christmas

christmas
क्रिसमस
christmas se sambandhit ek chitr
anuyaayi isaai
kai gair-isaai log[1]

christmas ya bada din isa maseeh ya yeeshu ke janm ki khushi mein manaaya jaane wala parv hai. yeh 25 December ko padta hai aur is din lagbhag sampoorn vishv me avakaash rahata hai. christmas se 12 din ke utsav krismasataaid ki bhi shuruaat hoti hai. enno domini kaal pranaali ke aadhaar par yeeshu ka janm, 7 se 2 E.poo. ke beech hua tha. 25 December yeeshu maseeh ke janm ki koi gyaat vaastavik janm tithi naheen hai aur lagta hai ki is tithi ko ek roman parv ya makar sankraanti (sheet ayanaant) se sambandh sthaapit karne ke aadhaar par chuna gaya hai. aadhunik christmas ki chhuttiyon me ek doosare ko upahaar dena, church me samaaroh aur vibhinn sajaavat karna shaamil hai. is sajaavat ke pradarshan me christmas ka ped, rang birangi roshaniyaaain, banda, janm ke jhaaainki aur hauli aadi shaamil hain. Santa klauj (jise christmas ka pita bhi kaha jaata hai haalaaainki, donon ka mool bhinn hai) christmas se judi ek lokapriya pauraanik parantu kalpit shakhsiyt hai jise aksar christmas par bachchon ke liye tohafe laane ke saath joda jaata hai. Santa ke aadhunik svaroop ke liye media mukhya roop se uttaradaayi hai.

christmas ko sabhi isaai log manaate hain aur aajkal kai gair isaai log bhi ise ek dharmanirpeksh, saanskrutik utsav ke roop me manaate hain. christmas ke dauraan upahaaron ka aadaan pradaan, sajaavat ka saaman aur chhutti ke dauraan maujamasti ke kaaran yeh ek badi aarthik gatividhi ban gaya hai aur adhikaansh khudara vikretaaon ke liye iska aana ek badi ghatna hai.

duniya bhar ke adhiktar deshon mein yeh 25 December ko manaaya jaata hai. christmas ki poorv sandhya yaani 24 December ko hi Germany tatha kuchh anya deshon mein isse jude samaaroh shuru ho jaate hain. Britain aur anya raashtramandal deshon mein christmas se agala din yaani 26 December boxing de ke roop me manaaya jaata hai. kuchh Catholic deshon mein ise seint steefeins de ya feest of seint steefeins bhi kehte hain. aarmeeniyaai apostolik church 6 January ko christmas manaata hai poorvi paramparaagat girija jo juliyn calendar ko maanata hai vo juliyn version ke anusaar 25 December ko christmas manaata hai, jo jyaada kaam mein aane vaale gregoriyn calendar mein 7 January ka din hota hai kyonki in donon kaileindaron mein 13 dinon ka antar hota hai.

anukram

vyutpatti vigyaan

gaj ko alag alag deshon me alag alag naam se pukaara jaata hai, Bhaarat aur iske padosi deshon me ise bada din yaani mahatvapoorn din kaha jaata hai. kisi desh par apni pakad majaboot karne ke liye sabse achha tareeka hai ki vahaan ki sanskruti, sabhyata, dharm par apni sanskruti, sabhyata aur dharm ko kaayam karo. 210 saal pehle, angrejon ne Bhaarat mein apni pakad majaboot kar li thi. yeh vah samay tha jab isaai dharm failaane ki jaroorat thi. angrej, yeh karna bhi chaahate the. us samay 25 December vah din tha, jabase din bade hone lagte the. hinduvon mein iske mahatva ko bhi naheen nakaara ja sakta tha. shaayad isi liye ise bada din kaha jaane laga taaki hindu ise aasaani se sveekaar kar lein.[2]

is christmas

jarman chitrakaari, 1457

isaaiyon ka yeeshu (Nativity of Jesus) ke baare mein ye maanyata hai ki "maseeha" (Messiah) mariym (Virgin Mary) ke putr k roop mein paida hua christmas ki kahaani Matthew ki dharman shiksha (gospel of Matthew) (Gospel of Matthew) mein diye gaye baaibil khaaton par aadhaarit hai, aur di Luke ki dharman shiksha (gospel of luke) (Gospel of Luke), visheshakar iske anusaar yeshu mariym kon unke pati seint Joseph (Joseph) ke madad se betalehem (Bethlehem) mein praapt hue the lokapriya parampara ke anusaar inka janam ek astabal mein hua tha jo har taraf se kahtihr jaanvaron se ghira tha. halaaki na to astabal aur na hi jaanvaron ka baaibal mein koi jikr hai haalaanki, ek "vyavasthaapak" Luke 2:7 mein ullekhit hai jahaan yeh kaha gaya hai ki "vah kapadon mein lipta hua aur use ek charani mein use rakha, kyonki vahaaain ke saraaya mein unke liye koi jagah naheen thi."puraani pratima vigyaan ne, sthir aur charani ek gufa ke bheetar sthit the (jo abhi bhi church betalehem mein isaaiyon ke tahat maujood hai) ki pushti ki hai[3]. vahaan ke jaanvaron ko yeshu ke janam ke baare mein frishtaane bataaya tha at: unhonne bachche[4] ko sabse pahele dekha isayeyo ka maanana hai ki yeshu ke janam[tathya vaanchhit] ne inke jan se 100 saal pahele ki gaye bhavishyavaani ko sach kar diya

