civil injeeniyri

the petronas tvin taavars, jise vaastukaar seejr peli aur thoranatan-tomesiti aur ren hil barasekutoo S.di. N. bi. H. di. injeeniyron ne banaaya tha. ye imaarat 1998-2004 tak duniya ki sabse ooainchi imaarat thi.

civil injeeniyri, vyaavasaayik engineering ki ek shaakha hai jo ki bhautik aur praakrutik roop se bane parivesh mein pul[1][1], sadak,[1]naharein[1], baaaindh aur bhavanon aadi ke design, nirmaan aur rakharakhaav se judi hai.[1][2]civil engineering, sainya abhiyaantriki ke baad aane waali engineering ki sabse puraani shaakha hai. [3] ise sainya engineering se alag karne ke liye 'asainik engineering' (civil injeeniyri) ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya.[4] paramparaagat roop se ise kai up-shaakhaaon mein baanta gaya hai, jinmein -paryaavaran engineering, bhoo-takaneek engineering, sanrachanaatmak engineering, parivhan engineering, nagarapaalika ya shahari engineering, jal sansaadhan engineering, padaarth engineering, tateeya engineering,[3] sarvekshan aur nirmaan engineering.[5] civil engineering har star par hoti hai: saarvajanik kshetr mein nagarapaalika ke kshetr se sangheeya staron tak aur niji kshetr mein vyaktigat gharon ke maalikon se antarraashtreeya companiyon tak.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

anukram

civil abhiyaantriki vyavasaaya ka itihaas

Scotland mein falkrik vheel.

jab se maanav astitv mein aaya hai tab se engineering usaki jindagi ka ek hissa hai. sahi dhang se civil abhiyaantriki ki shuruaat us samay se maani ja sakti hai jab 4000 aur 2000 E.poo. mein praacheen misr aur mesopotaamiyaamein maanav ne banjaaron ki jindagi ka parityaag karna shuroo kiya. iske falasvarup unhein ek ghar ki aavashyakta mahasoos hui. is samay ke dauraan, parivhan agrani mahatvapoorn ban gaya jisse pahiye aur naukaayan ka vikaas kiya gaya. misr mein piraamidon ke nirmaan (lagbhag 2700-2500 E.poo.) ko badi sanrachana nirmaan ka pehla udaaharan maana ja sakta hai. anya praacheen aitihaasik civil abhiyaantriki nirmaanon mein praacheen grees mein iktinosadvaara nirmit paarthenan (447-438 E.poo.), roman injeeniyron dvaara nirmit epiyn maarg (si. 312 E.poo.) aur cheen ke samraat shih huaang ti ke aadesh par general meing teen dvaara nirmit the great Wall of China shaamil hai (si.220 E.poo.).[5] romanon ne apne poore saamraajya mein nagareeya dhaanchon ka nirmaan karavaaya, jinmein visheshakar shaamil hain - naharein,kothariyaaain,bandargaah,pul, baaaindh, aur sadkein

aadhunik kaal se pehle civil abhiyaantriki aur vaastukala,ke beech koi spasht antar naheen tha. abhiyanta aur vaastukaar donon hi shabdon mein keval bhaugolik antar tha jismein vo usi vyakti ko kaheen par abhiyanta kaha jaata tha to kaheen par vaastukaar, aksar usi vyakti ko log kabhi injiniyr kah dete the to kabhi vaastukaar.[6] 18 veen sadi mein, sainya abhiyaantriki ko civil abhiyaantriki se alag karne ke liye is shabd ka prayog kiya jaane laga.[4]

inhein bhi dekhein: sanrachanaagat abhiyaantriki ka itihaas
aarkimideej skroo haath se sanchaalit aur kushalata se jal utha sakta tha.

edeeston laaitahaaus ka nirmaan karne vaale John smeetan ne swayam ko sabse pehla civil abhiyanta bataaya.[3][5] 1771 mein smeetan aur unke kuchh sahakarmiyon ne milkar smeetaniyn sosaaiti of civil engineers ka gathan kiya jo is vyavasaaya ke agrani logon ka ek aisa samooh tha jo anaupachaarik roop se milkar raat ka bhojan saath kiya karte the. haalaanki kuchh pramaan aise bhi hain jo bataate hain ki takaneeki baaton par vichaar ke liye bhi ye baithakein hoti theen lekin aamtaur par ye samooh ek saamaajik samooh ki hi tarah tha.

1818 mein London mein instityoot of civil engineers ki sthaapana hui aur 1820 mein prakhyaat engineer Thomas telaford iske pehle adhyaksh bane. civil engineering ko aupachaarik roop se ek pehchaan dete hue varsh 1828 mein is sansthaan ko ek shaahi ghoshanaapatr mila. iske ghoshanaapatr ne civil abhiyaantriki ko is roop mein paaribhaashit kiya ki

the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns.[7]

sanyukt raajya America mein civil abhiyaantriki ki shiksha dene wala pehla niji viddaalaya tha naurvich vishvavidyaalaya jiski sthaapana 1819 mein kaipten eladen paartreej ne ki thi. [20] 1835 mein rensaselar pauliteknik instityoot dvaara sanyukt raajya America mein civil abhiyaantriki ki pehli degree di gayi.[8] kisi mahila ko milne waali aisi degree thi kaurnel vishvavidyaalaya dvaara nora stenatan blaach ko 1905 mein di gayi thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

civil engineering ke vigyaan ka itihaas

pont doo guard, France mein bani ek roman jal setu hai

civil engineering bhautik aur vaigyaanik siddhaanton ka anuprayog hai aur iska itihaas bhi bhautiki aur ganit ki samajh mein hone vaale vikaas ke poore itihaas se juda hai. kyonki civil engineering ek vyaapak vyavasaaya hai jismein kai alag alag aur vishisht upashaakhaaen shaamil hain, iska itihaas sanrachanaaon, padaarth vigyaan, bhoogolbhoovijnyaaan, mruda evam jal vigyaan, paryaavaran, yaantriki aur anya kai kshetron ke gyaan se juda hua hai, .

praacheen aur madhyakaaleen itihaas ke dauraan jyaadaatar vaastukala ki dijaai aur nirmaan patthar taraashane vaale aur badhi jaise kaareegaron dvaara kiye jaate the jinki bhoomika aage chalakar pradhaan nirmaata tak badhi.gyaan samaaj ke ek vishesh sangh ke beech kaayam rahata tha aur kabhi kabhaar hi inmein koi vikaas jagah le paata tha. us samay bane dhaanche, sadkein aur buniyaadi suvidhaaen duharaae hue se hote the aur paimaane mein badhat vruddhismbandhi thi.[9]

civil engineering mein bhautik aur ganiteeya samasyaaon ke anuprayog ke sabse pehle udaaharanon mein se ek hai teesari shataabdi isa poorv aarkimideej dvaara kiye gaye kaarya jinmein shaamil hai aarkimeedeej ka siddhaant, jo ki hamein tairane ya uchhaal ki prakriya ke mool ko bataata hai aur saath hi abhyaasik samaadhaan bhi bataata hai jaise ki aarkimeedeej skroo.bhaarateeya ganitjnya,brahmagupt, ne gadhit (ghanafal) sanganana karne ke liye 7 veen shataabdi E. mein hindu-arabi ankon par aadhaarit ganit ka prayog kiya[10]

civil engineer

shiksha aur license pradaan karna

London mein sthit civil engineer ke sansthaan ka mukhyaalaya ya the insteetyushan of civil engineering head kvaataras in landan

civil injeeniyron ke paas aamtaur civil engineering ke liye mahatvapoorn academic degree hoti hai . is degree ke liye aam taur par chaar ya paaainch saal ki padhaai poori karni hoti hai. is degree ko poora karne ke baad saamaanyat: aapko par ek engineering mein snaatak, karna kaha jaata hai, haalaanki kuchh vishvavidyaalayon mein ise vigyaan mein snaatak karna kaha jaata hai is degree mein aam taur par bhautik vigyaan, ganit, pariyojana prabandhan, dijaaining aur civil engineering ke kuchh vishisht vishay shaamil hote hain. praarambh mein aise vishay adhik se adhik vishay vastuon ko bataane ki koshish karte hain aur agar ye us vishay ke baare mein poori jaankaari de paana sambhav naheen ho paata hai to civil engineering ke upabhaagon ke baare mein bataate hain degree poori ho jaane ke baad is vishay mein vishesh padhaai karne ke liye chhaatr ek ya adhik upabhaagon ko chun sakte hain.[11]

adhikaansh deshon mein, engineering mein snaatak ki degree ek peshevar pramaaneekaran ki disha mein pehla kadam hota hai aur iska degree program swayam ek peshevar sanstha dvaara pramaanit hota hai. pramaanit degree program ko poora karne ke baad is pramaanit degree ko praapt karne se pehle engineer ko (jismein kaarya anubhav aur pareeksha sanbadhi aavashyak niyamon mein uteern hona shaamil hai) is degree ko praapt karne ki yogyata par khara hona chaahiye. ek baar pramaanit ho jaane ke baad, engineer ko (sanyukt raajya America, Canada aur dakshin Africa mein) vyaavasaayik engineer ki upaadhi di jaati hai (raashtramandaleeya deshon) mein unhein chaartard ya adhikrut engineer kaha jaata hai (Australia aur New Zealand mein unhein adhikrut vyaavasaayik engineer bola jaata hai aur Europeeya sangh mein unhein Europeeya engineer bulaaya jaata hai. praasangik vyaavasaayik nikaayon ke beech antarraashtreeya engineering samjhaute hote hain taaki dusare deshon ke injeeniyron ko bhi iska abhyaas karne ka mauka mil sake.

pramaaneekaran laabh sthaan ke aadhaar par nirbhar karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America aur Canada mein "keval ek license praapt engineer chinh aur muhar bana sakta hai. keval vah hi abhiyaantriki yojanaaon aur chitron ko paarit karne ke liye sarkaari aadhikaariyon ke paas jama kar sakta hai ya saarvajanik aur niji graahakon ke liye abhiyaantriki kaaryon par muhar laga sakta hai."[12] is aavashyakta ko raajya aur praanteeya kaanoon dvaara laagoo kiya jaata hai, jaise ki kyoobeks engineers adhiniyam[13] doosare deshon mein aisa koi kaanoon maujood naheen hai. Australia mein injeeniyron ke liye raajya dvaara diya jaane wala license keval kveensalaind tak seemit hai. vyaavahaarik roop se sabhi pramaanit nikaaya niti-sanhita par chalti hai jiske anusaar vo aasha rakhati hai ki sabhi sadasya niti-sanhita ka nishtha se paalan kareinge aur ya to ve nishkaasit kiye jaayeinge.[14] is prakaar ye sangathan is vyavasaaya ke liye naitik star ko banaae rakhane mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain yahaan tak ki nyaayaalaya mein jahaan pramaaneekaran ka kaam bahut hi kam ya lagbhag koi prabhaav naheen hota hai, vahaan par bhi injeeniyron ko anubandhit kaanoon ke daayare mein rahana padta hai. jahaan par engineer ka kaam bigad jaata hai, to aise maamalon mein vo laaparavaahi ke kaaran hue haani ke liye jimmedaar ho sakta hai. kuchh gambhir maamalon mein us par aaparaadhik laaparavaahi ke aarop bhi lag sakte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]kisi engineer ka kaam paryaavaran kaanoon se sanbhandhit nirmaan sanhita aur vidhaan jaise kai anya dusare niyamon se anupaalit hona chaahiye.

vyavasaaya

civil engineer ke liye koi ek vishisht vyaavasaayik maarg hai. jyaadaatar engineering snaatak apna kaam chhoti-moti jimmedaariyon se hi shuroo karte hain aur jaise-jaise vo apni upayogita saabit karte chale jaate hain vaise-vaise unako aur jyaada jimmedaariyon bhare kaam saunpe jaate hain. lekin unako vaheeain kaam saunpa jaata hai jo civil engineering ke upakshetr ke andar aate ho ya fir agar ve pratyek shaakha ke baajaar ke vibhinn khandon ke arntagat bhi aate hon to unhein vo kaam saunpa ja sakta hai leking vyaavasaayik maarg ek dusare se alag ho sakte hain. kuchh kshetron aur companiyon mein, jin injeeniyron ne abhi-abhi kaam karna shuroo kiya hai unako shuruaat mein nirmaan kaarya ki nigraani rakhane ka kaam saunpa jaata hai. vahaan par vo varishth design injeeniyron ke liye "aaainkh aur kaan" ka kaam karte hain, jabki anya kshetron mein, pravesh star ke injeeniyron ko adhik se adhik vishleshan ya design aur vivechanaatmak kaaryon ko niyamit roop se karna padta hai. adhik varishth injeeniyron ko adhik jatil vishleshan ya design ya adhik jatil design pariyojanaaon ya anya dusare injeeniyron ka sanchaalan jaise kaarya karne pad sakte hain. ya fir unhein vishesh paraamarsh ke kaarya saunpe ja sakte hain jismein forensic engineering shaamil hai.

up-shaakha

saamaanyat:, civil engineering maanav dvaara nirmit tay pariyojanaaon ka bruhad duniya ke saath ek poorn antarafalak hai. aam civil engineer sarvekshakon ke saath milkar kaam karte hain aur varishth civil injeeniyron ko diye gaye kaaryasthal, samooh evam bhoo-bhaag par nirdhaarit pariyojanaaon mein shreneekaran ko dijaain, jal nikaasi, jal aapoorti, naali se jude kaaryon, bijli aapoorti mein madad aur sanchaar aapoorti evam bhoomi vibhaajan karke vo unki madad karta hai. aam engineer apna jyaada samay pariyojana sthalon ke dauron mein, vahaan ki saamudaayik aam sahamati aur nirmaan kaarya ki yojana ko taiyaar karne mein lagaata hai. aam civil engineering ko site engineering,bhi kaha jaata hai, jo ki civil engineering ki ek aisi shaakha hai jiska mukhya kendra hai bhoomi ke ek hisse ko ek prayog se dusare prayog ke liye parivrtit karna. civil engineer vishisht roop se bhoo-takaneek engineering, sanrachanaatmak engineering, paryaavaran engineering, parivhan engineering aur nirmaan engineering ke siddhaanton ko aavaaseeya, vyaapaarik aur saarvajanik kaarya pariyojanaaon mein nirmaan ke sabhi aakaaron aur staron par laagoo karte hain.

tateeya engineering

tateeya engineering ka sambandh tateeya kshetron ke prabandhan se hai. kuchh ilaakon mein samudra pratirksha aur tateeya suraksha ka matlab kramash: baadh aur kataav se raksha hi hota hai. halaaainki shabd tateeya raksha adhik paramparaagat hai, lekin aaj kal tateeya prabandhan adhik lokapriya ho gaya hai kyonki ab yeh kshetr vistrut ho gaya hai aur ismein aisi takaneekein shaamil ho gayi hain jo bhoomi ke kataav ko sveekaar karti hain.

apaartameint ke kai khandon ke liye bhavan nirmaan

nirmaan engineering

nirmaan engineering mein shaamil hai - parivhan, sthal vikaas, jal, paryaavaran, sanrachana aur bhoo-takaneeki injiniyron se milne vaale dijaainon ki yojana aur usaka kaaryaanvayan.kyonki nirmaan companiyon mein anya civil engineering companiyon ki tulana mein vyaapaar se juda khatra jyaada hota hai, kai nirmaan injiniyr aisi bhoomika ada karte hain jo ki prakruti mein vyaapaar karne vaalon ki bhoomika ke jyaada kareeb hoti hai: jaise ki anubandh taiyaar karna aur usaka nireekshan, sahaaya-sahakaar sambandhi kaaryon ko moolyaankan aur aavashyak aapoortiyon ki moolyon ki nigraani.

bhookamp engineering

bhookamp engineering ke jriye vibhinn sanrachanaaon ko ye kshamata di jaati hai ki vo jin vishisht sthaanon par hain vahaaain aane vaale khatarnaak bhookamp ke jhatke sah sakein.

bhookamp-rodhi aur chichen itja mein L kaistilo ka vishaal piraamid

bhookamp engineering sanrachanaatmak engineering ki vyaapak shreni ki ek up-shaakha hai. bhookamp engineering ke mukhya uddeshya hain:[krupaya uddharan jodein] thumb|right|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzVvd4Dk6sw&locale=en_US&persist_locale=1 par 696 × 700 pi eksasnaipashot ka shek-table vidiyo, jismein base-aaisoleshan (daaen) aur imaarat ke pratiroop (baaen) ko dikhaaya gaya hai

  • sanrachana ke sampark samajhe asthir jameen par banane waali sanrachanaaon aur jameen ke ek dusare par prabhaav ko samajhna.
  • aisi sanrachana design karna, banaana aur usaka rakh-rakhaav karna jo ki nirmaan sanhita ke anusaar ho aur bhookamp aane par apekshaanusaar khare utare.

bhookamp engineering sanrachana ka matlab jaroori naheen ki bahut hi majaboot ya mahaingi sanrachana ho jaise ki oopar dikhaae gaye L chichen itja ka kaistilo piraamid.[mool shodh?]

ab bhookamp engineering mein sabse taakatavar aur kam laagat wala upakaran hai aadhaar alagaav jo ki nishkriya sanrachanaatmak kanpan ke niyantran se judi takaneekon se sambandhit hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

paryaavaraneeya engineering

ek nishyantak tal, naali se bahanevaala paani ityaadi ka ek bhaag hai

poorv vyayan ya aakasmik sandooshan ki vajah se paryaavaran engineering ko raasaayanik, jaivik aur/ya ushn vyaya, jal aur vaayu ki shuddhi aur sandooshit sthalon ki safaai rakhani padti hai. paryaavaran engineering mein sammilit vishyon mein pradooshak parivhan, jal shuddheekaran, vyaya jal upachaar, vaayu pradooshan, thos vyaya upachaar aur khatarnaak vyaya prabandhan shaamil hainpradooshan mein kami, harit engineering aur audyogik paaristhitiki in sabhi mein paryaavaran engineer shaamil ho sakte hain. paryaavaran engineering prastaavit kaaryon ke paryaavaran par hone vaale prabhaav ki jaankaari ikaththa karne ka kaarya bhi karte hain saath hi prastaavit kaaryon ke paryaavaran par prabhaav ka moolyaankan bhi karte hain taaki samaaj aur niti nirmaanakartaaon ko nirnaya lene mein sahaayata mile.

paryaavaran engineering svachhata engineering ke liye ek samakaaleen shabd hai. haalaanki, svachhata engineering mein paramparaagat roop se khatarnaak apashisht padaarthon ka prabandhan aur paryaavaran upachaar se juda jyaada kaarya shaamil naheen hain jo ki paryaavaran engineering mein shaamil hai. prayog mein aane vaale kuchh anya shabd hain - saarvajanik svaasthya engineering aur paryaavaraneeya svaasthya engineering.

bhoo-takaneeki engineering

ek shreni baddh neev ya A slaib-on-gred foundation

bhoo-takaneek civil engineering civil engineering ke kshetr ko vo hissa hai jo ki patthar aur mitti se sambandhit hai jo ki civil engineering pranaali se sahaayata praapt hain. bhoo-takaneeki engineer, neevon, bani hui deevaaron aur isi tarah ki aur sanrachanaaon ko surakshit aur aarthik roop se design karne ke liye bhoovijnyaaan se sambandhit gyaan ka prayog aur bhautik vigyaan pareekshan, yaantriki aur jalagati vigyaan ke maadhyam se in sanrachanaaon ko banaane mein madad karte hain. bhoojal aur apashisht niptaan ne paryaavaran se sambandhit adhyayan ke liye ek navin vishay pradaan kiya hai jise bhoo-paryaavaraneeya engineering kehte hain. is vishay mein jeev vigyaan aur rasaayan vigyaan mahatvapoorn hain.[15][16]

bhoo-takaniki engineering se sambandhit kuchh ajeeb se pareshaaniyaan parivrtanasheelata aur mitti ke gunon ka parinaam hain. engineering ki anya shaakhaaon mein baaundari ki sthiti ko achhi tarah se paribhshit kiya jaata hai. lekin mitti ke saath in niyamon ko paribhaashit karna asambhav ho sakta hai.simit nirikshan aur mitti ki parivrtanasheelata ke kaaran padaarth gun aur mitti ke svabhaav ko samajh paana bahut mushkil hai.kankreet aur ispaat ke achhi tarah se apekshaakrut paribhaashit padaarth gunon ke virodhaabhaason ko civil engineering ke anya kshetron mein upayog kiya jaata hai.mitti ke svabhaav ko paribhaashit karne waali yaantriki aayatan parivartan, dabaav- khichaav sambandh aur shakti jaise dabaav par aashrit padaarthon ke kaaran bahut jyaada jatil hain.[15]

jal sansaadhan engineering

inhein bhi dekhein: Hydraulic engineering
inhein bhi dekhein: Hydrology
hoovar baandh

jal sansaadhan engineering jal ke sangrah aur uske prabandhan se sambandhit hai (ek praakrutik sansaadhan ke roop mein). ek shaakha ke roop mein yeh jal vigyaan, paryaavaran vigyaan, mausam vigyaan, bhoovijnyaaan, sanrakshan aur sansaadhan prabandhan ko sammilit karta hai. civil engineering ka yeh kshetr bhoomigat (jalavaahi star) aur dharati ke oopar vaale (jheel, nadiyaaain aur naale) sansaadhanon ki gunavatta aur maatra donon ki bhavishyavaani aur prabandhan se juda hua hai. jal sansaadhan engineer jameen ke bahut chhote hisse se bahut bade hisse tak ka pratiroop banaakar usaka vishleshan karte hain taaki vo paani ke bahaav se usaka anumaan laga sakein. haalaanki suvidha ke vaastavik design ko kisi aur injiniyr ko bhi saunpa ja sakta hai. haaidrolik ya jaleeya engineering drav ke pravaah aur vahan se sambandhit hai. mukhyat: yeh jal se sambandhit hai. civil engineering ka yeh kshetr paaipalaainon ke design, jal vitran pranaali, jal nikaasi (jinmein pul, baandh, jalamaarg, puliya, tatabandh naala) aur naharein shaamil hain . haaidrolik ya jaleeya engineer in suvidhaaon ko drav daab, drav taral padaarth ka dabaav, drav sthaitik, drav gatisheelata aur jalagati vigyaan, ke alaava anya design karte hain.

padaarth engineering

civil engineering ka ek anya pahaloo padaarth ya dhaatu vigyaan hai. padaarth ya dhaatu engineering cheeni-mitti ki cheejein jaise kankreet, thos mishrit daamar, elyoomeeniym aur ispaat jaise dhaatu aur bahulak jaise ki poleemethaailamethaakrilet (pi.em.em.ai.) dhaatu ki badi hui shakti ke ird-gird aakrusht rahate hain.

sanrachanaatmak engineering

burj dubai, duniya ki sabse badi imaarat hai, abhi filhaal vo dubai mein nirmaanaadheen hai.
kliftan saspenashan brij, jiski sanrachana yoo॰ake॰ mein sthit Bristol shahar mein isambaard kingadam brunel dvaara kiya gaya tha

sanrachanaatmak engineering, sanrachanaatmak design evam imaaraton, pulon, taavaron, flaaiovaron,surangon ke sanrachanaatmak vishleshan se sambandhit hain. saath hi saath yeh samudragaami ilaakon mein bani sanrachanaaen evam aur anya sanrachanaaon se sambandhit hai. ismein sanrachana par lagne vaale bal aur us sanrachana ke bheetar in balon ke kaaran utpann hue dabaav aur tanaav ki pehchaan hoti hai aur uske baad us sanrachana ko aisa banaaya jaata hai ki vo un balon ko safalataapoorvak utha aur sah sake.bal ka vajan sanrachana, anya mrut bal, jeevit bal, gatisheel (pahiya) bal, vaayu bal, bhookamp bal, taapamaan parivartan se utpann hue bal ke baraabar ho sakta hai. sanrachanaatmak injeeniyron ko sanrachanaao ko is prakaar banaana chaahiye ki unke prayog se prayog karne vaale ko koi haani ho aur jis kaarya ke liye usaka nirmaan hua hai, vo us kaarya ko safalataapoorvak poora kare (upayogi ho). kuchh bhaaran sthitiyon ki prakruti ke kaaran sanrachanaatmak engineering ke bheetar ki up-shaakhaaen viksit ho jaati hain, jismein vaayu engineering aur bhookamp engineering shaamil hain.

design ke pratifl mein, shakti, kathorata aur sanrachana ki sthirta shaamil hain, jab aise furniture ya swayam ke roop mein lod jo sthir ho sakta hai, ke liye kiye vajan, ya gatisheel, jaise hava, bhookamp, ke roop mein hoga bheed ya vaahan lod, ya asthaayi aise asthaayi roop mein, nirmaan lod ya prabhaav. anya pratiflon mein, laagat, nirmaan karne ki kshamata, suraksha, saundarya aur sthirta shaamil hain.

sarvekshan

1918, idaaho mein sarvekshan dal ki sabhi sadasya mahila thi

sarvekshan vah prakriya hai jismein sarvekshak kuchh aayaamon ko naapata hai jo ki aamtaur par dharati ki satah par hota hai. sarvekshan upakaran, jaise ki chauras aur thiyodolaait koneeya apasaran, kshaitij, lambaroop aur dhalaan dooriyaan ka upayog sateek maapan ke liye kiya jaata hai. kampyootareekaran ke saath, electronic doori ki maap (E.di.em.), kul station, jeepeees sarvekshan aur lejar skaining poorak ne (bahut had tak usaka sthaan le liya hai) paaramparik optikl upakaranon ko anupoorak bana diya hai . yeh jaankaari pruthvi ki satah ke deta ko chitramaya pratiroop mein ek nakshe ke roop mein badalne mein bahut mahatvapoorn hai. uske baad yeh jaankaari civil injeeniyron, thekedaaron aur yahaaain tak ki dalaalon ko bhi di jaati hai taaki vo iska istemaal karke kramash: design taiyaar karein, nirmaan kaarya karein aur vyaapaar karein. imaarat ya sanrachana ke tatvon ka ek dusare se aur seemaaon ki sahi sthiti evam sameepavarti sanrachanaaon ke sambandh mein sahi aakaar aur sthaan par hona aavashyak hai. yadyapi sarvekshan alag yogyata aur alag license vyavastha ke saath ek alag vyavasaaya hai. civil injeeniyron ko sarvekshan aur maanachitran, ke mool aur bhaugolik soochana pranaali mein prashikshit kiya jaata hai. sarvekshak relavemaarg, traimave track, raajamaarg, sadak, paaipalaainon aur galiyon ke nirmaan ke saath-saath kuchh anya avasanrachanaaon ke nirmaan se pehle unki sthit tay karte hain, jaise ki bandargaah

bhoomi sarvekshan

sanyukt raajya America mein, Britain, Canada aur adhikaaainsh raashtramandal deshon ke bhoomi sarvekshan ko ek vishisht pesha maana jaata hai. bhoomi sanrakshakon ko injiniyr naheen maana jaata hai aur unka apna vyaavasaayik sangathan aur apni laaiseinsing aavashyakataaen hoti hain. ek license bhoomi ki sevaaon ko aam taur par seema ke sarvekshan ke liye aavashyak hain (ek paarsal ki seemaaon apni kaanooni vivran aamtaur par license praapt bhoomi sarvekshakon ki aavashyakta seema sarvekshan aur up-vibhaajan yojanaaon ke liye hoti hai (seemaaon ke khand ko banaane ke liye apni samvaidhaanik vivranika prayog karke) (ek plaat ya maanachitr jameen ke khand ke sarvekshan par aadhaarit hota hai, jismein nayi seema rekhaaenon aur sadko ko dikhaane ke liye bade khand ke andar seema rekhaaen bani hoti hai).

nirmaan sarvekshan

nirmaan sarvekshak aamtaur par vishesh takaneeshiyn dvaara kiya jaata hai. bhoomi sarvekshakon ke vipreet, iski parinaam yojana ko samvaidhaanik suvidha praapt naheen hai. nirmaan sarvekshak nimnalikhit kaarya karta hai:

  • sthalaakruti, maujooda imaaraton aur buniyaadi suvidhaaon aur yahaan tak ki jab bhi sambhav ho bhoomigat buniyaadi suvidhaaon sahit bhavishya ke kaarya sthal ki maujooda sthiti ka nirikshan karna.
  • nirmaan sarvekshan ("banaana" ya "seting" karna): sandarbh binduon aur chinhakon ke bharose nai sanrachanaaon ke nirmaan ke liye jokhim lena aur maargadarshan karna, jaise ki sadak ya imaarat ke anuvarti nirmaan ke liye.
  • nirmaan ke dauraan sanrachana ke sthaan ki achhi tarah se jaanch karein;
  • nirmit sarvekshan: pariyojana ke ant mein is baat ki pushti ke liye ki kaarya poori tarah se adhikrut tha aur vo vinirdesh yojanaaon ke anusaar samaapt ho chooka hai, ek sarvekshan nirmaan aayojit karna

parivhan engineering

parivhan engineering jan aur maal ko kushalapoorvak, surakshit aur jeevant samaaj ke logon ke liye suchaalak ho. parivhan engineering ka sambandh inheen cheejon se hai. is kaarya mein sammilit hain - ullikhit karna, design, nirmaan, parivhan ki buniyaadi suvidhaaon ko banaae rakhana jinmein shaamil hain sadkein, naharein, raajamaarg, rel pranaaliyaan, havaai adde, bandargaah, aur jan paaragaman ismein parivhan design, parivhan yojana, yaataayaat engineering, shahari engineering, ke kuchh pahaloo, pankti siddhaant, [[patthar ya int ke farsh ki engineering|futapaath engineering,]] intelijeint traansaporteshan system (I. ti. S.) aur parivhan prabandhan jaise kshetr shaamil hai

nagar paalika ya shahari engineering

shahari engineering shahari avasanrachana se sambandhit hai. ismein shaamil hai ullekhan, dijaaining, nirmaan aur anurakshan karna. jismein sadak, pagadandi, jal aapoorti network, naali, street laait nagarapaalika thos apashisht ka prabandhan aur nishpaadan, saarvajanik kaaryon aur prabandhan ke liye kai dhaatuon ke liye bhandaaran (namak, ret, aadi), saarvajanik park aur cycle path ka anurakshan karna shaamil hai. bhoomigat upayogita network ke maamale mein, yeh bijli aur doorasanchaar sevaaon ke sthaaneeya vitran network ke naagrik bhaag ko bhi jod sakta hai (vaahika aur upayog kaksh). ismein kooda sangrahan aur bas seva network ka anukoolan bhi shaamil hai. inmein se kuchh vishay kuchh anya civil engineering visheshataaon se ghulamil gaye hain, halaaainki nagar nigam engineering in buniyaadi suvidhaaon ke network aur sevaaon par dhyaan kendrit rakhata hai, jaisa ki ye praay: kramash: bante hain aur ek hi nagar nigam prashaasan dvaara sanchaalit kiye jaate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • mahaamaarg injeeniyri
  • civil engineer
  • maikro-engineering
  • civil engineering nibandhon ki anukramanika
  • civil injeeniyron ki soochi
  • civil engineering ke aitihaasik kaaryon ki soochi
  • aadhaarbhoot suvidhaaen
sangh
  • amrerikn society of civil engineers
  • kanaadiyn society of civil engineering
  • chi epsilaun, ek civil engineering ki ek sammaanit samiti hai
  • bhookamp abhiyaantriki anusandhaan sansthaan ya arthakvek engineering research instityoot
  • engineers Australia
  • civil injeeniyron ki sansthaan ya insteetyushan of civil engineers
  • Ireland ke injeeniyron ki sansthaan ya insteetyushan of engineers of aayaralaind
  • injeeniyron ki parivhan sansthaan ya instityoot of traansaporteshan engineers
  • antarraashtreeya paraamarsh engineers sangh ya international federation of kansalting engineers
  • parivhan anusandhaan board ya transport research board
  • civil engineering sarvekshakon ki sansthaan ya the insteetyushan of civil engineering sarveyaras

sandarbh

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