computer

ghar mein mej par rakha hua ek niji sanganak
aadhunik sanganak
लैपटॉपनासा की एक प्रयोगशाला मे रखा हुआ कोलम्बिया सुपर संगणकIntertec Superbrain.jpg
2010-01-26-technikkrempel-by-RalfR-05.jpgThinking Machines Connection Machine CM-5 Frostburg 2.jpgG5 supplying Wikipedia via Gigabit at the Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften 2006 in Dresden.JPG
DM IBM S360.jpgAcorn BBC Master Series Microcomputer.jpgDell PowerEdge Servers.jpg

computer (anya naam - sanganak, computer, pariklak[1]) vastut: ek abhiklak yantr (programmable machine) hai jo diye gaye ganiteeya tatha taarkik sankriyaaon ko kram se svachaalit roop se karne mein saksham hai. ise ank ganiteeya, taarkik kriyaaon va anya vibhinn prakaar ki gananaaon ko sateekata se poorn karne ke liye yojanaabaddh tareeke se nirdeshit kiya ja sakta hai. choonki kisi bhi kaarya yojana ko poorn karne ke liye nirdesho ka kram badla ja sakta hai isliye sanganak ek se jyaada tarah ki kaaryavaahi ko anjaam de sakta hai. is nirdeshan ko hi computer prograaming kehte hai aur sanganak computer prograaming bhaasha ki madad se upayogakarta ke nirdesho ko samajhta hai. yaantrik sanganak kai sadiyon se maujood the kintu aajkal abhiklitr se aashay mukhyat: beesaveen sadi ke madhya mein viksit hue viddut chaalit abhiklitr se hai. tab se abatak yeh aakaar mein kramash: chhota aur sankriya ki drushti se atyadhik samarth hota gaya hain. ab abhiklak ghadi ke andar sama sakte hain aur vidyut kosh (baitari) se chalaaye ja sakte hain. niji abhiklak ke vibhinn roop jaise ki suvaahya sanganak, tablet aadi rojamarra ki jaroorat ban gaye hain.

paramparaagat sanganakon mein ek keindreeya sanyachaalan ikaai (seepeeyoo ) aur soochana bhandaaran ke liye smruti hoti hai. sanyachaalan ikaai ankagadit va taarkik gadnaao ko anjaam deti hai aur ek anukraman va niyantran ikaai smruti mein rakhe nirdesho ke aadhaar par sanyachaalan ka kram badal sakti hai. paridheeya ya satah pe lage upakaran kisi baahari srot se soochana le sakte hai va kaaryavaahi ke fal ko smruti mein surakshit rakh sakte hai va jaroorat padne par pun: praapt kar sakte hain.

ekeekrut paripth par aadhaarit aadhunik sanganak puraane jamaane ke sanganakon ke mukabale karodo arabo guna jyaada samarth hai aur bahut hi kam jagah lete hai| [2] saamaanya sanganak itne chhote hote hai ki mobile fon mein bhi sama sakte hai aur mobile sanganak ek chhoti si vidyut kosh (baitari) se mili oorja se bhi kaam kar sakte hai. jyaadaatar log “asanganakon” ke baare me yahi rai rakhate hai ki apne vibhinn svaroopon mein vyaktigat sanganak soochana praudyogiki yug ke naayak hai. haalaaainki sannihit sanganak jo ki jyaadaatar upakaranon jaise ki M.pi.3 vaadak, vaayuyaan va khilauno se lekar audyogik maanav yantr mein paaye jaate hai logo ke beech jyaada prachalit hai.

anukram

shabd vyutpatti

computer shabd ka pratham prayog varsh 1613 mein angrej lekhak richrd brethavet ki pustak '"the yang main gleenings"' mein paaya gaya. mainne samay ke sabse sahi kampyootaron ko aur dhara pe janme sarvottam ank ganitjnya ko padha hai. [3] yeh us vyakti ke baare mein bataata hai jo gadnaaeain (computations) karta tha, tabhi se yeh shabd 20vi shataabdi ke madhya tak is sandarbh me hoobahoo prayog hota aa raha hai. unneesavi shataabdi ke ant se is shabd ne aur jyaada vyavahaarik roop le liya, yaani ki vo yantr jo gadnaaeain karta hai. sanganak va abhiklitr naam [1] Bhaarat sarkaar ke maanav sansaadhan vikaas mantraalaya dvaara jaari kiye gaye hain|

itihaas

beesaveen shataabdi se pehle ke sanganak upakaran

ishaango ki haddi

yaantrik rekheeya (enaalaug) sanganakon ka praadurbhaav pratham shataabdi mein hona shuroo ho gaya tha jinhe baad mein madhyakaaleen yug mein khagol shaastreeya gananaao ke liye istemaal bhi kiya gaya. yaantrik rekheeya sanganakon ko ddhiteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan vishesheekrut sainya kaaryo mein upayog kiya gaya. isi samay ke dauraan pehle vidduteeya ankeeya paripth vaale sanganako ka vikaas hua. praarambh mein vo ek bade kamre ke aakaar ke hote the aur aaj ke aadhunik saikadon niji sanganakon [4] ke baraabar bijli ka upabhog karte the. pehli electronic ankeeya sanganak United kingadam aur sanyukt raajya America mein 1940 aur 1945 ke beech viksit kiya gaya.

gannaaऍ karne ke liye yantro ka istemaal hajaaro varsho se hota aa raha hai khaaskar ugliyo se ginti karne vaale upakarano ka. shuruvaati ganan yantr sambhavat: vo lakdi jis par ginti ke liye daant khode gaye ho ya Milan chhadi ka ek roop thi. baad mein madhya poorv mein upajaaoo bhoomi ke ek bhaugolik kshetr jo ki aakaar mein arddh chandra jaisa dikhta hai mein abhiliekho ko rakhane ke liye kailkyuli (mitti ke gole, shanku) ka istemaal hota raha jo ki adhapake aur khokhale mitti ke bartano mein rakha hota tha. inka upayog saamaan ki ginti (adhiktar pashudhan va anaaj) darshaane ke liye kiya jaata tha. [5][6] ginti ki chhadon ka upayog iska ek udahaaran hai.

svan pan (is gintaare par pradarshit ho rahi sankhya hai 6,302,715,408)

shuruvaat mein gintaare ka upayog ankaganiteeya kaaryo ke liye hota tha. jise aaj ham roman gintaara kehte hai usaka upayog 2400 isa poorv ke praarambh mein bebeeloniaa mein hua tha. tab se ab tak gadna va hisaab lagaane ke liye kai anya ganan pattiyo va goliyo ka aavishkaar ho chuka hai. ek madhyayugeen yuropeeya gadna ghar mein mej par chitkabare kapade ko rakh diya jaata tha aur kuchh vishesh niymo ke anusaar usapar moharon ko chalaakar paise jodne ke liye ek saadhan ke taur pe istemaal kiya jaata tha.

praacheen yoonaani rooparekha vaale enteekaaithera prakriya 150 se 100 isa poorv ke samay ke duniya ke sabse puraane rekheeya sanganak hain.

derek J. di-sola ke anusaar enteekaaithera prakriya ko shuruvaati yaantrik anuroop abhiklitr maana jaata hai.[7] ise khagoliya sthitiyo ki gadana ke liye banaaya gaya tha. ise enteekaaithera ke yunaani ddheep ke enteekaaithera bhagnaavashesh me 1901 me khoj gaya tha.[8] ise 100 isa poorv ke samay ka paaya gaya. aisa maana jaata hai ki enteekaaithera prakriya jaisi jatilta vaale yantr agale 1000 varsho tak milne mushkil hai.

praacheen aur madhyayugeen kaalon mein khagoleeya gananaaon ke nishpaadan ke liye kai enaalaug computeron ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha. inmein shaamil hain praacheen grees ki entikithera prakriya aur estraulaib (lagbhag 150-100 isa poorv), jinhein aam taur par sabse praarambhik gyaat yaantrik enaalaug computer maana jaata hai.[9] ek ya anya prakaar ki gananaaon ke nishpaadan ke liye istemaal kiye jaane vaale yaantrik upakaranon ke anya praarambhik sanskaranon mein shaamil hain plenisfeyar aur Abu rehaan al birooni (Abū Rayhāan al-Bīarūanī) (lagbhag 1000 isa pashchaat) ddhaara aavishkrut anya yaantrik sanganan upakaran; Abu isahaak Ibrahim al jrkaali (Abū Ishāaq Ibrāahīam al-Zarqāalī) (lagbhag 1015 isa pashchaat) dvaara aavishkrut ikvetoriym aur yoonivrsal laitityood-indipeindeint estrolebal; anya madhyayugeen muslim khagolavidon aur injeeniyron ke khagoleeya enaalaug computer; aur song raajavansh ke dauraan soo song (lagbhag 1090 isa pashchaat) ka khagoleeya klauk tower.

al jajaari dvaara 1206 mein aavishkrut ek khagoleeya ghadi ko sabse pehla program yogya rekheeya sanganak maana jaata hai.[10] yeh raashi chakr, soorya aur chandrama ki kakshaaon ko darshaati thi, ismein ek arddh-chandraakaar soochak ek sampoorn pravesh dvaara se hokar gujarati thi jiske kaaran har ghante par svachaalit ddhaar khul jaate the[11][12] aur paanch robotik sangeetakaar jo ek paani ke pahiye (vaatar vheel) se jude kaimashaaft dvaara sanchaalit leevaron dvaara maare jaane par sangeet baja diya karte the. din aur raat ki lanbaai ko varsh bhar mein din aur raat ki badalti lanbaaiyon ke liye upayukt banaane ke kram mein har din fir se program kiya ja sakta hai.[10]

abhiklitr ke bhaag

mote taur par abhiklitr ke chaar bhaag hote hain.
niji abhiklitr (PC) ke pramukh bhaag

ek abhiklitr (sanganak) nimnalikhit chaar bhaagon se milkar banta hai : nivisht yantr , sansaadhan yantr , nirgam yantr aur bhandaaran yantr . (yukti ko yantr bhi kaha jata hai.)

nivisht yantr

  • nivisht yantr un upakaranon ko kehte hain jiske dvaara nirdesho aur aankadon ko sanganak me bheja jaata hai. jaise- kunji patal (ki-board), maaus, jauyastik, track baal aadi.
    1. keebord
    2. maaus
    3. maaikrofon ya Mike
    4. kramaveekshak (skainnar), ankeeya kaimera
    5. touch-screen, touch-paid

keindreeya prakraman ikaai

  • keindreeya prakraman ikaai (seepeeyoo), sansaadhan yukti ya vichaar yukti - yeh abhiklitr ki mool sankriyaatmak ikaai hai jo aagam upakaranon dvaara diye gaye aankadon ke anuroop kaarya kar use nirgat ikaai ko bhejati hai. iske teen bhaag hote hain:
    1. bahi ya panji (rajistar) - sabse pehle jin aankadon ya soochanaaon par kaam karna hota hai, unhein abhiklitr smruti se bahi mein ankit kiya jaata hai. alag alag prakriyaaon ke liye alag alag bahi hote hain aankik evam tark ikaai ki sankriya ke baad soochanaaen pun: bahi mein darj hoti hain aur vaapas smruti mein bheji jaati hain.
    2. aankik evam tark ikaai - yeh ikaai bahi mein darj soochanaaon par nirdeshon ke anusaar kaarya karti hai tatha parinaam ko pun: upayukt bahi mein darj kar deta hai.
    3. niyntran ikaai - yeh keindriya prasaadhan ikaai ki sabhi kriyaaon ka niyantran karti hai. jaise ki smruti se soochanaaen bahi mein vahaaain se aankik evam tark ikaai mein, vaapas bahi mein tatha vahaaain se smruti mein vaapas jaane ki prakriya par yeh ikaai niyantran rakhati hai.

soochana bhandaaran upakaran

PC mein prayukt 64MB esadeeraim (SDRAM)

nirgam yantr

  • nirgam yantr (aautaput divaais)- ismein ve sabhi upakaran shaamil hain jinse prasaadhit soochanaaen ya saamagri maanaveeya upayogi utpaad ke roop mein baahar aati hain. jaise-
    1. pradarshak (maunitr) - iski sahaayata se prasaadhit saamagri drushya roop mein prakat hoti hai.
      • screen screen par chitr ya chalchitr prakat hote hai. ye pradarshak se juda hota hai.
    2. mudrak- iski sahaayata se nirgat saamagri ko kaagaj par mudrit kiya jaata hai. ise angreji bhaasha me printar bhi kehte hai.
    3. bhonpoo - ise speaker bhi kahte hai, jaisa ki naam se hi pata chalta hai, ye aavaaj nikaalne ka kaam karta hai. iska upayog abhiklitr me chaaloo kisi bhi prakriya se utpann aavaaj ko upyogakarta tak pahuchaane ke liye kiya jaata hai.

abhiklitr ke prakaar

abhiklitr ka mukhya kaarya diye gaye aankade ko jama kar usapar diye gaye nirdeshon ke anuroop kaam kar parinaam dena hai. kaaryakshamata ke aadhaar par ise nimnalikit shreniyon me baaainta gaya hai- super sanganak, menafrem sanganak mini sanganak, ev micro sanganak aadi. super sanganak inmein sabse badi shreni hoti hai, tatha micro sanganak sabse chhoti.

  • super sanganak sabse tej gati se kaarya karne vaale sanganak hote hain. vah bahut adhik data ko kaafi kam samay mein infaarmeshan mein badalne mein saksham hote hain. inka prayog bade-bade kaarya karne mein hota hai, jaise mausam ki bhavishyavaani, data maaining, jatil simuleshan, misaailon ke design aadi. inmein anek maaikroprosesar (MICROPROCESSOR) [ek vishesh chhoti machine jo kampyooting ke kaarya ko kaafi aasaani se tatha bahut hi kam samay mein kar sakane mein saksham hoti hai.] lage hote hain. kisi jatil ganana ko kam samay mein poora karne ke liye bahut se prosesar ekasaath (pairelel) kaam karaane padate hain. ise pairelel processing kaha jaata hai. iske antargat jatil kaam ko chhote-chhote tukadon mein is prakaar baaainta jaata hai ki ye chhote-chhote kaarya ek saath alag-alag prosesaron dvaara svatantr roop se kiye ja sakein.
  • menafrem sanganak, super sanganak se kaaryakshamata mein chhote parantu fir bhi bahut shaktishaali hote hain. in kampyootaron par ek samay mein 256 se adhik vyakti ek saath kaam kar sakte hain. amareeka ki aaibeeem company (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINE CORPORATION) menafrem kanpyutaron ko banaane waali sabse badi company hai.
  • mini sanganak menaprem computeron se chhote parantu micro kampyootaron se bade hote hain.
  • micro sanganak (parsanal sanganak) sabse chhote hote hain tatha inheen ko vaiyaktik sanganak ya parsanal sanganak bhi kaha jaata hai. iska pratham sanskaran 1981 mein vikisit hua tha, jisme 8088 maaikroprosesar prayukt hua tha.
  • mej ke oopar sanganak (deskataup)
  • god ke oopar sanganak (laptop)
  • hatheli ke oopar sanganak (paalmtaup) - smaartafon, sangeet khilaadi (myoojik player), video khilaadi (video player)
  • tablet sanganak

abhiklitr ke gun

sanganak hamaare dvaara diye jaane vaale har kaarya ko bakhoobi karne mein saksham hote hain. inke kuchh gun is prakaar hain :

gati

sanganak kaafi tej gati se kaarya karte hain, jab ham sanganak ke baare mein baat karte hain, to ham mini sekend, micro sekend mein baat nahi karte, balki ham 10-12 sekend mein ek kampayootar kitna kaarya kar leta hai, is roop mein usaki gati ko aaainkate hain.

na ubana

sanganak kabhi bhi ubate (bor) naheen hain aur yahi inka sabse achha gun hai, kyonki yeh ek yantr hain, isaliye ye kaafi dinon tak bina kisi shikaayat ke kaarya karne mein saksham hote hain.

smaran karne ya sangrah ki kshamata

ek saamaanya sanganak bhi ek baar diye gaye nirdesh ko kaafi samay tak smaran rakhane me saksham hota hai, tatha jab bhi aavashyakta pade, use fir se likha aur bhara ja sakta hai.

upayog

  • imel
  • sahayog
  • jaankaari sanjona
  • lekhaankan
  • shabd sansaadhan
  • pustak prakaashan
  • saamagri pravandhan
  • vaigyaanik anusandhaan tatha vikaas
  • doorasanchaar
  • shiksha prasaar
  • simuleshan (Simulation)
  • sanganak sahaayyit design (Computer Aided Design / CAD)
  • sanganak sahaayyit design evam draafting (Computer Aided Design and Drafting / CADD)

abhiklan bhaasha

abhiklitr jis bhaasha ko samajhta hai use dviaadhaari bhaasha kehte hain. vaastav mein yeh yantr keval vidyut dhaara ke chaaloo ya band hone ko hi samajhta hai. vidyut pravaah hone evam rukane ko 0 ya 1 ke jariye vyakt kiya jaata hai. isliye ispar koi kaam karne ke liye ise is bhaasha mein nirdesh ya soochana dena hota hai.


yantr bhaasha

shurooaati dinon mein abhiklitr ko seedhe dviaadhaari bhaasha mein nirdesh ya soochana di jaati thi. yantr se seedha sampark rahane ke kaaran ise yantr bhaasha (machine lainguej) bhi kaha jaata tha. is tarah se nirdesh ya soochana dene ki yeh prakriya kaafi jatil thi.

sanyojan bhaasha

yantr bhaasha ki jatilta ko kam karne ke liye sanyojak (aseinbalar) ki sahaayata li gayi. yeh aisa program tha jo kuchh khaas shabdon ko dviaadhaaari sanketon ke samooh mein badal deta tha. is bhaasha mein pratek prakriya ke liye ek saral shabd chun liye gaye the. isse dviaadhaari sanket samooh ke bajaay keval sanket shabd likhkar kaam ho jaata tha. is sanketon dvaara sanyojit tatha sanyojak ki sahaayata se kaam karne waali bhaasha ko sanyojan bhaasha (assembly lainguej) kaha gaya.

uchch stareeya bhaashaaeain (High Level Language)

assembly leingavej ke aane se sanganak prograamars ko suvidha jaroor mili, kintu iske liye prograamar ko sanganak ke haardaveyar, tatha iski kaarya pranaali ka sampoorn gyaan hona aavashyak hota tha. at: ab aur bhi saral bhaashaayon ka vikaas kiya gaya, jinhein uchch stareeya bhaasha kaha gaya. iname se kuchh pramukh aaranbhik bhaashaae kobol (COBOL), besik (BASIC), si (C) thi.
uchch stareeya bhaashaayon ya haai leval leingavejon ko machine bhaasha mein parivrtit karne ke liye sankalak (Compiler) aur vyaakhyaata (Interpreter) ki jaroorat padti hai.
sankalak ya kanpaailar uchch stareeya bhaasha mein likhe gaye program ko sthaayi roop se machine bhaasha mein parivrtit karta hai, jabki vyaakhyaata ya intarapretar ek ek pankti karke parivrtit karta hai.

sandarbh

  1. a aa vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shavdaavali aayog dvaara jaari aadhikaarik soochana praudyogiki shabdaavali
  2. puraane sanganak jaise ki kolosas aur eniak prati chhn 5 se 100 kriya kalaap kar sakta tha. ek aadhunik “bikne vaalaa” maaikroprosesar (2007 tak) prati chhn arabon kriya kalaap kar sakte hai, aur iname se adhiktar kaarya pehle ke sanganakon ke dvaara kiye jaane vaale kaaryo ki tulana mein kahi jyaada kathin aur upayogi hote hain. "Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". http://www.intel.com/cd/channel/reseller/asmo-na/eng/products/mobile/processors/core2duo_m/feature/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 20 June 2009.
  3. I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. angreji version richrd brethavet. "the yang main gleenings". agyaat. http://courses.ischool.berkeley.edu/i103/f07/slides/HofI07_Computers.pdf. abhigman tithi: 22 February 2015.
  4. 1946 mein , ENIAC ko lagbhag 174 kilovaut bijli ki jaroorat hoto thi. iski tulana mein, ek aadhunik laptop sanganak ko lagbhag 30 vaut bijli ki jaroorat hoti hai matlab lagbhag 6000 guna kam. "ऍproksimet deskataup & notabuk power yoojej". http://www.upenn.edu/computing/provider/docs/hardware/powerusage.html. abhigman tithi: 20 June 2009.
  5. denis skmaant-besserat|1981 ke anusaar, in mitti ke bartano mein nishaan hote the jinka kul jod sthaanaantarit ho rahe saamaan ki ginti hoti thi. is tarah se ye bartan kisi bahi-khaate ka kaam karte the. in bartano ko khulkar tootane se bachaane ke liye pehle nishaan ki chhaap bartan ke baahar bana di jaati thi, fir ginti ke liye chhaap ke aakaar ko us shaili ke mohar par nikaal liya jaata tha aur ant mein nikaale hue chinhon ko kramaanusaar sankhyaaon ke tarah upayog kiya jaata tha. yahi ank antat: sankhya ke roop me saamne aae. antatogatva (skmaant-besserat ke aakalan ke anusaar ise 4000 varsh lage.) ginti ki sankhya bataane ke liye jitne chinhon ki jaroorat hoti thi vo bartanon ke baahar bane hote the, aur mitti ke ye bartan baad me ginti ke chinh bane hue mitti ki goliyo ke roop me viksit hue.
  6. raubsan, elenaur (2008), praacheen Iraq mein ganit (angreji mein), aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-691-09182-2 . p.5: iraak mein praathamik lekha paddhati ke saath utpaad vishisht ki ganana pratiroop pranaali ke liye 3200–3000 isa poorv mein kailkyuli ka upayog. santulit lekha-bahi 3000–2350 isa poorv tak prayog hona shuru ho gayi thi aur ek seksaajesiml sankhya pranaali 2350–2000 isa poorv tak istemaal hona shuru ho gayi thi.
  7. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, enteekaaithera prakriya anusandhaan pariyojana. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  8. padhe: http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_4.htm "enteekaaithera ki khoj"
  9. Lazos 1994
  10. a aa praacheen aavishkaar, episode 11: ensiyent robots, history channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, abhigman tithi: 2008-09-06
  11. haavard aar. turner (1997), science in mediyeval islaam: N illustrated introduction, prushth 184, Texas vishvaviddyaalaya ke press, aai0esa0bee0ena0 0-292-78149-0
  12. donaald rootalej hil, "mekainikl engineering in di mediyeval niyr East", scientific American , prushth 64-9. (seeef. donaald rootalej hil, maikenikl engineering)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain