chitralipi

fraans mein ghudsavaari ka yeh bhaavachitr ek sadak-chinh hai
Japan mein yeh bhaavachitr 'paani' ka arth deta hai
Bhaarat ka svastik bhaavachitr 'shubh' ka arth deta hai

chitralipi aisi lipi ko kaha jaata hai jismein dhvani prakat karne waali aksharamaala ki bajaae arth prakat karne vaale bhaavachitr (idiyograim) hote hain. yeh bhaavachitr aise chitraalekh chinh hote hain jo koi vichaar ya avadhaarana (kaunsaipt) vyakt karein. kuchh bhaavachitr aise hote hain ki vah kisi cheej ko aise darshaate hain ki us bhaavachitr se aparichit vyakti bhi usaka arth pehchaan sakta hai, masalan 'chhaate' ke liye yooneekod mein ☂ ka chinh jise aisa koi bhi vyakti pehchaan sakta hai jisne chhaata dekha ho. iske vipreet kuchh bhaavachitron ka arth keval unase parichit vyakti hi pehchaan paate hain, masalan 'Om' ka chinh 'ishvar' ya 'dharm' ki avadhaarana vyakt karta hai aur '6' ka chinh chhah ki sankhya ki avadhaarana vyakt karta hai. cheeni bhaasha ki lipi aur praacheen misr ki lipi aisi chitralipiyon ke udaaharan hain.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

"bhaavachitron" ko angreji mein "idiyograim" (ideogram) ya "idiyograif" (ideograph) kehte hain. "chitralipi" ko angreji mein "idiyograifik script" (ideographic script) ya "piktograifik script" (pictographic script) kaha jaata hai.

aksharamaala aur bhaavachitron ki tulana

jo lipi aksharamaala par aadhaarit hoti hai usamein paathak ko keval kuchh dhvaniyon ke liye chinh hi seekhane hote hain. uske baad in chihnon ko jodkar paathak us bhaasha ke sabhi shabd padh sakta hai. agar koi naya ya aparichit shabd ho to uske akshar padh kar paathak use uchchaarit kar sakta hai. bhaavachitron par aadhaarit chitralipiyon mein paathakon ko kabhi-kabhi sainkadon ya hajaaron chinh seekhane padhte hain. cheeni bhaasha seekhane ke liye yeh zaroori hai.

fir bhi chitralipiyon ka ek bada laabh hai. nepaali aur hindi donon mein aksharamaala par aadhaarit devanaagari lipi prayog hoti hai. yadi koi hindeebhaashi nepaali bhaasha ka 'atoova' shabd dekhe to vah use uchchaarit to kar sakta hai lekin yeh naheen samajh sakta ki usaka arth 'adarak' hai. iske vipreet cheeni aur bhaasha mein prayog hone vaale 猫 chinh ko dekhkar cheeneebhaashi aur jaapaaneebhaashi donon 'billi' ka arth praapt karte hain lekin isko apni-apni bhaashaaoain mein bilkul bhinn prakaar se bolte hain. Japani mein ise 'neko' padha jaata hai aur maindaarin cheeni mein ise 'maao' padha jaata hai. Japan ke bahut se log cheeni ka bina ek bhi shabd jaane cheeni akhbaar padhkar us se kaafi arth nikalne mein saksham hain. vahi akhbaar agar unhein cheeni mein padh ke sunaaya jaae to unhein kuchh bhi samajh na aaye. yeh usi tarah ki baat hai jaise ☂ ka chinh dekhkar hindeebhaashi 'chhatari' kahega, angrejeebhaashi 'ambrailla' kahega aur fraansiseebhaashi 'paaraaplooi' kahega. isi vajah se cheeneebhaashi log aksar cheen mein paae gaye hajaaron saal puraane shilaalekh dekhkar unako kuchh had tak samajhne mein saksham hote hain kyonki bahut se bhaavachitr lambe arase se thode-thode fer-badal ke saath chale aa rahe hain.

cheeni lipi ke baare mein chetaavani

haalaanki cheeni lipi mein bhaavachitron ka prayog hota hai, fir bhi bahut se shabdon ko in bhaavachitron se sambandhit dhvaniyon ko jodkar likha jaata hai. aksar shabdon mein ek bhaavachitr arth ka kuchh andaaja deta hai aur doosra dhvani banaane mein sahaayak hota hai. isliye cheeni lipi vaastav mein chitralipi aur dhvani-aadhaarit lipi ka ek mishrit roop hai.[1]

udaaharan ke liye cheeni mein 沖 ko 'chong' uchchaarit kiya jaata hai aur iska arth hai 'paani ka tej bahaav ya lahar'. iske baaeain mein teen chhoti lakeerein hain jinka arth "paani" hota hai. yeh paani se sambandhit anya shabdon mein bhi pai jaati hain, jaise ki 河 ('he', arth: nadi), 河 ('hu', arth: jheel) aur 流 ('lioo', arth: jharana). chong (沖) ke baaeain mein to yeh paani ka bhaavachitr hai lekin uske daaeain mein 中 ka chinh hai jiska arth 'beech' hai aur jiska uchchaaran 'jong' kiya jaata hai. jab in donon bhaavachitron ko milaakar 沖 likha jaata hai to paathak ko yeh sanket hai ki arth ke liye baaeain taraf ka chinh dekho aur dhvani ke liye daaeain taraf dekho. to paathak samajh jaata hai ki yeh paani se sambandhit shabd hai jiska uchchaaran 'jong' se milta-julata hoga. is se vah bhaanp jaata hai ki yeh shabd 'chong' hai. gaur keejiye ki daaeain taraf ke jong shabd ka arth ('beech') bilkul naheen prayog hota aur baaeain taraf ke paani se sambandhit shabd ki dhvani bilkul naheen prayog hoti.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh