company raaj

company raaj
british East indiya company ki upanivesh
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg

Nishan Sahib.svg

Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg

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1774 – 1858 British Raj Red Ensign.svg

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ध्वज कुल चिन्ह
dhvaj vansh - chinh
Location of भारत
Bhaarat (1760) company ke shaasan ki shuruaat mein klaaiv dauraan. maraathon raajya us samay Bhaarat ka pramukh hissa tha.
rajdhani Calcutta
raajaneetik dhaancha upanivesh
Governor - general
- 1774–1775 vaarran haastings
- 1857–1858 Charles kaining
itihaas
- pratham Governor general niyukt 20 October, 1774
- truteeya aangl - maraatha yuddh 1817–1818
- bhaarateeya vidroh 1857
- Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 2 August, 1858
mudra rupae
vartamaan mein Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore
shaah aalam deevaani ke anudaan loda klaaiv ko diya.

company raaj ka arth hai british East indiya company dvaara Bhaarat par shaasan. yeh 1773 mein shuroo kiya hai, jab company Kolkata mein ek rajdhani ki sthaapana ki hai, apni pehli Governor general vaarran haastings niyukt kiya aur sandhi ka ek parinaam ke roop mein baksar ka yuddh ke baad seedhe prashaasan,[1] mein shaamil ho gaya hai liya jaata hai1765 mein, jab Bengal ke navaab company se haar gaya tha,[2] aur deevaani pradaan ki gayi thi, ya Bengal aur Bihar mein raajasv ekatrit karne ka adhikaar hai[3]sha san 1858 se,1857 jab tak chala aur falasvaroop Bhaarat sarkaar ke adhiniyam 1858 ke bhaarateeya vidroh ke baad, british sarkaar seedhe nae british raaj mein Bhaarat ke prashaasan ke kaarya grahan kiya.

anukram

vistaar aur kshetr

angreji East India company (iske baad, company) 1600 mein company vyaapaariyon ki London ke East Indies mein vyaapaar ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha yeh 1612 mein Bhaarat mein ek pair jamaane baad mugal samraat jahaangeer dvaara diye gaye adhikaaron ke ek kaarkhaane, ya soorat ke pashchimi tat par bandargaah mein vyaapaarik post 1640 mein sthaapit ki. vijyanagar shaasak se isi tarah ki anumati praapt karne ke baad aage dakshin, ek doosare kaarkhaane ke dakshini tat par Madras mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. Mumbai dweep, soorat se adhik door naheen tha, ek poorv purtagaali chauki braaganasa ki Cathrine ke Charles dviteeya shaadi mein dahej ke roop mein England ke liye bheint ki chauki, 1668 mein company dvaara patte par de diya gaya tha. do dashak baad, company poorvi tat par ek upasthiti ke roop mein achhi tarah se sthaapit hui aur, ganga nadi delta mein ek kaarkhaane ko Kolkata mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. ke baad se, is samay ke dauraan anya companiyon purtagaali, dach, French aur denish the isi tarah is kshetr mein vistaar ki sthaapana ki, tateeya Bhaarat par angreji company ki shuruaat bhaarateeya upamahaadveep par ek lambi upasthiti nirmaan kare is ka koi suraag peshakash naheen ki.

plaasi ki ladaai 1757 mein company ne Robert klaaiv ke tahat jeet aur 1764 baksar ki ladaai (Bihar mein) mein ek aur jeet, company ki shakti majaboot hui aur samraat shaah aalam yeh deevaan ki niyukti dviteeya aur Bengal ka raajasv collector, Bihar aur udeesa. company is tarah 1773 se neecha ganga ke maidaan ke bade kshetr ke vaastavik shaasak ban gaye. yeh bhi degree se ravaana karne ke liye Mumbai aur Madras ke aaspaas apne upanivesh ka vistaar. englo - Mysore yuddhon(1766-1799) aur englo - maraatha yuddh (1772-1818) ke sataluj nadi ke dakshin Bhaarat ke bade kshetron ke niyantran sthaapit kar liya.

company ki shakti ka prasaar mukhyat: do roopon liya. inmein se pehla bhaarateeya raajyon ke ekamusht raajya-haran aur antarnihit kshetron, jo saamoohik roop se british Bhaarat samaavesh aaya ke baad pratyaksh shaasan tha. par kabja kar liya kshetron uttari praanton (rohilkhand, Gorakhpur aur doaab shaamil) (1801), Delhi (1803) aur sindh (1843) shaamil hain. Punjab, uttar - pashchim seemaant praant aur Kashmir, 1849 mein englo - sikh yuddhon ke baad kabja kar liya gaya hai, tathaapi, Kashmir turant Jammu ke Dogra raajavansh amrutasar (1850) ki sandhi ke tahat bech diya hai aur is tarah ek raajasi raajya ban gaya. baraar mein 1854 par kabja kar liya gaya tha aur do ​a​asaal baad avadh ke raajya.[4]

par jor dete hue satta ka doosra roop sandhiyon mein jo bhaarateeya shaasakon seemit aantarik svaayattata ke liye badle mein company ke aadhiptya ko sveekaar shaamil kiya gaya. choonki company vitteeya baadhaaon ke tahat sanchaalit hai, yeh karne ke liye apne shaasan ke liye raajaneetik aadhaar nirdhaarit karne ke liye kiya tha.[5]sabse mahatvapoorn is tarah ke samarthan company ke shaasan ke pehle 75 varshon ke dauraan bhaarateeya raajaaon ke saath sahaayak gathabandhanon se aaya tha.[5]19 veen sadi ki shuruaat mein, in pradhaanon ke pradeshon mein Bhaarat ki do - tihaai ke liye jimmedaar hai.[5]jab ek bhaarateeya shaasak, jo apne kshetr ko surakshit karne mein saksham tha, is tarah ke ek gathabandhan mein pravesh karna chaahata tha, yeh company apratyaksh shaasan ke ek kifaayati tareeka hai, jo pratyaksh prashaasan ya raajaneetik samarthan paane ki laagat ki aarthik laagat shaamil naheen kiya svaagatavideshi vishyon ki.[6]badle mein, company "in adheenasth sahayogi ki raksha aur unhein ilaaj ke paaramparik aur sammaan ke sammaan ke nishaan ke saath" chalaaya.[6]sahaayak gathabandhanon hindu mahaaraajaaon aur muslim navaabon ke raajasi raajyon, banaaya. raajasi raajyon ke beech pramukh the: kocheen (1791), Jaipur (1794), traavanakor (1795), Hyderabad (1798), Mysore (1799), seeaaies sataluj pahaadi raajyon (1815), central India agency (1819), kachh aur Gujarat Gaikwad pradeshon (1819), rajputana (1818) aur bahaavalapur (1833)).[7]

Governor general

Governor general kaaryakaal ki avadhi ghatnaakram
vaarran haastings 20 October 1773–1 fravari 1785 1770 mein Bengal mein akaal (1769–1773)
rohilla yuddh (1773–1774)
pehle englo maraatha yuddh (1777–1783)
chaaleesa akaal (1783–84)

dviteeya aangl Mysore yuddh (1780–1784)

Charles kaarnavaalis 12 September 1786–28 October 1793 kaarnavaalis code (1793)
sthaayi bandobast
kocheen angrejon tahat arddh sanrakshit raajya ban gaya (1791)
truteeya aangl-Mysore yuddh (1789–1792)
dooji baara akaal (1791–92)
nyaayik aur raajasv prashaasan ke pruthakkaran
John shor 28 October 1793–maarch 1798 East India company ne sena ko punargathit aur aakaar chhota.
Jaipur (1794) & traavanakor (1795) british suraksha mein aaya.
andamaan dweep kbja (1796)
company tateeya seelonakshetr ka niyantran le liya dach se (1796).
richrd velesle 18 May 1798–30 July 1805 Hyderabad ka nijaam sahaayak gathabandhan hastaakshar karne ke liye pehla raajya ban jaata hai jo velesle dvaara pesh kiya gaya tha (1798).
chauthe aangl Mysore yuddh (1798–1799)

avadh ke navaab havaale kiya Gorakhpur and rohilkhand divisions; Allahabad, fatehapur, Kanpur, itaava, mainapuri, eta jilon; mirjaapur ka hissa ; aur taraai ka kumaaooain (saunp diya praanton, 1801)
besin ki sandhi peshava baajeeraav dviteeya dvaara hastaakshar kiye sveekaar karne ke liye sahaayak gathabandhan
Delhi ki ladaai (1803).
dviteeya aangl-maraatha yuddh (1803–1805)
doaab aur Agra ke shesh, tatha kuchh hisson bundelakhand ka kabja kar liya maraatha saamraajya se (1805).
saunp diya aur vijay praapt praanton ki sthaapana (1805)

Charles kaarnavaalis (doosare kaaryakaal) 30 July 1805–5 October 1805 East India company mein vitteeya tanaav, mahanga abhiyaanon ke baad.
kaarnavaalis ko shaanti laane ke liye punarniyukt kiya tha, lekin Gazipur mein mar jaata hai.
George haayalaario baaralo (evaj) 10 October 1805–31 July 1807 vellor vidroh (July 10, 1806)
laad minto 31 July 1807–4 October 1813 jaava ka aakraman
maureeshas ka kabje
hestings ke marquee 4 October 1813–9 January 1823 1,814 ke englo Nepal yuddh
Annexation of kumaaooain, gadhvaalal, and poorv sikkim.
sis sataluj raajyon (1815).
teesare englo maraatha yuddh (1817–1818)
rajputana ke raajya angrejon aadhiptya sveekaar (1817)
Singapore ki sthaapit (1818)
kachh angrejon aadhiptya sveekaar (1818)
Baroda ki Gaikwad angrejon aadhiptya sveekaar (1819)
central India agency (1819)
laad emaharst 1 August 1823–13 March 1828 pratham aangl-barmi yuddh (1823–1826)
asam ke vilay, manipur, araakaan, and tenaaserim barma se kabje mein liya.
William beintik 4 July 1828–20 March 1835 Bengal mein sati viniyman, 1829
thagi aur dakaiti daman adhiniymon, 1836-1848
Mysore raajya british prashaasan ke adheen ho jaata hai (1831–1881)
bahaavalapur angrejon aadhiptya sveekaar (1833)
koorg kabje mein liya (1834)
laad okalaind 4 March 1836–28 fravari 1842 uttar-pashchimi praant sthaapit hua (1836)
daak ghar sthaapit kiye gaye the (1837)
1837-38 ke Agra akaal
adan company ne kabja kar liya (1839)[8]
pratham aangl-afgaan yuddh (1839–1842)
elfinstan ki sena ka narasanhaar (1842)
laad elenaboroga 28 fravari 1842–joon 1844 pratham aangl-afgaan yuddh (1839–1842)
sindh ka sanyojan (1843)
bhaarateeya gulaami adhiniyam, 1843
henari haarding 23 July 1844–12 January 1848 pratham aangl-sikh yuddh (1845–1846)
sikhon nai saunpana Jalandhar doaab, hajaara, and kaashmeer Lahore ki sandhi ke tahat angrejon ke liye (1846)
Kashmir ki bikri amrutasar sandhi ke tahat Jammu ke gulaab Singh ko (1846)
dalahauji ke maarkas 12 January 1848–28 fravari 1856 dviteeya aangl-sikh yuddh (1848–1849)
Punjab aur uttar pashchim seemaant praant ka sanyojan (1849)
bhaarateeya rel nirmaan par shuroo hota hai (1850)
jaati viklaang hataana adhiniyam, 1850
pratham taar ki line Bhaarat mein bichhaai (1851)
doosra englo barmi yuddh (1852–1853)
loar barma ka sanyojan
great ganga nahar kholi (1854)
sataara (1848), Jaipur aur sambalapur (1849), Nagpur aur Jhansi (1854), vyaya samaapti ka niyam adheen se sanyojan.
baraar (1853) aur avadh ka sanyojan (1856)
Bhaarat ke liye daak ticket pesh kiye gaye (1854)
lok taar sevaaon sanchaalan kiye gaye (1855)
Charles kaining 28 fravari 1856–1 November 1858 vidhva punarvivaah adhiniyam (July 25, 1856)
pratham bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalayon sthaapit (January–September 1857)
1857 ka pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam (10 May 1857–20 June 1858) bade paimaane mein uttar pashchimi pradeshon aur avadh
Bhaarat sarkaar adhiniyam 1858 ke tahat angreji East India company ki parismaapan

company ke shaasan ka viniyman

gavarnameint house, fort seint George, Madras, Madras preseedeinsi ka mukhyaalaya.
vaaren hestings, fort William (Bengal) ke pratham Governor general, Bhaarat mein company ke kshetron ka nireekshan kiya hai.

klaaiv ki plaasi mein jeet tak, Bhaarat mein East India company pradeshon mein shaamil, preseedeinsi Calcutta, Madras aur Mumbai ke kasbon, dvaara niyantrit kiya gaya jyaadaatar svaayatt aur kai maayanon asahaneeya shahar parishdon, vyaapaariyon se bana tha.[9]parishdon ko mushkil se unke sthaaneeya maamalon ke prabhaavi prabandhan ke liye paryaapt adhikaar tha aur Bhaarat mein kul milaakar company ke sanchaalan ke nireekshan ke aagaami kami company adhikaariyon ya unke sahayogiyon dvaara kuchh gambhir hanan ka netrutv kiya.[9]klaaiv ki jeet aur Bengal ki samruddh kshetr ki deevaani ka puraskaar, Britain mein saarvajanik surkhiyon mein Bhaarat laaya gaya.[9]company ke paise ke prabandhan ke tareekon par savaal uthaaya jaane laga, khaaskar yeh bhi jab kuchh company ke karmachaariyon ne shuddh ghaata, post shuroo kiya, jab "naabaub", bade bhaagya ke saath Britain lauta, afavaahon ke-anusaar, jo bhrashtaachaar ke saath adhigraheet kiya gaya tha.[10]1772 tak, company ko lokapriyta barkaraar rakhane ke liye british sarkaar ke rin ki jaroorat thi aur London mein bhaya tha ki company ka bhrashtaachaar jald hi british vyaapaar aur saarvajanik jeevan mein ris sakta hai.[11] british sarkaar ke adhikaaron aur kartavyon, company ke nae kshetron ki bhi jaanch ki jaani lagi.[12] british sansad ne kai jaanch aayojit kiya aur 1773 mein, laad North, ke pradhaanamantri ke dauraan adhiniymit viniyman adhiniyam kiya, jo sthaapana ki niyamon ke, apne lambe sheershak Bhaarat mein ke roop mein achhi tarah se, East India company ke maamalon ke behtar prabandhan ke liye kaha, Europe mein ke roop mein.[13]

haalaanki laad North khud company ke pradeshon british raajya dvaara liya jaana chaahata the,[12]vah London ke shahar aur british sansad mein se nirdhaarit raajaneetik virodh ka saamana karna pada.[11]parinaam ek samjhauta hai jismein viniyman adhiniyam tha-matlab kraaun ka param samprabhuta in nae kshetron par. pramaan company kraaun ki or se ek samprabhu satta ke roop mein kaarya kar sakta hai.[14] aisa kar sakti, jabki yeh haisamavarti british sarkaar aur sansad dvaara nireekshan aur viniyman ke adheen kiya ja raha tha.[14]company ke nideshak court ne british sarkaar ki or se jaanch ke liye Bhaarat ke sabhi naagrik, sainik ke baare mein sanchaar aur raajasv maamalon ko prastut karne ke liye kaanoon ke tahat aavashyak the.[15]bhaarateeya pradeshon ke prashaasan ke liye, fort seint George (Madras) aur Mumbai par fort William (Bengal) ke preseedeinsi sarvochchata sthaapit.[16]yeh bhi naamit ek Governor general (vauren hestings) aur chaar paarshadon, Bengal ke raashtrapati pad ke prashaasan ke liye (aur Bhaarat mein company ke parichaalan ki dekharekh ke liye).[16]"adheenasth preseedeinsi, Bengal ke Governor general ya parishad ki poorv sahamati ke bina, yuddh ya samjhauta karne ke liye mana kiya gaya tha.[17] aasann aavashyakta ke maamale mein chhodkar.in preseedeinsi ke raajyapaal Governor general ne parishad ke aadeshon ka paalan karne ke liye aur use sabhi mahatvapoorn maamalon ke buddhi ko hastaantarit karne ke liye saamaanya shabdon mein nirdesh diye gaye the."[13]haalaanki, is adhiniyam ke bhramit shabdon mein, yeh vibhinn vyaakhya ki ja karne ke liye khula chhod diya, nateejatan, Bhaarat mein prashaasan parishad ke sadasyon ke beech, praanteeya gavarnaron ke beech ekta ka abhaav dvaara hobbled ja karna jaari rakha aur apne aur apne parishad ke Governor general ke beech.[15] viniyman adhiniyam bhi Bhaarat mein prachalit bhrashtaachaar ka samaadhaan karne ka prayaas: company sevakon ab Bhaarat mein niji vyaapaar mein sanlagn karne ke liye ya bhaarateeya naagrikon se "prastut" praapt karne ke liye mana kiya gaya tha. adhiniyam viniyman bhi Bhaarat mein prachalit bhrashtaachaar ka samaadhaan karne ka prayaas: company sevakon ab Bhaarat mein niji vyaapaar mein sanlagn karne ke liye ya bhaarateeya naagrikon se "prastut" praapt karne ke liye mana kiya gaya tha.[13]

William pit ke India act 1784 ke England mein niyantran board ki sthaapana ki jo East India company ke maamalon nigraani karne ke liye aur Bhaarat ke shaasan mein company ke sheyaradhaarakon ko hastakshep rokane ke liye.[18]control board ke chhah sadasyon, jo british cabinet se ek raajya ke sachiv ke roop mein ke roop mein achhi tarah se raajakosh ke chaansalar shaamil the.[15]is baar ke aaspaas bhi vyaapak bahas thi Bengal mein utara adhikaaron ke mudde par british sansad mein ek aam sahamati ke saath [Phillip Francis (angreji raajaneetijnya) | Phillip Francis]] dvaara ki vakaalat drushtikon ke samarthan mein viksit karne, ke ek sadasyabangaal parishad aur raajaneetik virodhi vaaren hestings ki hai ki Bengal mein sabhi bhoomi vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye "sampatti aur Patrick bhoomi dhaarakon aur parivaaron ki viraasat ..."[19]aur company ke karmachaariyon dvaara Bengal mein bhrashtaachaar ke durupayog ki report ke prati jaagruk, Bhaarat adhiniyam hi kai shikaayaton ka ullekh kiya hai ki "raaja, jameendaar, paaleegaar, taalukadaar aur bhoomidhaarak"' anyaaya kiya gaya tha 'ke apne bhoomi, nyaayaalaya, adhikaar vanchit aur 'visheshaadhikaar.[19]ek hi samay mein company ke nirdeshakon ab Francis drushya hai ki Bengal mein bhoomi kar sthir aur sthaayi kiya jaana chaahiye hai, sthaayi bandobast (anubhaag dekhein company ke tahat raajasv bastiyon neeche).[20]raajyapaal aur teen paarshadon, jinmein se ek preseedeinsi sena ke cheef commander tha: Bhaarat adhiniyam bhi teen prashaasanik aur sainya padon, jo shaamil ki ek sankhya preseedeinsiyon mein se pratyek mein banaaya.[21]haalaanki paryavekshi shaktiyon raajyapaal general parishad (Madras aur Mumbai se adhik) mein Bengal mein the badhaaya ke roop mein ve ke chaartar adhiniyam mein the fir 1793 adheenasth preseedeinsiyon donon british sampatti ke vistaar tak kuchh svaayattata vyaayaam jaareesannihit aur agali sadi mein teji se sanchaar ke aagaman ke banane mein.[22]fir bhi, 1786, Lord kaurnavaalis mein naya Governor general niyukt kiya hai, na keval hestings se adhik shakti thi, lekin yeh bhi ek shaktishaali british cabinet mantri ka samarthan kiya tha, henari doonadaas hai, jo hai, ke roop mein raajya ke sachiv gruh kaaryaalaya, samagr Bhaarat ki neeti ke aarop mein kiya gaya tha.[23]1784 ke baad se british sarkaar ne Bhaarat mein sabhi pramukh niyuktiyon par antim shabd tha, ek varishth pad ke liye ek ummeedavaar upayuktata aksar apni prashaasanik yogyata ke bajaay apne raajaneetik kanekshan ki shakti ke dvaara nirnaya liya gaya hai.[24]haalaanki is abhyaas kai Governor general Britain ke roodhivaadi bhoo - svaami varg se chuna ja raha hai pratyaashiyon mein hui, vahaaain kuchh laad William beintik aur laard dalahauji ke roop mein ke roop mein achhi tarah se udaaravaadi the.[24]

british raajaneetik rai prayaas kiya dvaara aakaar ka tha vaaren hestings ke mahaabhiyog, pareekshan, kaaryavaahi jiska 1788 mein shuroo hua 'hestings ko bari kiye jaane ke saath samaapt ho gaya, 1795 mein.[25]haalaanki prayaas mukhyat: dvaara samanvit tha edamand bark, yeh british sarkaar ke bheetar se bhi samarthan mila.[25]bark, hestings na keval bhrashtaachaar ka aarop lagaaya hai, lekin apne swayam ke vivek par poori tarah se aur kaanoon ke liye aur jaanboojhkar Bhaarat mein doosaron ke liye sankat paida karne ki chinta ke bina abhinay ke nyaaya bhi saarvabhaumik maanakon ko appeal ke javaab mein, 'hestings rakshakon maaainge ki usakeekaarravaai bhaarateeya seema shulk aur paranparaaon ke saath sangeet kaaryakram mein the.[25]haalaanki mukadame mein bark bhaashan Bhaarat par vaahavaahi aur dhyaan keindrit dhyaan aakarshit kiya hai, hestings antat:, jaane ke kaaran bari kar diya, bhaag mein, fraanseesi kraanti ke maddenajar mein Britain mein raashtravaad ke punaruddhaar ke liye, fir bhi, bark prayaas tha prabhaavabritish saarvajanik jeevan mein Bhaarat mein company ke adhiraajya ke liye jimmedaari ki ek bhaavana paida ki.[25]

jald hi baatcheet karne ke liye London mein vyaapaariyon hai ki ekaadhikaar 1600 mein East India company ke liye pradaan karne ke liye ise suvidhaajanak banaane ke liye behtar ek door ke kshetr mein dach aur French pratispardha ke khilaaf aayojit ke beech pradarshit karne ke liye shuroo kiya gaya tha, ab jaroorat naheen hai.[22]javaab mein, 1813 chaartar adhiniyam, british sansad chaartar company ke nae sire se lekin ke sambandh mein chhodkar apne ekaadhikaar samaapt chai aur cheen ke saath vyaapaar, donon niji nivesh aur mishnariyon ke liye Bhaarat kholne.[26]british kraaun dvaara badha bhaarateeya maamalon ke paryavekshan Bhaarat mein british shakti ke saath aur [[british sansad | sansad] ke roop mein achhi tarah se vruddhi hui, 1820 british naagrikon dvaara vyaapaar chalaana ya kraaun ke sanrakshan ke tahat mishnari kaarya mein sanlagnateen preseedeinsiyon mein.[26]ant mein, 1833 ke chaartar adhiniyam, british sansad kul milaakar company ke vyaapaar license radd, company british shaasan ka ek hissa bana hai, haalaanki british Bhaarat ke prashaasan mein company ke adhikaariyon ke praant bane rahe.[26]chaartar 1833 ke adhiniyam (jiska sheershak tha ab jodi "Bhaarat ke") Bhaarat ki samagrata ke naagrik aur sainya prashaasan ke paryavekshan ke saath Governor general mein parishad, ke roop mein achhi tarah se kaanoon ke vishesh shakti ka aarop lagaaya.[22]ke baad se uttar Bhaarat mein british kshetron mein ab Delhi ke liye badhaaya tha, adhiniyam bhi Agra ke preseedeinsi ke nirmaan ko manjoori di, baad mein gathit, 1936 mein uttari - pashchimi praanton ke lieutenant Governor (ke roop mein, vartamaan din pashchimi uttar pradesh).[22] 1856 mein avadh ke vilay ke saath, is kshetr ka vistaar kiya gaya tha aur antat: ban sanyukt praant Agra va avadh.[22]iske alaava, 1854 mein, ek lieutenant Governor Bengal, Bihar aur udeesa ke kshetr ke liye niyukt kiya gaya tha, Governor general ko chhodne ke liye Bhaarat ke shaasan par dhyaan keindrit hai.[22]

kar sangrah

Charles kaarnavaalis, Governor general jo sthaapit sthaayi bandobast mein Bengal.

mugal ke avashesh mein raajasv poorv 1765 Bengal mein maujooda pranaali, jameendaar ", bhoomi dhaarakon" mugal baadshah, jiska pratinidhi, ya ki or, ya raajasv ekatr deevaan unki gatividhiyon ki dekharekh.[27]is pranaali mein, desh ke saath jude adhikaaron ke vargeekaran ke paas naheen "jameen ke maalik," lekin balki kisaan krushak, jameendaar aur raajya sahit desh mein hissedaari ke saath kai paartiyon dvaara saajha the.[28] jameendaar jo aarthik bhaada kalteevetar se aur apne swayam ke kharch ke liye ek pratishat rok ke baad praapt ek madhyasth ke roop mein seva ki, baaki upalabdh banaaya hai, ke roop mein kar raajya ke liye.[28]mugal pranaali ke tahat bhoomi hi raajya ke liye aur karne ke liye naheen the jameendaar, jo keval apne adhikaar ke liye kiraae par lene ke sthaanaantaran sakta hai.[28]baksar ki yuddh 1764 mein nimnalikhit Bengal ki deevaani ya overlordship se sammaanit kiya ja raha hai, East India company sthaaneeya se parichit logon, vishesh roop se prashikshit prashaasakon ki kam hi paaya custom aur kaanoon, kar sangrah tha falasvaroop aay patte par dene. company dvaara bhoomi karaadhaan mein yeh anishchit dhaava, gambheerta se ek ka prabhaav kharaab ho sakta hai 1769-70 mein Bengal maara ki akaal, jismein das lakh ke beech saat aur das logon ko ya ek chauthaai aur beech raashtrapati pad ke teesare janasankhya sakta hai mar chuke hain.[29]haalaanki, company ya to thoda raahat pradaan ki,[30] kam karaadhaan ke maadhyam se ya raahat prayaason hota ja raha hai aur akaal ki aarthik aur saanskrutik prabhaav ek sadi baad aur dashakon baad mein mahasoos kiya gaya ki ka vishay bankimchandr chatarji ke upanyaas aanand math.[29]

1772 mein, vaaren hestings ke tahat, East India company Bengal preseedeinsi (tab Bengal aur Bihar), Calcutta mein kaaryaalayon ke saath raajasv ka ek board ki sthaapana aur mein seedhe aay sangrah ka kaaryabhaar sambhaala Patna[26]. ant mein, 1833 ke chaartar adhiniyam, british sansad kul milaakar company ke vyaapaar license radd, company british shaasan ka ek hissa bana hai, haalaanki british Bhaarat ke prashaasan mein company ke adhikaariyon ke praant bane rahe.[26]chaartar 1833 ke adhiniyam (jiska sheershak tha ab jodi "Bhaarat ke") Bhaarat ki samagrata ke naagrik aur sainya prashaasan ke paryavekshan ke saath Governor general mein parishad, ke roop mein achhi tarah se kaanoon ke vishesh shakti ka aarop lagaaya.[22]ke baad se uttar Bhaarat mein british kshetron mein ab Delhi ke liye badhaaya tha, adhiniyam bhi Agra ke preseedeinsi ke nirmaan ko manjoori di, baad mein gathit, 1936 mein uttari - pashchimi praanton ke lieutenant Governor (ke roop mein, vartamaan din pashchimi uttar pradesh).[22] 1856 mein avadh ke vilay ke saath, is kshetr ka vistaar kiya gaya tha aur antat: ban sanyukt praant Agra va avadh.[22]iske alaava, 1854 mein, ek lieutenant Governor Bengal, Bihar aur udeesa ke kshetr ke liye niyukt kiya gaya tha, Governor general ko chhodne ke liye Bhaarat ke shaasan par dhyaan keindrit hai.[22]

kar sangrah

mugal ke avashesh mein raajasv poorv 1765 Bengal mein maujooda pranaali, jameendaar ", bhoomi dhaarakon" mugal baadshah, jiska pratinidhi, ya ki or, ya raajasv ekatr deevaan unki gatividhiyon ki dekharekh.[31]is pranaali mein, desh ke saath jude adhikaaron ke vargeekaran ke paas naheen "jameen ke maalik," lekin balki kisaan krushak, jameendaar aur raajya sahit desh mein hissedaari ke saath kai paartiyon dvaara saajha the.[28] jameendaar jo aarthik bhaada kalteevetar se aur apne swayam ke kharch ke liye ek pratishat rok ke baad praapt ek madhyasth ke roop mein seva ki, baaki upalabdh banaaya hai, ke roop mein kar raajya ke liye.[28]mugal pranaali ke tahat bhoomi hi raajya ke liye aur karne ke liye naheen the jameendaar, jo keval apne adhikaar ke liye kiraae par lene ke sthaanaantaran sakta hai.[28]baksar ki yuddh 1764 mein nimnalikhit Bengal ki deevaani ya aadhiptya se sammaanit kiya ja raha hai, East India company sthaaneeya se parichit logon, vishesh roop se prashikshit prashaasakon ki kam hi paaya custom aur kaanoon, kar sangrah tha falasvaroop aay patte par dene. company dvaara bhoomi karaadhaan mein yeh anishchit dhaava, gambheerta se ek ka prabhaav kharaab ho sakta hai 1769-70 mein Bengal maara ki akaal, jismein das lakh ke beech saat aur das logon ko ya ek chauthaai aur beech raashtrapati pad ke teesare janasankhya sakta hai mar chuke hain.[29]haalaanki, company ya to thoda raahat pradaan ki,[30] kam karaadhaan ke maadhyam se ya raahat prayaason hota ja raha hai aur akaal ki aarthik aur saanskrutik prabhaav ek sadi baad aur dashakon baad mein mahasoos kiya gaya ki ka vishay bankimchandr chatarji ke upanyaas aanand math.[29]

1772 mein, vaaren hestings ke tahat, East India company Bengal preseedeinsi (tab Bengal aur Bihar),), Calcutta mein kaaryaalayon ke saath raajasv ka ek board ki sthaapana aur mein seedhe aay sangrah ka kaaryabhaar sambhaala Patna aur se poorv maujooda mugal aay abhilekhon aage badh murshidaabaad Kolkata.[32]1773 mein, ke baad avadh ki sahaayak nadi raajya saunp diya banaaras, aay sangrah pranaali nivaas aarop mein ek company ke saath kshetr ke liye badha diya gaya tha.[32]agale varsh ke saath to ek poore jile ke liye aay sangrah ke liye jimmedaar the, jo bhrashtaachaar company jila collectoron, ko rokane ke liye ek drushya, Patna, murshidaabaad aur Calcutta mein praanteeya parishdon ke saath badal diya gaya aur bheetar kaam kar rahe bhaarateeya collectoron ke saath pratyek jile.[32]sheershak, "collector," parilkshit "Bhaarat mein sarkaar ko bhoo - raajasv sangrah ki kendreeyata: yeh sarkaar ki praathamik samaaroh tha aur yeh sansthaaon aur prashaasan ke paitarn dhaala."[33]

company shaahi paatrata ke liye aarakshit utpaadan ka ek tihaai ke saath, kar bojh ki bhaari anupaat kisaan par gir gaya jismein mugalon se ek aay sangrah pranaali viraasat mein mila hai, is poorv aupaniveshik pranaali company aay neeti ke aadhaarbhoot ban gaya.[34]haalaanki, vishaal bhinnata raajasv ekatr kiye gaye the, jismein se tareekon mein Bhaarat bhar mein vahaaain tha, ise dhyaan mein jatilta ke saath, sarkit ki ek samiti ne paanch vaarshik se milkar, ek paanch saal ka niptaan karne ke liye aadesh mein vistaar Bengal raashtrapati pad ke jilon ka daura kiya nireekshan aur asthaayi kar.[35]jitna sambhav paramparaagat kheti ki jameen hai jo kisaanon aur raajya par kar ekatr jo vibhinn bichauliyon dvaara daava kiya gaya tha ki adhikaaron aur daayitvon ka santulan banaae rakhane, pehla: aay neeti ko unke samagr drushtikon mein, company ke adhikaariyon ne do gol dvaara nirdeshit kiya gaya or se aur jo khud ke liye ek kat surakshit aur doosra, aay aur suraksha donon ko adhiktam hoga ki graameen arthavyavastha ke un kshetron ki pehchaan.[34]apni pehli aay bandobast adhik anaupachaarik poorv maujooda mugal ek ke roop mein anivaarya roop se ek hi nikla haalaanki, company ki jaankaari aur naukarashaahi donon ke vikaas ke liye ek aadhaar banaaya tha.[34]

1793 mein, nae Governor general, kaarnavaalis, prakhyaapit sthaayi samaadhaan raashtrapati pad, aupaniveshik Bhaarat mein pehli baar saamaajik - aarthik viniyman mein bhoomi raajasv ki.[32]iske liye utara sanpada adhikaaron ke liye badle mein shaashvat bhoomi kar theek kiya kyonki yeh sthaai naam diya gaya tha jameendaar; iske saath hi raashtrapati pad mein jameen ke svaamitv ki prakruti ko paribhaashit hai aur mein vyaktiyon aur parivaaron ko alag sanpada adhikaar diya kabje ki jameen. aay shaashvat mein tay kiya gaya tha, yeh Bengal mein 1789-90 ki keematon ko kam £ 3 karod ki raashi jo ek uchch star par tay ki gayi thi.[36]ek anumaan ke mutaabik[37]yeh 1757 se pehle aay maang ki tulana mein 20% adhik tha. agali sadi mein, aanshik roop se bhoomi sarvekshan, adaalat ke faisalon aur sampatti ki bikri ka ek parinaam ke roop mein, parivartan vyaavahaarik aayaam diya tha.[38]is aay neeti ke vikaas par prabhaav aarthik vikaas ke engine ke roop mein krushi maana jaata hai aur iske parinaamasvaroop vikaas ko protsaahit karne ke kram mein aay ki maang ki fixing par bal diya jo tab vartamaan aarthik siddhaanton, the.[39]sthaayi samaadhaan ke peechhe ummeed ek nishchit sarkaar ki maang ka gyaan hai ki ve badhi hui utpaadan se munaafa banaae rakhane mein saksham ho jaaega ke baad jameendaar, kheti ke tahat unki ausat ughadna aur desh donon ko badhaane ke liye protsaahit karega tha, iske atirikt mein, yeh parikalpana ki gayi thi us jameen hi hai, khareeda becha, ya girvi ja sakta hai ki sampatti ke ek bikri yogya prapatr ban jaaega.[34]is aarthik tark ki ek visheshata yeh jameendaar, apne swayam ke sarvottam hit pahachaanane, kisaanon par anuchit maang naheen hota ki atirikt ummeed thi.[40]

haalaanki, in ummeedon vyavahaar mein mahasoos naheen kar rahe the aur Bengal ke kai kshetron mein, kisaanon vruddhi ki maang ka khaamiyaaja sahan, vahaaain nae kaanoon mein unke paramparaagat adhikaaron ke liye thoda sanrakshan kiya ja raha hai.[40]nakadi fasalon company aay maangon ko poora karne ke liye kheti ki jaati thi jaise jameendaar dvaara kisaanon ki begaar adhik prachalit ho gaya.[34]vyaavasaayik kheti kshetr ke liye naya naheen tha, yeh ab gaanv samaaj mein gahari paith bana aur baajaar ki taakaton ke liye yeh aur adhik samvedansheel bana diya tha.[34]falasvaroop, chook aur unki bhoomi ka ek tihaai ke liye ek anumaan se kai sthaayi bandobast ke baad pehle teen dashakon ke dauraan neelaam kiya gaya, khud ko aksar company un par rakha tha ki vruddhi ki maangon ko poora karne mein asamarth the jameendaar.[41]nae maalikon aksar the braahman aur kaayasth nai pranaali ki ek achhi samajh thi aur, kai maamalon mein, yeh tahat samruddh tha, jo company ke karmachaariyon ko.[42]

jameendaar maujooda kisaanon ko hataane ki aavashyakta hai, jinmein se kuchh sthaayi niptaan ke tahat parikalpana ki gayi bhoomi ke liye mahanga sudhaar ka kaarya karne mein saksham naheen the, ve jaldi hi apne kiraayedaar kisaanon se kiraae par lene ke band rahate the jo kiraayedaar ban gaya.[42]vishesh roop se kai kshetron, uttari Bengal mein ve teji se gaanvon mein kheti ki dekharekh jo madhyam patta dhaarakon, tathaakathit jotadaar, saath aay saajha karne ke liye kiya tha.[42]nateejatan, samakaaleen vipreet sanlagnak aandolan Britain mein, Bengal mein krushi asankhya chhote dhaan ke khet S ke nirvaah kheti ke praant bane rahe.[42]

jameendaari pratha Bhaarat mein company dvaara kiye gaye do pramukh aay bastiyon mein se ek tha.[43]dakshini Bhaarat mein, Thomas munaro, baad ke raajyapaal ban jaaega jo Madras, padonnat raiyatavaari pranaali, jismein sarkaar seedhe kisaan kisaanon, ya raiyat ke saath bhoomi aay base.[30]is bhaag mein, ki ashaanti ka ek parinaam tha aangl Mysore yuddh, jo bade jameendaaron ke ek varg ke ubhaar ko roka tha, iske atirikt mein, munaro aur doosaron mahasoos kiya ki raiyatavaari tha kareeb paaramparik kshetr mein abhyaas aur vaichaarik roop se adhik pragatisheel, graameen samaaj ke nimnatam star tak pahuainchane ke liye company niyam ke laabhon ki ijaajat di.[30] raiyatavaari pranaali ke dil mein ki ek vishesh siddhaant tha aarthik kiraae aur ke aadhaar par David rikaardo ke reint ki kaanoon dvaara pravartit upayogi James mil 1819 aur 1830 ke beech bhaarateeya aay neeti taiyaar ki hai. "unhonne kaha ki sarkaar mitti ke param prabhu ka maanana ​a​atha ki aur 'kiraae' ke apne adhikaar ka tyaag naheen karna chaahiye, yaani majadoori aur anya sanchaalan vyaya ko sulajha liya gaya tha jab ameer dharati par oopar chhod diya hai laabh."[44]asthaayi bastiyon ki nai pranaali ka ek aur pradhaan siddhaant niptaan ki avadhi ke liye tay ki ausat kiraaya daron ke saath mitti ke prakaar aur utpaadan ke anusaar krushi kshetr ke vargeekaran tha.[45]mil ke anusaar, bhoomi kiraae ke karaadhaan kushal krushi ko badhaava dene aur ek saath ek "parajeevi bhoosvaami varg ke ubhaar ko roka ja sake.""[44]mil sarkaar maap aur moolyaankan ke pratyek bhookhand ka (20 ya 30 saal ke liye vaidh) aur mitti ki urvarata par nirbhar tha, jo baad mein karaadhaan ke shaamil hain jo raiyatavaari bastiyon ki vakaalat ki.[44]lagaaya raashi jaldi 19 veen sadi mein "kiraaya" ke nau dasavaan tha aur dheere - dheere baad mein gir gaya[44]baharahaal, raiyatavaari pranaali ka saar siddhaanton ki appeal ke baavajood, dakshini bhaarateeya gaanvon mein varg padaanukram naheen tha poori tarah udaaharan gaanv headmen kabhi kabhi ve naheen kar saka aay maangon ko anubhav karne ke liye aaya tha bolabaala aur kisaan kisaan jaari karaane ke liye gaayab ho, ke liye milte hain.[46]yeh company ki kuchh bhaarateeya aay agent company ke raajasv maangon ko poora karne ke liye yaatana ka upayog kar rahe the ki pata chala tha jab 1850 ke dashak mein, ek ghotaale bhadak uthi.[30]

bhoo - raajasv bastiyon company niyam ke tahat Bhaarat mein vibhinn sarkaaron ki ek pramukh prashaasanik gatividhi ka gathan kiya.[5]ek lagaataar doharaav unki gunavatta ka aakalan karne ke bhookhandon ka sarvekshan karne aur maapane ki prakriya hai aur rikaurding adhikaar utara aur bhaarateeya civil seva ke kaam ka ek bada hissa gathit shaamil Bengal preseedeinsi, bhoomi bandobast ke kaam ke alaava anya sabhi kshetron mein sarkaar ke liye kaam adhikaari upasthit the.[5] yeh bhi to, saal ke beech 1814 aur 1859, Bhaarat ki sarkaar ne 33 saal mein karj dauda, company apne vyaapaar ke adhikaar kho diya hai, yeh 19 veen sadi ke madhya mein kul raajasv ka lagbhag aadha sarkaari raajasv ka sabse mahatvapoorn srot ban gaya hai.[5]vistaar prabhutv ke saath, yahaan tak ​a​aki gair ghaata varshon ke dauraan, ek ghisa prashaasan, ek kankaal police bal aur sena ke vetan ka bhugataan karne ke liye abhi paryaapt paisa naheen tha.[5]

sena aur naagrik seva

East India company ke ek sainya adhikaari

1772 mein, jab vauren hestings niyukt kiya gaya tha ke Governor general pehla fort William ke preseedeinsi ki poonji ke saath mein Kolkata, apna pehla upakramon mein se ek ka teji se vistaar kiya gaya tha preseedeinsi ki sena. upalabdh sainikon, ya sipaahi hai, se Bengal, jinmein se kai mein angrejon ke khilaaf ladaai ladi thi choonki plaasi ki yuddh british aaainkhon mein sandeh ab the, hestings se door pashchim bharti poorvi mein Bhaarat ki paidal sena ke "pramukh prajanan sthal avadh aur aaspaas ki bhoomi banaaras."[47] uchch jaati graameen hindu rajput aur braahman is kshetr ke (ke roop mein jaana jaata hai poorvi (hindi, arth "poorvi") East India company ne in sainikon assi Bengal sena ke pratishat par nirbhar shaamil ke saath, agale 75 varshon ke liye is abhyaas jaari rakha, do sau varshon ke liye senaaon mugal dvaara bharti kiya gaya tha.[47]haalaanki, rainkon ke bheetar kisi bhi takaraav se bachane ke kram mein, company ne bhi apne dhaarmik aavashyakataaon ke liye apni sainya prathaaon ke anukool karne ke liye dard liya. iske alaava mein, unki jaati ko pradooshan maana videshi seva, unamein se aavashyak naheen tha aur sena jald hi aadhikaarik taur par hindu tyohaaron pehchaan karne ke liye aaya tha, nateejatan, in sainikon ko alag suvidhaaon mein raat ka khaana khaaeain. "uchch jaati anushthaan sthiti ki yeh protsaahan, tathaapi, virodh karne ke liye sarkaar ki chapet mein chhod diya, sipaahiyon ne apne visheshaadhikaar ka ullanghan ka pata chala jab kabhi bhi vidroh."[48]

1796 ke punargathan ke baad East India company senaaon[49]
angareji sainik bhaarateeya sena
Bengal preseedeinsi Madras preseedeinsi Mumbai preseedeinsi
24,000 24,000 9,000
13,000 kul bhaarateeya sena: 57,000
mahaayog, angrejon aur bhaarateeya sena: 70,000

Bengal army Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon mein aur videshon mein sainya abhiyaanon mein istemaal kiya gaya tha: ek kamjor Madras ke liye mahatvapoorn samarthan pradaan karne ke liye sena mein teesare aangl Mysore yuddh 1791 mein aur bhi mein jaava aur seelon[47]bhaarateeya shaasakon ki senaaon mein sainikon ke vipreet, Bengal praapt uchch vetan na keval sipaahiyon, lekin yeh bhi majbooti se ise praapt kiya, Bengal ke vishaal bhoomi aay bhandaar ko company ka upayog karne ke liye kaafi maatra mein dhanyavaad.[47]jald hi, donon nae bandook praudyogiki aur nausena ke samarthan se bal mila, Bengal sena vyaapak roop se maana jaane laga.[47]laal kot aur unke british adhikaariyon mein saj achhi tarah se anushaasit sipaahiyon unke virodhiyon mein khauf ka "ek tarah. Maharashtra mein aur jaava mein uttejit karne ke liye shuroo kiya, sipaahiyon praacheen yoddha naayakon ki kabhi kabhi, shaitaani taakaton ke avataar ke roop mein maana gaya. bhaarateeya shaasakon ko apne swayam ke balon ke liye laal ek prakaar ka kapda jacket apnaaya aur unke jaadui gunon par kabja karne ke roop mein agar barkaraar rahati hai. "[47]

1796 mein, London mein nideshakon ki company ke board ke dabaav mein bhaarateeya sainikon ko punargathit kiya gaya aur ke kaaryakaal ke dauraan kam John shor Governor general ke roop mein.[49]haalaanki, 18 veen sadi ke antim varshon, velesle ke abhiyaanon ke saath, sena ki taakat mein ek naya vruddhi dekhi. duniya mein is prakaar 1806 mein, ke samay mein vellor vidroh, teen preseedeinsiyon 'senaaon ki sanyukt taakat unhein sabse bada khade senaaon sthaayi sena mein se ek bana, 154500 par khada tha.[50]

1806 ke vellor vidroh ki poorv sandhya par East India company senaaon[51]
preseedeinsi angreji sainikon bhaarateeya sena sampoorn
Bengal 7,000 57,000 64,000
Madras 11,000 53,000 64,000
banrbai 6,500 20,000 26,500
sampoorn 24,500 130,000 154,500

East India company apne kshetron ka vistaar kiya hai, yeh sena ke roop mein ke roop mein achhi tarah se prashikshit naheen the jo aniyamit "sthaaneeya kor," joda.[52]1846 mein, ke baad dviteeya aangl sikh yuddh, ek seema briged seeaaies sataluj hil America mein uthaaya gaya tha, mukhya roop se police kaam ke liye hai, iske alaava, 1849 mein, "Punjab aniyamit sena "seema par joda gaya hai.[52]do saal baad, is bal ke shaamil "3 prakaash kshetr baitari, ghudsavaar sena ke 5 rejimeinton aur paidal sena ke 5."[52]agale varsh, "ek chauki company, joda gaya hai... ek chhathe 1853 mein paidal sena rejimeint (kor sindh oont se gathan) aur 1856 mein ek pahaad baitari."[52]isi tarah, ek sthaaneeya bal 1854 mein Nagpur ke vilay ke baad uthaaya gaya tha aur avadh 1856 mein kabja kar liya tha ke baad "avadh aniyamit sena" joda gaya hai.[52]isse pehle, 1800 ki sandhi ka ek parinaam ke roop mein, nijaam company ke adhikaariyon ne kiya hai, jo 9,000 ghode aur 6,000 foot ke ek dal bal banaae rakhane ke liye shuroo ho gaya tha, ek nai sandhi par baatcheet hone ke baad 1853 mein, is bal saunpa gaya tha karne ke liye baraar aur nijaam ki sena ka ek hissa roka ja raha hai.[52]

1857 ke bhaarateeya vidroh ki poorv sandhya par East India company senaaon[53]
preseedeinsi angreji sainikon bhaarateeya sainikon
ghudsavaar fauj topakhaana paidal sena sampoorn ghudsavaar fauj topakhaana saipars
&
khanikon
paidal sena sampoorn
Bengal 1,366 3,063 17,003 21,432 19,288 4,734 1,497 112,052 137,571
Madras 639 2,128 5,941 8,708 3,202 2,407 1,270 42,373 49,252
banrbai 681 1,578 7,101 9,360 8,433 1,997 637 33,861 44,928
sthaaneeya taakaton
&
dal
6,796 2,118 23,640 32,554
(avargeekrut) 7,756
sena police 38,977
sampoorn 2,686 6,769 30,045 39,500 37,719 11,256 3,404 211,926 311,038
mahaayog, angrejon aur bhaarateeya sena 350,538

1857 ki bhaarateeya vidroh lagbhag niyamit aur aniyamit donon poore Bengal sena, vidroh kar diya.[53]yeh 1856 mein East India company dvaara avadh ke vilay ke baad, kai sipaahiyon avadh adaalaton mein, bhoo - svaami varg ke roop mein, unke anulaabh khone se aur kisi bhi vruddhi ki bhoomi aay bhugataan ki pratyaasha se donon shaant the ki sujhaav diya gaya hai ki vilay shubh sanket ho sakta hai.[54]yuddh mein ya vilay ke saath british jeet ke saath, vistaar angrejon kshetraadhikaar ki seema ke roop mein, sainikon ko ab kam parichit kshetron (jaise barma mein englo barmi yuddh 1856) mein ke roop mein seva karne ke liye ummeed ki gayi thi ki na keval pehle rainkon mein unke kaaran aur is vajah se asantosh gaya tha ki, lekin yeh bhi bina kaam chalaana padta "videsh seva," paarishramik.[55]Mumbai aur Madras senaaon aur Hyderabad dal, tathaapi, vafaadaar bane rahe. Punjab aniyamit sena vidroh naheen tha, na keval yeh daba gadar mein ek sakriya bhoomika nibhaai.[53]vidroh nai mein 1858 mein bhaarateeya sena ki ek poori punargathan ke liye netrutv british raaj.

sandarbh

  1. Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 56
  2. Bose & Jalal 2003, prushth 76
  3. Brown 1994, prushth 46, Peers 2006, prushth 30
  4. Ludden 2002, prushth 135
  5. a aa i E u oo A Brown 1994, prushth 67
  6. a aa Brown 1994, prushth 68
  7. Ludden 2002, prushth 135
  8. British East India Company captures Aden on January 18, 1939
  9. a aa i Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 76, Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, prushth 14
  10. Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1908, prushth 14, Peers 2006, prushth 35, Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 76
  11. a aa Peers 2006, prushth 35
  12. a aa Marshall 2007, prushth 207
  13. a aa i Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 2007, prushth 14
  14. a aa Marshall 2007, prushth 197
  15. a aa i Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 77
  16. a aa Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 2007, prushth 14, Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 77
  17. "in Council," i.e. in concert with the advice of the Council.
  18. Travers 2007, prushth 211
  19. a aa Quoted in Travers 2007, prushth 213
  20. Guha 1995, prushth 161
  21. Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 78
  22. a aa i E u oo A ai O au Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 2007, prushth 15
  23. Travers 2007, prushth 213
  24. a aa Peers 2006, prushth 36
  25. a aa i E Peers 2006, prushth 36–37
  26. a aa i E u Ludden 2002, prushth 134
  27. Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 20
  28. a aa i E u oo Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 78
  29. a aa i E Peers 2006, prushth 47, Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 78
  30. a aa i E u Peers 2006, prushth 47
  31. Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 20
  32. a aa i E Robb 2004, prushth 126–129
  33. Brown 1994, prushth 55
  34. a aa i E u oo Peers 2006, prushth 45–47
  35. Peers 2006, prushth 45–47, Robb 2004, prushth 126–129
  36. Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 82
  37. Marshall 1987, prushth 141–144
  38. Robb 2004, prushth 127
  39. Guha 1995
  40. a aa Bose 1993
  41. Tomlinson 1993, prushth 43
  42. a aa i E Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 79
  43. Roy 2000, prushth 37–42
  44. a aa i E Brown 1994, prushth 66
  45. Robb 2002, prushth 128
  46. Peers 2006, prushth 47, Brown 1994, prushth 65
  47. a aa i E u oo Bayly 1990, prushth 84–86
  48. Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 61
  49. a aa Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, prushth 333
  50. Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, prushth 61, Bayly 1990, prushth 84–86
  51. Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, prushth 335
  52. a aa i E u oo Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, prushth 337
  53. a aa i Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, prushth 338
  54. Brown 1994, prushth 88
  55. Bandyopadhyay 2004, prushth 171, Bose & Jalal 2003, prushth 90