chittaranjan das

deshabandhu chittaranjan das

deshabandhu chittaranjanadaas (1870-1925 E.) suprasiddh bhaarateeya neta, raajaneetijnya, vakeel, kavi tatha patrakaar the. unke pita ka naam shri bhuvanamohan das tha, jo solicitor the aur baingala mein kavita bhi karte the.

san‌ 1890 E. mein bi.A. paas karne ke baad chitranjan das aai.si.es‌. hone ke liye England gaye aur san‌ 1892 E. mein bairistar hokar svadesh laute. shuroo mein to vakaalat theek naheen chali. par kuchh samay baad khoob chamaki aur inhonne apna tamaadi karj bhi chuka diya.

vakaalat mein inki kushalata ka parichay logon ko sarvapratham 'vandemaataram‌' ke sampaadak shri Arvind ghosh par chalaae gaye raajadroh ke mukadame mein mila aur maanasiktala baag shadyantr ke mukadame ne to Calcutta High Court mein inki dhaak achhi tarah jama di. itna hi naheen, is mukadame mein unhonne jo nissvaarth bhaav se athak parishram kiya aur tejasvitaapoorn vakaalat ka parichay diya uske kaaran samast bhaaratavarsh mein 'raashtreeya vakeel' naam se inki khyaati fail gayi. is prakaar ke mukadamon mein ye paarishramik naheen lete the.

inhonne san‌ 1906 E. mein Congress mein pravesh kiya. san‌ 1917 E. mein ye Bengal ki praanteeya raajakeeya parishd ke adhyaksh hue. isi samay se ve raajaneeti mein dhadlle se bhaag lene lage. san‌ 1917 E. ke Calcutta Congress ke adhyaksh ka pad shreemati eni besant ko dilaane mein inka pramukh haath tha. inki ugr neeti sahan na hone ke kaaran isi saal shri sureindranaath Bannerjee tatha unke dal ke anya log Congress chhodkar chale gaye aur alag se praagatik parishd ki sthaapana ki. san‌ 1918 E. ki Congress mein shreemati eni besant ke virodh ke baavajood praanteeya sthaanik shaasan ka prastaav inhonne manjoor kara liya aur raulat kaanoon ka jamkar virodh kiya. Punjab kaand ki jaaainch ke liye niyukt ki gayi committee mein bhi inhonne ullekhaneeya kaarya kiya. inhonne mahaatma Gandhi ke satyaagrah ka samarthan kiya. lekin kalakatte mein hue Congress ke vishesh adhiveshan mein inhonne unke asahayog ke prastaav ka virodh kiya. Nagpur adhiveshan mein inhonne unke asahayog ke prastaav ka virodh kiya. naapur adhiveshan mein ye 250 pratinidhiyon ka ek dal is prastaav ka virodh karne ke liye le gaye the, lekin ant mein inhonne swayam hi ukt prastaav sabha ke sammukh upasthit kiya. Congress ke nirnaya ke anusaar inhonne vakaalat chhod di aur apni saari sapatti medical college tatha striyon ke aspataal ko de daali. inke is mahaan‌ tyaag ko dekhkar janta inhein 'deshabandhu' kehne lagi.

asahayog aandolan mein jin vidyaarthiyon ne school college chhod diye the unke liye inhonne dhaaka mein 'raashtreeya vidyaalaya' ki sthaapana ki. Assam ke chai baagaanon ke majadooron ki du:sthiti ne bhi kuchh samay tak inka dhyaan aakarshit kar rakha tha.

san‌ 1921 E. mein Congress ne asahayog aandolan ke liye das lakh swayamsevak maaainge the. usaki poorti ke liye inhonne prayatn kiya aur khaadi vikraya aadi Congress ke kaaryakram ko sampann karna aarambh kar diya. aandolan ki majaboot hote dekhkar british sarkaar ne ise avaidh karaar diya. ye sapatneek pakade gaye aur donon ko chhah chhah maheene ki saja hui. san‌ 1921 E. mein Ahmedabad Congress ke ye adhyaksh chune gaye. lekin ye us samay jail mein the ataev inke pratinidhi ke roop mein hakeem Ajmal khaaain ne adhyaksh ka kaaryabhaar sainbhaala. inka adhyaksheeya bhaashan shreemati sarojini Naidu ne padhkar sunaaya. ye jab chhootakar aae us samay aandolan lagbhag samaapt ho chuka tha. baahar se aandolan karne ke bajaae inhonne kaanusilon mein ghuskar bheetar se adnga lagaane ki neeti ki ghoshana ki. gaya Congress mein ye adhyaksh the lekin inka yeh prastaav vahaaain sveekaar na ho saka. ataev inhonne adhyaksh pad se tyaagapatr de diya aur svaraajya dal ki sthaapana ki. Congress ko unki neeti maanani padi aur unka kaanusil pravesh ka prastaav September, 1923 E. mein Delhi mein hue Congress ke atirikt adhiveshan mein sveekaar ho gaya.

prastaav ke anusaar ye kaaunsil mein ghuse. inka dal Bengal kaaunsil mein nirvirodh chuna gaya. inhaanne mantrimandal banaana asveekaar kar diya aur mantriyon ke vetanon ko maanyata dena naamanjoor kar maantaford sudhaaron ki durgati kar daali. san‌ 1924-25 mein inhonne Calcutta nagar mahaapaalika mein apne paksh ke kaafi log ghusaae aur swayam mayor hue.

in dinon Congress par inke svaraajya dal ka poora kabja tha aur ye swayam uske karta-dharta the. Patna ke adhiveshan mein inhonne Congress ki sadasyata ke liye soot kaatane ki anivaarya shart ko aichhik karaar diya. lagbhag isi samay gopeenaath saaha naamak ek bangaali vyakti ne ek angrej ki hatya ki aur sarkaar tatha inke dal mein jhagada shuroo hua. sarkaar ne ek vigyapti prakaashit ki aur sandeh mein 80 logon ki pakada. Calcutta corporation ne bhi sarkaar ki is neeti ka virodh kiya.

san‌ 1924 mein Bengal ki praanteeya parishd ne gopeenaath saaha ke tyaag ki prashansa ki tatha abhinandan ka prastaav sveekaar kiya aur inhonne use maanyata di. lekin inki is neeti ka Bhaarat mein tatha England mein galat arth lagaaya gaya.

san‌ 1925 mein uparyukt sarkaari vigyapti ki mukhya dhaaraaeain Bengal kriminl law ameindameint bill mein sammilit ki gain. svaraajya dal ne bill asveekaar kar diya kintu sarkaar ne apne vishesh adhikaar se kaanoon paas kara liya. inhonne raajaneetik shastr ke roop mein hinsa ka prayog karne ki katu aalochna ki aur is sambandh mein do patrak prakaashit kiye. saath hi isi prakaar ka ek patrak inhonne sarkaar ke paas bhi bheja. sarkaar ne ise sahayog ki or pehla kadam samjha. is drushti se donon pakshon mein kuchh vaarta shuroo hone ki sambhaavana samajhi ja rahi thi ki 6 June 1925 ko inka dehaavasaan ho gaya.

shri chittaranjanadaas ke vyattitv ke kai pahaloo the. ve uchch koti ke raajaneetijnya tatha neta to the hi, ve baingala bhaasha ke achhe kavi tatha patrakaar bhi the. Bengal ki janta inke kaviroop ka bahut aadar karti thi. inke samay ke bang saahitya ke aandolanon mein inka pramukh haath raha karta tha. 'saagarasangeet', 'antaryaami', 'kishor kishori' inke kaavyagranth hain. 'saangarasangeet' ka inhonne tatha shri Arvind ghosh ne milkar angreji mein 'saangj aav di si' naam se anuvaad kiya aur use prakaashit kiya. 'Narayan' naamak vaishnav-saahitya-pradhaan maasik patrika inhonne kaafi samay tak chalaai. san‌ 1906 mein praarambh hue 'vande maataram‌' naamak angreji patra ke sansthaapak mandal tatha sanpaadakamandal donon ke ye pramukh sadasya the aur Bengal svaraajya dal ka mukhapatr 'faarvard' to inheen ki prerana aur jimmedaari par nikla tatha chala.

raajaneetik neta ke liye aavashyak satat joohjte rahane ka gun inmein prachur maatra mein vidyamaan tha. ye param tyaagi vrutti ke mahaapurush the. inhonne kavi ka sanvedanaksham hrudaya aur sajjanochit udaarata pai thi. viruddh paksh ka marm-sthaan dhooaindh nikaalne ki asaadhaaran kushalata inmein thi. ek baar nishchaya kar lene ke baad use kaaryaanvit karne ke liye ye nirantar prayatnasheel rahate the. inhein asaadhaaran lokapriyta mili. belagaaainv Congress mein inhonne yeh ichha vyakt ki thi ki 148 number, roosa road, Calcutta wala inka makaan striyon aur bachchon ka aspataal ban jaae to unhein badi shaanti milegi. unki mrutyu ke baad mahaatma Gandhi ne si.aar. das smaarak nidhi ke roop mein das lakh rupae ikatthe kiye aur Bhaarat ke is mahaan‌ suputr ki yeh antim ichha poorn ki.

sandarbh granth

  • life aind times aav‌ si.aar. das : le. sar pi.si. rai;
  • great main ov India : hom laaibreri club;
  • bhaaratavarsheeya arvaacheen charitrakosh, siddheshvar shaastri, chitraav