isayeyon ke liye yeshu ko yaad karna ya ka punam janm hi christmas maanana hai vahaaain ki ek bahut hi lambi parampara rahi hai isaaiyon ka yeeshu ki kala mein (Nativity of Jesus in art).poorvi paramparaagat church prathaaon ko isaaiyon ka fast (Nativity Fast) yeeshu ke janm ki pratyaasha hai, jabki bahut se pashchimi isaai dharm (pashchimi church) (Western Church) manaate hai aagaman (Advent) ke roop mein.kuchh isaai moolyavarg (Christian denominations) mein, bachchon pun: bataate hui ghatnaaon ke naatak mein pradarshan karte hain, ya vo gaane gaate hain jo in ghatnaaon ko bataate hain. kuchh isaai isaaiyon ka drushya (Nativity scene) ko jaana ke srujan ka pradarshan apne gharon mein karte hai jise isaaiyon ka drushya kaha jaata hai. ismein mukhya paatron se ko chitrit karne ke liye figurines ka upayog karte hue. Use Suggestion Live isaaiyon ka drushya hai, ur chitr vivant (tableaux vivants) bhi, kiye jaate hain tatha aur adhik yathaarthavaad[5] ke saath is ghatna ko chitrit karne ke liye kalaakaaron aur jeevit pashuon ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

isaaiyon ke pradashan drushya mein baaibil maagi (teen buddhimaan vyaktion) (the Three Wise Men), ke saath balthaajr, melchior aur kaispar, ka bhi pradarshan hota hai halaaki inka naam ya sankhya baaibal ki kahaani mein kaheen naheen hai inke baare mein kehte hain ki betlehem ke sitaaron (Star of Bethlehem) ke saath chal kar ye yeeshu ke paas ja pahuche aur svarn, lohabaan (frankincense) aur lohabaan (kishmish) (myrrh) ke upahaar diye.[6]

saamaanyat: isaaiyon ka drushya America mein, christmas ki sajaavat mein saarvajanik imaaratein (public buildings) bhi ek baar shaamil hote hain. is abhyaas se kai laavsuits ki utpatti hui, jaise American civil librteej union (American Civil Liberties Union) yeh sarkaar ko jo dvaara nishiddh hai ek dharm, ka samarthan karte maatra mein vishvaas sanyukt raajya America samvidhaan (United States Constitution).

1984 mein linch banaam donnelli (linch vas . donnelli) (Lynch vs. Donnelly) mein ameriki uchchatam nyaayaalaya (U.S. Supreme Court) ne samas ke pradarshan (jo) isaaiyon ka ek drushya bhi shaamil svaamitv hai aur shahar ke dvaara pradarshit pavtukket, road aailaind (Pawtucket, Rhode Island) ke baare mein kaha ki ye pratham sanshodhan[7] ka ullanghan naheen karte

itihaas

isaai dharm se mool

kai sanskrutiyon mein ek sardiyon ka tyauhaar paramparaagat tareeke se manaaya jaane wala sabse lokapriya tyohaar tha. iske vaja thi kam krushi kaarya hota tha aur uttari golaarddh (Northern Hemisphere).[8] mein sardiyon ki uchchatam shikhar (winter solstice) hone ke kaaran laumeed karte The ki din lambe aur raat chhoti hogi sankshipt main, christmas ka tyauhaar pahele ke chruchon dvaara maanana sharoo kiru kiya gaya yeh sooch ke ki isse pagan romans apna dharm badal kar isaai dharmaapana lein aur saath hi apne bhi sardiyon ke saare tyauhaar mana leinge.[8][9]kuchh khas devi devata jise us pant ke log maanate hainunaka bhi janam din 25 December ko manaaya jaata tha. isame pramukh hai ishtar, babyloniyn goddess of fertiliti, love, end vaar, sol inviktus end mithraas. aadhunik yug ke christmas mana ke tarreke mein utsav ka aanad uthaane ke saath upahaaron ka bhi aadaan pradaan hota hai. iske alaava aanad lene ke liye romans saturnaaliya (Saturnalia) greenari, laayeets tatha romans ke nae saal ki pavitrata; aur yule ki lakadiyon pe tarah-tarah ke pakavaan bante hain jo tayootons (Teutonic) feasts[10] mein shaamil the. aise parampara kehta hain ki nimnalikit sardiyon ke tyohaaron se prerit hai.

naataalis solis invikti

yeeshu maseeh ke mojek ko sol poorv mein makbara M mein (soorya Bhagwan) ke roop mein chauthi shataabdi ke kbristaan mein darshaaya rom mein seint Peter ki baaseeleek ke antargat. use naam diya gaya kraaist sol (kraaist di san) aur der se 3ri sadi ke liye Italy ke puraatatvavidon dvaara dinaankit hai.[11]

romance 25 December ko ek tyohar maanate hai jise dais naataalis solis invikti, jiska arth tha "aparaaji soorya ka janam din sol inviktus ka prayog se kai saur devataaon (solar deities) ke saamoohik, pooja karne ki ijjjt deta hai jisme L (devata), siriyn devata sol, di gaud aaf enparar oreeliyn (AD 270–274); aur mitr, soljaras of gaud (faarasi puraan).[12] samraat elaagaabalus (218–222) ne is tyauhaar ki shuruaat ki aur ye aureliyn ke saanidhya mein isne bulandi haasil kin jisne ise saamraajya ki chhutti[13] ke roop mein badhaava diya.

December 25 ko sardiyon ka uchchatam shikhar hota hai jise romance broom fail[14] kehte hain (jab juliys seesar ne jooliyn calendar ka 45 E.poo. mein parichay diya, 25 December ke uchchatam shikhar ke lagbhag ki taareekh thi. aaj ke samay mein yeh thand ki uchchyaatam shikhar December 21 ya 22 ko padti hai yeh aisa dinhota hai jis din soorya khud ko aparaajit siddh kar k uttari dish mein kshitij ki taraf badhta hai Catholic vishvakosh.[15] ke anusaar sol inviktus tyohaar christmas ki taareekh ke liye hota hai. fele ke bahut se lekhak yeshu ke janam ko soorya ke janam se milte hain[16] "he, kaise adbhut provideins abhinay kiya hai ki jis par ki soorya ka janm hua us din par...yeeshu ko paida hona chaahiye kyapriyn ne likha tha.[15]

yool

butaparast skaindineviya ek yule nam ka parv maanate hain jo December ant ya januari ke shuroo mein hota hai thor (Thor) Bhagwan jo kampan ke devata hain unhein aadar dene ke liye yule ki lakdi jalaai jaati hai aur man jaata hai k aag se nikle har chingaari aane vaalv varsh mein ek sooer ya bachhade ko janam dega aane vaale 12 dinon tak bhoj chalta hai jab tak saari lakadiyaaain poori tarah jal naheen jaati.[8] butaparast mein jermeniya (Germany ke saath bhramit hona naheen), ke samakaksh chhutti madhya sardiyon ki raat hoti hai jiske saath hi 12 "jangali raatein" hoti hain jinme khaana peena aur paarteebaaji hoti hai.[17] chuki uttari Europe (Northern Europe) isai dharman mein parivrtit hone vaal aakhiri bhaag tha is liye iska pegan maane ka tareeka christmas pair jyaada prabhaav daalata hai skaandinaaviya ke log abhi bhi christmas kon angreji mein 'kehte . hain german shabd yule christmas[18] ka paryaayavaachi hai jo kathit fele baar 900 mein prayog hua

isaai dharm ka mool

(origen), isaai church ke pita, ne janmadin ke utsav ke khilaaf tark diya maseeh ke janm ke sahit.

yeh agyaat hai ki theek kab ya kyon 25 December maseeh ke janm ke saath jud gaya. naya niyam bhi nishchit tithi naheen deta hai.[19] sekstus jooliys afrikaanus ne apni kitaab chronografii, ek sandarbh pustak isaaiyon ke liye 221 E. mein likhi gayi, mein yeh vichaar lokapriya kiya hai ki maseeh 25 December ko janme the.[16] yeh tithi avataar (March 25) ki paaramparik tithi ke nau maheene ke baad ki hai, jise ab daavat ki ghoshana ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.March 25 ko vaasanti vishuv|ki taareekh maana gaya tha aur puraane isaai bhi maanate hain ki is taareekh ko maseeh ko kroos par chadhaaya gaya tha. isaai vichaar hai ki maseeh ki jis saal kroos par mrutyu ho gayi thi usi tithi par vo fir se garbhit hue the jo ek yahoodi vishvaas ke saath anuroop hai ki ek nabi kai saal ka jeevit rahe the.[20]

ek daavat ke roop mein christmas ka jashn chronografai ke prakaashit hone ke baad kuchh samay tak naheen kiya gaya tha. tertulliyn iska ullekh church roman Africa ke mein ek pramukh daavat ke din ke roop mein nahi karta. 245 mein, thealojiyn origen ne maseeh ke janmadin ka utsav "jaise ki veh raaja firaun hon" ke roop mein karne ki ninda ki. unhonne kaha ki keval paapi apna janmadin manaate hain, seint naheen.[21]

25 December ko janm ke utsav ka shurooaati sandarbh 354 ki kronografi, 354 mein rom mein sankalit ek prabuddh paandulipi mein paaya jaata hai.[15][22] poorv mein, pehle isaaiyon ke bhaag ke roop mein maseeh ke janm manaaya ghoshana (January 6), haalaanki is tyauhaar ko par keindrit yeeshu ka bapatisma.[23]

christmas isaai poorv mein roman Catholic isaai ke punaruddhaar ke bhaag ke roop mein padonnat kiya gaya tha ariyn samraat veleins ki 378 mein adrianople ki ladaai mein mrutyu ke saath is daavat ko 379 mein konstaantinople ke liye pesh kiya gaya tha aur lagbhag 380 mein antaakiya mein yeh daavat gregari najinjus ke 381 mein bishp pad se isteefa dene ke baad gaayab ho gayi, haalaanki yeh lagbhag 400 mein John chrysostom dvaara fir se shuroo kar di gayi.[15]

christmas ke baarah din christmas diwas, 26 December ke baad ke din jo ki seint Stefan dinm hai se daavat ki ghoshana jo ki 6 January ko hai, se baarah din hain, jisme ki pramukh daavatein aati hain maseeh ke janm ke aaspaas.laatini sanskaar mein, christmas ke din ke ek hafte ke baad 1 January, maseeh ke naamakaran aur sunnat ki daavat samaaroh ko paaramparik roop se manaaya jaata hai, lekin Vatican II se, is daavat ko mariym ki dhaarmik kriya ke roop mein manaaya gaya hai.

kuchh paranparaaon mein christmas ke shuroo ke 12 din christmas ke din (25 December) se shuroo hote hain aur isliye 12vaan din 5 January hai.

madhya yug

aaraadhana (Don loreinjo monaako) (1422) ke dvaara di baaibil maagi) ka chitr.

shurooaati madhya yug mein, christmas diwas ghoshana dvaara pratichhaayit tha jo pashchim mein baaibil maagi (magi) ke daure par keindrit tha. lekin madhyakaaleen calendar mein christmas ki chhuttiyon se sambandhit ka prabhutv tha. christmas ke pehle ke chaalees din "seint Martin ke chaalees din" ban gaye (jo November 11ko seint Martin ke paryatan (St. Martin of Tours) ki daavat ke roop mein shuroo hue), jo ab aagaman (Advent) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[24] Italy mein, poorv saturnaaliyn paramparaaen aagaman se jude thi.[24] 12 veen shataabdi ke aaspaas, in paranparaaon ko fir se (christmas ke baarah din) (26 December -- January 6) main parivrtit kar diya gaya; vo samay jo calendar mein kristmasataaid (christmastide) (Christmastide) ya baarah pavitra din (Twelve Holy Days) ke roop mein hai.[24] christmas diwas ki pramukhata charlemagane ke baad dheere dheere badhi jise christmas diwas par 800 mein, mahaaraaja ka taaj pahanaaya gaya tha aur raaja shaheed edamand (Edmund the Martyr) ka us din par 855 mein Abhishek kiya gaya tha. raaja England ke William I ko christmas diwas 1066 par taaj pahanaaya gaya tha. christmas ke madhya yug ke dauraan ek saarvajanik samaaroh raha, jisme shaamil rahe IV (ivy), hauli (holly) aur anya sadaabahaar, saath hi upahaar-den bhi tha.[25] christmas upahaar-madhya yug ke dauraan de adhik baar kaanooni rishte ke logon ke beech (yaani makaan maalik aur kiraayedaar) kareebi mitron aur rishtedaaron ke beech se bhi chalaaya gaya tha.[25] uchch madhya yug (High Middle Ages) tak, yeh chhutti itni prakhyaat ho gayi ki itihaasakaaron ne lagaataar yeh anubhav kiya ki vibhinn raison ne christmas manaaya. England ke England ke richrd II ne 1377 mein ek christmas bhoj ki mejabaani ki, jis mein atthaais bail aur teen sau bhed khaai gayi thi.[24] di yool boar madhyayugeen christmas ki daavaton ki ek saamaanya visheshata thi. christmas ka geet (Caroling) bhi lokapriya ho gayi aur yeh mool roop se nartakiyon ka ek samooh tha jo gaaya karta tha. yeh samooh ek mukhya gaayak aur nartakiyon ke ghere se bana tha jo koras banaata tha. is samay ke vibhinn lekhakon ne mangal gaanon bhadda kehkar ninda ki hai, sanket dete hue ki ki aanand ka utsav ke aniyantrit paranparaaon aur yool is roop mein jaari ho sakti hai.[24]"kushaasan" - maadakata, abhed, juaa - bhi is tyohaar ka ek mahatvapoorn pahaloo tha. England mein, upahaaron nae saal ka diwas (New Year's Day) diye jaate the aur vahaaain vishesh christmas sharaab hoti thi.[24]

ansh se (yoshiyyaah raaja)'s pareeksha aur pareekshan pita christmas ka (1686), kuchh hi samay ke baad christmas ek pavitra diwas ke roop mein bahaal kiya gaya prakaashit England.

sudhaar se 1800s tak

dharmasudhaar ke dauraan, kuchh protesteint (Protestant)[kaun?] ne christmas ke jashn ki ninda "trappings of Pope" aur "shaitaan ke raigj" ke roop mein ki[tathya vaanchhit] roman Catholic church (Roman Catholic Church) ne ise aur adhik dhaarmik unmukh roop mein is tyauhaar ko badhaava dene ke dvaara pratikriya vyakt ki. angreji gruhayuddh ke dauraan nimnalikhit saansad (Parliamentarian) ki raaja Charles I (King Charles I) ke oopar jeet, England ke naitiktaavaadi (Puritan) shaasakon ne 1647 mein christmas par rok laga di.christmas ke pehle dangon kai shaharon mein ho gaye aur kai saptaah ke liye kaintarabari (Canterbury) ko dangaaiyon dvaara niyantrit kiya gaya, jo holi ke saath darvaaje sajaaya karte the aur raajabhakt naare chillaate the.[26] Charles dviteeya ki 1660 mein angreji bahaali (Restoration) par pratibandh samaapt ho gaya lekin kai paadari abhi bhi christmas ke samaaroh ko asveekrut karte hain.

kauloniyl America (aupaniveshik America) mein, "new England" ke teerthayaatri ne christmas ko asveekrut kar diya; iska samaaroh Boston, maisaachusets mein 1659 se 1681 tak gairkaanooni ghoshit kiya gaya. isi samay, varjeeniya (Virginia) aur New York ke isaai nivaasiyon ne is chhutti ko aajaadi se manaaya.christmas sanyukt raajya America mein ameriki kraanti (American Revolution) ke baad shuroo ho gaya, jab ise ek angreji custom maana gaya tha.[27] vaastav mein, ek ameriki kraantikaariyon ki sabse badi safalta treintan ka yuddh christmas par mein hessiyn bhaade ke sainik tukadiyon par hamla karke perpetuated tha. 1820 se, England mein saampradaayikta (sectarian) tanaav theek hone laga tha aur british lekhakon chinta karne lage ki christmas khtam hone laga tha, vishesh roop se lekhak William vinstaanle ne fir se is tyohaar ko prasiddhi dilaane mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. tyoodar avadhi (Tudor) christmas ki haardik khushi ki ek samay ke roop mein aur prayaason ke avakaash ko punarjeevit karne ke liye banaae gaye the. Charles dikkens (Charles Dickens) ki kitaab ek christmas kairal, 1843 mein prakaashit, ne christmas ko chhutti ke roop mein badalne mein ek pramukh bhoomika nibhaai parivaar (family), sadbhaavana aur saampradaayik utsav aur adhik se adhik daya par jor diya.[28] Washington iraving (Washington Irving) dvaara likhi gayi kai laghu kahaaniyo (short stories) mein se America mein christmas mein logon ki ruchi jaagrut hui . ye kahaaniyaaain usaki geoffreya kreyon ki sankshipt varnan book (The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon) aur "old christmas", mein prakaashit thi aur kuchh 1822 ke klemeint klaarke moore (Clement Clarke Moore)'(ya shaayad henari beekman livingston (Henry Beekman Livingston)) dvaara likhit A vijit fraum sat. nikolas (A Visit From St. Nicholas) (jo mashahoor roop se pehle pankti: tvaas di naait bifor christmas ke naam se jaani jaati hai) kavitaaon mein theen.Irving ki kahaaniyon se England mein prem aur saad bhaavana se manaaya jaane vaale chhuttiyon ka jikr hai haalaanki kuchh tark hai ki Irving, ne apne dvaara jikr kiye paramparan ki shuruaat ki thi O unke American paathakon[29] se prabhaavit the kavita A vijit fraum sat. nikolas ne upahaar badle aur mausami christmas ki khareedaari ki parampara lokapriya aarthik mahatva ki kalpana karni shuroo ki.[30]heriyet beecher stove (Harriet Beecher Stowe) dvaara 1850 mein "di first christmas in new England", likhi kitaab mein ek aise chhavi bhi hai jo christmas ke baare mein kehti hai ki christmas khareedaari ke hod[31] ki vajah se apna asal ardh khota ja raha hai ulysses S graant ne 1870 mein christmas ko kaanooni roop se ek Federal chhutti ghoshit kiya.

Santa klaus aur anya tohafe laane vaale

Amreeki gruhayuddh ke dauraan Thomas nast ke 'pehle Santa klaus ka kaartoon, haarpar's weekly, 1863 mein pehli baar

upahaar Santa klaus haathon baante gaye.

pashchimi sanskruti se ubhara hua, jahaaain chhutti ka matlab doston aur rishtedaaron mein upahaar lena dena hota hai vahaan kuchh upahaar Santa klaus ke chhavi se milte hain (ihe aur bhi naamo se jaana jaata hai christmas ke pita seint nikolas ya seint nilolaas, sinterklaas kris kringale, pere noel, jaulupukki babbo naataale, veihanaktsaman kaisariya ke besil aur ded moroj (pita fraust)

Santa klaus ki lokapriya chhavi ko jarman mool ke ameriki kaartoonist Thomas nast (1840-1902) ke dvaara banaaya gaya, jo har saal ek nai chhavi ko banaate the, 1863 se shuroo.1880 tak, nast jise ab ham santa kehte hain uske pehchaan bani chhavi ko 1920 ke dashak mein vijnyaaapanadaataaon ke dvaara maanakeekrut kiya gaya.[32]

faadar christmas jo santa ki chhavi ko predate karte hai unka charitra sabse pehle 15 santuri mein prayog mein aae parantu ye sirf chhutti merreemeking aur matavaalaapan [33] kesaath hota hai viktoriyn Britain, mein usaki chhavi ka punarnirmaan kiya taaki vo santa ki chhavi se mil sake freinch pere noel bhi santa ke tarj pair hi kaam karte hain Italy mein man jaata hai ki babbo naataale santa ki tarah kaam ka karti hai jabki la befaana khilone let hai jo ghoshana ke poorv sandhya pair aati hai kaha jaata hai ki La befaana ko chhote yeshu ke liye khilone len ke liye bheja gaya tha vo raste mein bhatak gayi ab. vo sabhi bachchon ke liye upahaar lati hai kuchh sabhyataaon mein santa klauj ke saath knecht ruprecht ya black Peter bhi hote hain anya sanskaranon mein, apsaraaon ne khilaune banaaye. usaki patni ko shreemati klaus ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

laitin America ke deshon {jaise veneinjuela mein jo parampara aaj bhi chali aa hai uske anusaar santa khilone baana kar baalak yeeshu ko deta hai jo asal mein sabhi bachchon ke ghar ise pahuchaate ha yeh kahaani ek puraani dhaarmik maanyataaon aur aaj ke aadhunik yug mein vishveekaran se milkar bani hai, sabse khaaskar Santa klaus ke pratima vigyaan jo sanyukt raajya America se aayaat se prabhaavit hai.

chitr:A Christmas Carol - Scrooge's Third Visitor.jpg
ebenejr skrooj aur di ghost of christmas preseint, John jonk ke dvaara. Charles dikkens ki pustak ke liye bani ek christmas ka geet (1843).

alto adige (Italy), aastriya, check ganaraajya dakshini Germany, hangar liyktainsteen, Slovakia aur Switzerland, is kristakaaind jejeesek check, jejuska mein hangariyn aur Ježaišako mein slovaak mein) upahaar let hain rman seint nikolaus eihnachtsman (jo Santa klaus ke jarman sanskaran) hai.) ke samaan naheen haisat. nikolous bishop ek bishop ki poshaak pahan kar knecht ruprecht ke saath. 6 December ko chhote chhote tohafe lekar (jaise toffe, nuts aur fal) aate hain halaaki duniya bhar ke ki bahut se abhibhaavak apne bachche| ko Santa klaus ki kahaani sunate hain tatha aur upfaar denevaalon ki kahaani sunate hai pair bahut se abhibhaavak is glat[34] maan kar iska virodh karte hain.

christmas ka ped aur anya sajaavat

chitr:Christmas Tree Bear Decoration.png
ek khilauna bhaaloo se christmas ki sajaavat.

christmas ka ped ko aksar butaparast parampara aur anushthaan ke isaaita ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur takaaleen uchchatam shikhar ke aas paas sada bahaar tahaniyon aur butaparasti ka ek roopaantar ped ki pooja[35] ai pisme shaamil hoti hai angreji bhaasha mein kaha jaane wala vaakyaansh christmas tri sabse fele 1835[33] me darj kiya gaya aur ye jarman bhaasha ke ek aayat ka pratinidhitv karta hai aaj ke yug ka christmas tri ka rivaaj man jaata hai ki Germany mein 18vi shaataabdi vain reinterghem, toni. jab Santa ek jaadoogar tha.seint paul: llevellyan prakaashan, Martin luther ne 16 veen shaataabdi [36][37] me shuroo kiya Germany se England mein sabse pehle is pratha ko raani charlotte, George III ki patni ne shuroo kiya tha par ise jyaada safalataapoorvak prince alabart ne Victoria ke shaasan mein aage badhaaya. lagbhag usi samay, jarman aapravaasi sanyukt raajya mein yeh pratha shuroo ki.[38] christmas ped ki sajaavat raushani (lights) aur christmas ke gahane se bhi hoti hai.

19 veen sadi ke baad se ponsettiya christmas ke saath joda jaane laga.anya lokapriya chhutti ke paudhon mein shaamil hain hauli amarabel laal, amaryllis aur christmas ka kateela paudha. christmas ke ped ke atirikt gharon ke andar doosare paudhon se bhi sajaaya jaata hai jisme foolon ki maala aur sada bahaar patte. shaamil hain.

Australia uttari aur dakshin America aur Europe ka kuchh hissa paaramparik roop se sajaaya jaata hai jisme ghar ke bahaar ki battiyon se sajaavat sled (bepahiyon ki gaadi), barf ka insaan aur anya christmas ke moorat shaamil hote hain nagar paalika bhi aksar sajaavat karte hain christmas ke pataaka street laait se tanga hota hai aur shahar ke har varg[39] mein christmas ke podhe rakhe jaate hain

pashchimi duniya mein rangeen kaagajon pe dharmanirpeksh ya dhaarmik christmas motifs chappa hua kaagaj ka rol nirmit karte hain jisme log apne upahaar lapetete hain christmas gaaainv ka pradarshan bhi kai gharon mein is mausam mein ek parampara ban gaya hai. baaki paaramparik sajaavat mein ghanti mombatti candy kens]] bade moje pushpamaalaaen aur frishta shaamil hote hain.

christmas ki tayaari baarahaveen raat ko utaari jaati hai jo 5 January ki shaam ka din hota hain.

christmas ticket

christmas ticket 2000 se faro dweep (Faroe Island), jin par John ki gospel (John)1:14 dvaara kahe kuchh shabd hain aur ispar anakar eli pitrasen (Anker Eli Petersen) ne kalaakaari ki hai..

bahut se deshon mein christmas ke samay smaarak daak ticket (commemorative stamp) bhi jaari karte hain dadak tichketon ka prayog karne vaale ise christmas card (Christmas card) bhejane mein karte the khaas kar ke daak ticket sangrah (filaatelists) (philatelists).ye staanp bhi aam daak tiket(postage stamps) ki tarah hi hote hain. baaki staanp ki tarah is par christmas ki muhar (Christmas seal) naheen hote aur ye baarahon maheene kaam mein liya ja sakta hai ve aamtaur kuchh samay pehle, October ke sharuaat se December ke shuruaat tak bikri ke liye nikal jaate hain aur kaafi maatra mein mudrit kar rahe hain.

1898 mein Canada dvaara staanp jari kiya gaya impeeriyl paisa daak dar ka udghaatan kiya gaya. is staanp pair ek globe bana hai aur neeche "aiksmas 1898" inkit hai 1937, mein ostriya ne do christmas greetings vaale staanp jisme gulaab (rose) aur raashi: chakr (zodiac) ke chinh ankit the jari kiya 1939 mein Brazil ne 4 semi postal (semi-postal) staanp jaari kiye. jisme teen raaja (three kings) aur betlehem ka ek taara (star of Bethlehem) ek frishta (enjal) aur bachcha sadaran kraus (Southern Cross) aur bachcha aur ek maaain aur bachcha ke chitr hain

us ka daak vibhaag (US Postal Service) har saal is upalaksh mein dhaarmik-theemd aur ek dharmanirpeksh-theemd vaale staanp jari karta hai

christmas ka arthashaastr

chitr:DSC04820.JPG
brajilliyn shauping mauls mein christmas ke saamaanon ka pradarshan.

christmas aamtaur par bahut si deshon ke liye sabse bada vaarshik aarthik uttejana laata hai. sabhi khudara dookaanon mein bikri achaanak se badh jaati hai. dookaanon mein nae ye saamaan milne lagte hain kyoonki log sajaavat. ke saamaan. upahaar aur anya saamaan ki karidaari shuroo kar dete hain. America mein, "christmas ki khareedaari ka mausam" aam taur par black fraaide (khareedaari) (Black Friday), ko shuroo hota hai ye din dhanyavaad (Thanksgiving) din ke baad aata hai halaaki bahut se dunaakan mein christmas ke saamaan October[40] ke shuruaat se hi milne lagte hain.

adhikaansh kshetron mein, christmas diwas vyaapaar aur vaanijya ke liye is varsh ke kam se kam sakriya din hai, lagbhag sabhi, vaanijyik khudara aur sansthaagat vyavasaaya band ho jaati hain lagbhag sabhi udyogon gatividhi samaapt (varsh ke kisi bhi doosare din ki tulana mein) England aur vels (England and Wales) mein christmas ke din (vyaapaar) adhiniyam, (Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004) christmas diwas par vyaapaar se sabhi bade dukaanon se bachaata hai. Scotland vartamaan mein isi tarah ke kaanoon ki yojana bana rahi hai. film studio (Film studio) in chhutti ke dinon mein bahut se meheingi filmein relese karti hai jinmein jaaya kar ke christmas filmein kaalpanik (fantasy) ya uchcha koti ka drama hota tha aur unka utpaadan (production) moolya kaafi jyaada hota tha

ek arthashaastri ke vishleshan ke anusaar roodhivaadi mikroekonomik siddhaant (microeconomic theory), upahaar mein vruddhi-dene ke kaaran.christmas ek dethavet loss (deadweight loss) is nuksaan ki ganana upahaar dene aur upahaar lene ke beech ke kharch ko jod kar hota hai aisa lagta hai ki 2001 mein christmas America mein akele ek 4 arab dollar dedavet ki haani ki vajah tha.[41][42] pecheeda kaarakon ki vajah se, is vishleshan ka prayog kabhi kabhi vartamaan mikroikanaumik siddhaant mein sambhav doshon ki charcha karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. anya dedavet haaniyon me shaamil hain christmas ke prabhaavon paryaavaran aur is tathya par ki upahaar aksar safed haathi ki rakharakhaav aur bhandaaran aur avyavastha mein yogadaan karne ke liye adhiropit karne ki laagat, maana jaata hai.[43]

anya naam

christmas ke liye kai vikalp shabdon hain, 1928 mein sabse pehle krimbo ek salang ke roop mein johnleinnon (John Lennon) chaap tha iska anya roop ka krimble sabse pehle 1963 the beetals/beatles fen club christmas singal meinbada din (Xmas) haalaanki christmas ke dharam nirpekshata (secularization of Christmas) ki bahas mein shaamil hai par yeh christmas ka kaafi lambe samay se sthaapit sankshipt naam hai. yool (Yule) uttari Europe mein prayog kiya jaata hai. sanyukt raajya America mein, shabd " holeede greetings (holiday)" ya "mausam", christmas vivaad (Christmas controversy) ke roop mein sambodhit kiya ja sakta hai.

America christmas vivaad

20 veen shataabdi ke dauraan, sanyukt raajya America mein christmas vivaad (Christmas controversies) chalta raha. halaanki June 26, 1870 ko a.san.ra. raashtriyaapati ulysses S graant Ulysses S. Grant). ne ek sangheeya chhutti ghoshit kar diya tha dharmanirpeksh christmas avakaash ke aarthik prabhaav ka mahatva 1930 ke dashak mein badhaaya gaya tha jab raashtrapati Franklin di. roojavelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt) ne dhanyavaad (Thanksgiving) chhutti taareekh ko christmas ki khareedaari ke mausam ka vistaar karne ka prastaav rakha. is se isi dauraan arthavyavastha ke ghana vishaad (great dipreshan) (Great Depression).[44] ko badhaava ka faayeda mila. dhaarmik netaaon, ek ke saath is kadam ka virodh New York times. unka maanana hai ki christmas sermons jo christmas ka sabse jan vishay tha use badhate vanijikran[45] se khatra hai

"nauv its christmas agen" (1907) kaarl laarsson dvaara hai.

kuchh yeh samajhte hai kiko u. s. sarkaar ke is tareeke se sangheeya avakaash ke roop maanya jan aur ise is roop mein maayata dena church aur raajya ka vibhaajan (separation of church and state) ka ullanghan hai yeh haal hi mein kei baar pareekshan mein laaya gaya jisme Lynch v. Donnelly (1984)[7] and Ganulin v. United States (1999).[46] shaamil hain

6 December 1999 ko ganulin v.united staates (1999) ke faisale ke anusaar christmas diwas ki sthaapana aur usekaanooni saarvajanik avakaash ke roop mein ghoshit karanaasthaapana khand ka ullanghan naheen karta hai kyonki yeh ek vaidh dharmanirpeksh uddeshya hai. December 19, 2000.[47] ko chhathi sarkit court dvaara is apeel ko vaidh thaharaaya gayaisi samay, kai bhakt isaai christmas ki maanya khtam karne aur ise ashleel tareeke se maane ki vajah se kaafi bigad gaye. unka manana tha ki dharmanirpeksh vaanijyik samaaj dvaara is parv ki maanyata khtam kar di gayi hai at: ve iske maanyata ko vaapas kare ki maang kar rahe the

21 shataabdi tak America mein christmas ke baare mein vivaad chalta raha 2005 mein kuchh isaai, America ke raajaneetik teekaakaaron jaise bill O'reilli (kameintetar) (Bill O'Reilly), ne saath milkar unke samajh se christmas ka vivaad (secularization of Christmas) hone ka virodh kiya unka maanana tha ki yeh avakaash ek saamaanya dharmanirpeksh pravrutti (secular trend) hai jise kuchh virodhi isaai vaale vyaktiyon aur sangathanon dvaara dhamaki di ja sakte haise kathit raajanaitik shuddhata (political correctness).[48] ko bho doshi thaharata hai

kitaabein

  • Penne L. Restad (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).dvaara Christmas in America: A History, aaiesabeeen 0-19-509300-3
  • stefen nisseinbaum (1996; new yaark: vintej books, 1997).dvaara di baital for christmas, aaiesabeeen 0-679-74038-4
  • Joseph f. Kelly (August 2004: Liturgical Press) ISBN 978-0814629840-dvaara The Origins of Christmas
  • Clement A. Miles (1976: Dover Publications) ISBN 978-0486233543dvar Christmas Customs and Traditions
  • erry Bowler (October 2004: McClelland & Stewart) ISBN 978-0771015359 dvaara The World Encyclopedia of Christmas,
  • Gerry Bowler (November 2007: McClelland & Stewart) ISBN 978-0-7710-1668-4 dvaara Santa Claus: A Biography,
  • William J. Federer (December 2002: Amerisearch) ISBN 978-09653557422dvar There Really Is a Santa Claus: The History of St. Nicholas & Christmas Holiday Traditions
  • im Rosenthal (July 2006: Nelson Reference) ISBN 1-4185-0407-6 dvaara St. Nicholas: A Closer Look at Christmas
  • David Comfort (November 1995: Fireside) ISBN 978-0684800578 dvaara Just say Noel: A History of Christmas from the Nativity to the Nineties,
  • earal W. kaaunt (November 1997: ulysses press) ISBN 978-1-56975-087-2 dvaara 4000 years of christmas: a gift fraum the ages


ise bhi dekhein

Christmas ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png shabdakosheeya paribhaashaaen
Wikibooks-logo.svg paathya pustakein
Wikiquote-logo.svg uddharan
Wikisource-logo.svg mukt strot
Commons-logo.svg chitr evam media
Wikinews-logo.svg samaachaar kathaaen
Wikiversity-logo-en.svg gyaan saadhan

christmas ka samay

christmas ke vishay

500px-Xmas tree animated.gif
Holidays praveshadvaar

sandarbh

  1. Christmas as a Multi-faith Festival—aBBC News. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  2. christmas ko bada din kyon kehte hain?
  3. http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&q=icon+of+the+nativity
  4. Luke 2:1-6
  5. krug, nora "betalehem ke chhote shahar", New York times, November 25, 2005.
  6. Matthew 2:1-11\isayeyon ke pradashan drushya mein three buddhimaan vyakti
  7. a aa linch banaam donnelli
  8. a aa i ""christmas - ek praacheen holeede ", is itihaas maarg (History Channel), 2007.
  9. ""saturnaaliya ", The History Channel (History Channel), 2007
  10. koffman, elesha .December 25 kyon?isaai itihaas aur jeevani, aaj ka isaai dharm (Christianity Today), 2000.
  11. Yusuf ef Kelly, christmas ka mool, liturgikl press, 2004, pi.67-69.
  12. ""mithraism", Catholic vishvakosh, 1913.
  13. "sol." enasaaiklopeediya britaanika, Chicago (2006).
  14. broom, Tennessee ka vishvavidyaalaya
  15. a aa i E sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; CathChrit naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  16. a aa "christmas, enasaaiklopeediya britaanika Chicago: enasaaiklopeediya britaanika (Encyclopæadia Britannica) 2006.
  17. richmann, rooth, "christmas".
  18. yool. ameriki viraasata® ke angreji bhaasha ke shabdakosh, chauthe sanskaran. pun: praapt 3 December, 2006.
  19. "christmas, enasaaiklopeediya britaanika Chicago: enasaaiklopeediya britaanika 2006.
  20. "di feest of di annunkiation ", Catholic enasaayiklopeediya, 1998.
  21. origein, "levit., hom.VIII "; Migne snaatakottar, baarahaveen, 495; netaal diwasCatholic vishvakosh, 1911 dvaara uddhrut.
  22. is dastaavej ko niji taur par ek roman kuleen ke liye taiyaar kiya gaya tha christmas raajyon betleem iudee mein, "VIII kal. iaan. natus christus ke sandarbh".yeh ek anubhaag 336 mein utpaadit ek puraani paandulipi par aadhaarit hai. is dastaavej ko bhi sol inviktus ki daavat karne ke liye jald se jald sandarbh shaamil hain.
  23. pokhilko, hiyeromonk nikolas, "ghoshana ke gathan alag paranparaaon ke anusaar
  24. a aa i E u oo murre, sikandar, "madhyakaaleen christmas", itihaas aaj, December 1986, 36 (12), peepi.31 - 39.
  25. a aa mkgreevya, paitrik."ameriki christmas mein jagah," (jastar), bhaugolik sameeksha, vaulyoom. 80, number 1.January 1990, peepi.32-42.pun: praapt 10 sitmbar (10 September)2007.
  26. durston, kris, "laurds of misrool: di puritn vaar on christmas 1642-60", itihaas aaj, December 1985, 35 (12) peepi.7 - 14.
  27. Andrews, Peter (1975). Christmas in Colonial and Early America. USA: World Book Encyclopedia, Inc.. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 7-166-2001-4. -->
  28. rovell, geoffre, "dichkeins end di kanstrukshan of christmas", itihaas aaj,December 1993, 43 (12), peepi.17 - 24.
  29. moor ki kavita ne New York mein naye saal par hone vaale asli puraani dach paranparaaon ko parivrtit kar diya, upahaar lene-dene, paarivaarik daavatein aur "sinterklaas" ki kahaaniyaaain (dach mein "seint nikolas" ki vyutpatti, jisme se aadhunik "Santa klaaus" nikla hai) sa lekar christmas tak."christmas ka itihaas: America mein christmas ka itihaas, 2006
  30. usinfo.state.gov "America ke jashn christmas ke vibhinn tareekon se" November 26, 2006
  31. vaatertovan ki pratham presbyterianism (Presbyterian Church) "oh. . . aur ek aur baat "December 11, 2005
  32. mikkelson, baarabara aur David pi., "di klaus det refreshes", snopes.com, 2006.
  33. a aa haarpar, dagalas, maseeh, online vyutpatti ka kosh, 2001.
  34. Santa: di first great laae, mariane matar dvaara, city beet mudde 304 par nibandh
  35. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Shaman naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  36. "The Chronological History of the Christmas Tree". The Christmas Archives. http://www.christmasarchives.com/trees.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-18.
  37. "Christmas Tradition - The Christmas Tree Custom". Fashion Era. http://www.fashion-era.com/Christmas/christmas_customs_tree_history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-18.
  38. mauris, desamand (Morris, Desmond). christmas dekhna.London: chaatham ka machkays, 1992. aaiesabeeen 0-224-03598-3
  39. murre, Brian."christmas ki roshani aur America mein saamudaayik bhavan,"history mettar, basant 2006.
  40. varaga, melodi."black fraaide, : khudara udayogake baare mein .
  41. "di dedavet loss of christmas", ameriki aarthik sameeksha, December 1993, 83 (5)
  42. kya santa ek daadveight loss hai ? arthashaastri20 December2001
  43. roiters December 16 2005 ke report ke anusaar "christmas paryaavaran ko nuksaan panhucha raha hai"
  44. usinfo.state.gov "America ke christmas ke jashn ke vibhinn tareekon November 26, 2006
  45. di New York times "dis season's vaar kraai:" kommersialij christmas aur elsDecember 4, 2005
  46. ganulin vi. sanyukt raajya America (1999)
  47. adaalat ke nirnaya - ganulin banaam sanyukt raajya America
  48. kohen, aidam. "dis season's vaar krya: kommersialije christmas aur els." di New York times,5 December2005.

baahari kadiyaan