chitrakala

राजा रवि वर्मा कृत 'संगीकार दीर्घा' (गैलेक्सी आफ म्यूजिसियन्स)

chitrakala ek dvivimeeya (two-dimensional) kala hai. Bhaarat mein chitrakala ka ek praacheen srot vishnudharmottar puraan hai.

anukram

itihaas

chitrakala ka prachaar cheen, misr, Bhaarat aadi deshon mein atyant praacheen kaal se hai. misr se hi chitrakala yoonaan mein gayi, jahaaain usane bahut unnati ki. isa se 1400 varsh pehle misr desh mein chitron ka achha prachaar tha. London ke british sangrahaalaya mein 3000 varsh tak ke puraane misri chitr hain. bhaaratavarsh mein bhi atyant praacheen kaal se yeh vidha prachalit thi, iske anek pramaan milte hain. raamaayan mein chitron, chitrakaaron aur chitrashaalaaon ka varnan baraabar aaya hai. vishvakarmeeya shilpashaastr mein likha hai ki sthaapak, takshak, shilpi aadi mein se shilpi ko hi chitr banaana chaahiye. prakrutik drushyon ko ankit karne mein pracheen bhaarateeya chitrakaar kitne nipun hote the, iska kuchh aabhaas bhavabhooti ke uttararaamacharit ke dekhne se milta hai, jismein apne saamane laae hue vanavaas ke chitron ko dekh seeta chakit ho jaati hain. yadyapi aajkal koi granth chitrakala par naheen milta hai, tathaapi praacheen kaal mein aise granth avashya the. kaashmeer ke raaja jayaaditya ki sabha ke kavi domodar gupt aaj se 1100 varsh pehle apne kuttaneemat naamak granth mein chitravidya ke 'chitrasootr' naamak ek granth ka allekh kiya hai. ajanta gufa ke chitron mein pracheen bhaaratavaasiyon ki chitranipunata dekh chakit rah jaana padta hai. bade bade vijnya yuropiynon ne in chitron ki prashansa ki hai. un gufaaon mein chitron ka banaana isa se do sau varsh poorv se aarambh hua ta aurak aathaveen shataabdi tak kuchh na kuchh gufaaeain nai khudati raheen. at: dedh do hajaar varsh ke pratyaksh pramaan to ye chitr avashya hain.

parichay

chitravidya seekhane ke liye pehle pratyek prakaar ki seedhi tedhi, vakr aadi rekhaaeain kheenchne ka abhyaas karna chaahiye. iske uparaant rekhaaon ke hi dvaara vastuon ke sthool dhaaainche banaane chaahiye. is vidya mein doori aadi ke siddhaant ka poora anusheelan kiye bina nipoonata naheen praapt ho sakti. drushti ke samaanaantar ya oopar neeche ke vistaar ka ankan to sahaj hai, par aaainkhon ke theek saamane door tak gaya hua vistaar ankit karna kathin vishay hai. is prakaar ki doori ka vistaar pradarshit karne ki kriya ko 'parsapektiv' (Perspective) kehte hain. kisi nagar ki door tak saamane gayi hui sadak, saamane ko bahi hui nadi aadi ke drushya bina iske siddhaanton ko jaane naheen dikhaae ja sakte. kis prakaar nikat ke padaarth bade aur saaf dikhaai padte hain aur door ke padaarth kramash: chhote aur dhuaindhale hote jaate hain, ye sab baatein ankit karni padti hain. udaaharan ke liye door par rakha hua ek chaukhooainta sandook leejiye. maan leejiye ki aap use ek aise kinaare se dekh rahe hain jahaaain se uske do paarshv ya teen kon dikhaai padte hain. ab chitr banaane ke nimitt ham ek peinsil aaainkhon ke samaanaantar lekar ek aaainkh dabaakar dekheinge to sandook ki sabke niktasth khadi konarekha (ooainchaai) sabse badi dikhaai degi; jo paarshv adhik saamane rahega, uske doosare or ki konarekha usase chhoti aur jo paarshv kam dikhaai dega, uske doosare or ki konarekha sabse chhoti dikhaai padegi. arthaat niktasth kon rekha se laga hua us paarshv ka kon jo kam dikhaai deta hai, adhik dikhaai padnevaale paarshv ke kon se chhota hoga. doosra siddhaant aalok aur chhaaya ka hai jiske bina sajeevata naheen aa sakti. padaarth ka jo ansh nikat aur saamane rahega vah khulata (aalokit) aur spasht hoga; aur jo door ya bagal mein padega, vah spasht or kaalima liye hoga. padaarthonka ubhaar aur gaharaai aadi bhi isi aalok aur chhaaya ke niymaanusaar dikaai jaati hai. jo ansh utha ya ubhara hoga, vah adhik khulata hoga aur jo dhainsa ya gahra hoga vah kuchh syaahi liye hoga. inheen siddhaanton ko na jaanane ke kaaran baajaaroo chitrakaar sheeshe aadi par jo chitr banaate hain ve khelavaad se jaan padte hain. chitron mein rang ek prakaar ki kooainchi se bhara jaata hai jise chitrakaar kalam kehte hain. pehle yahaaain gilhari ki pooainchh ke baalon ki kalam banti thi. ab vilaayati brush kaam mein aate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain