se, atyant spasht bhaasha me evam vistaar se dena atyant aavashyak hota hai. sanganak ko kaarya vishesh karne ke liye ek program banaakar dena hota hai. diya gaya program jitna spasht, vistrut aur sateek hoga, sanganak utane hi suchaaroo roop se kaarya karega, utani hi kam galatiya karega aur utane hi sahi uttar dega. yadi program aspasht hoga aur usame samuchit vivran evam spasht nirdesh nahi honge to yeh sambhav hai ki sanganak bina parinaam nikaale hi ganana karta rahe athva usase praapt parinaam aspasht aur nirrthak ho. at: program atyant saavadhaani aur ekaagrachit hokar taiyaar karna chaahiye. sanganak ki sampoorn kaaryakshamata yojanevaalaaarthaat program banaane vaale vyakti ki kshamata par nirbhar hoti hai.
sanganak me apni koi budhdi nahi hoti. yeh ek mastishk rahit evam atyant aajnyaaakaari machine hai. yadi use koi nirdesh nahi diya jaata athva aspasht nirdesh diya jaata hai tab bhi vah koi aapatti nahi karta aur diye gaye nirdeshaanusaar hi kaarya karta hai. at: program banaate samay atyant saavadhaani baratani padti hai.
sanganak par program banaate samay nimn baato ko dhyaan me rakhana aavadhyak hai:-
1.samasya ka saavadhaaneepoorvak adhyayan karke nirdesho ko nishchit kram me kramabadhd karna.
2.nirdesh is prakaar likhna ki unka aksharash: paalan karne par samasya ka hal nikal sake.
3.pratyek nirdesh ek nishchit kaarya karne ke liye ho.
program me diye jaane vaale nirdesho ko ek pravaah taalika ke roop me prastut karna uchit hota hai. isame yeh spasht hona chaahiye ki sanganak ko kab aur kya karna hai evam use vibhinn kriyaaye kis roop me karni hai. program ko oopar se neeche ki or pravaah chitr ke roop me darshaaya jaata hai evam jahaan tark aadi karna hota hai vahaan yeh do bhaago me vibhkt kar diya jaata hai. program me nirdesho ko sanganak ki samajh me aane waali bhaasha me likhna aavashyak hota hai; taaki sanganak pradatt nirdesho ko samajh sake aur unke anusaar kaarya karke vaanchhit parinaam prastut kar sake. ek baar program ko sanganak bhaasha me likhne ke baad ise sanganak ki smruti me arthaat flaupi, chumbakeeya feete, chhidrit card aadi nivesh yuktiyo par ankit kar diya jaata hai. saath hi yeh samasya ko hal karne ke liye aavashyak data bhi sanganak ki input unit ko pradaan kiya jaata hai. ab sanganak us program ke anusaar kaarya karke input data ka vishleshan pradarshit karke uchit parinaam prastut karta hai. yadi program me praapt parinaamo ko mauneetar screen par pradarshit karne athva flaupi, haardadisk ya chumbakeeya feete par ankit karne ke nirdesh diye gaye hai tab sanganak praapt parinaamo ko vaheen ankit kar deta hai.

shabdaavali

program anuvaadak
kampaail