chitrakaavya

chitrakaavya vah aalankaarik kaavya hai jiske charanon ki rachana aisi yukti se ki gayi ho ki ve charan kisi vishisht kram se likhe jaane par kamal, khadg, ghode, rath, haathi aadi ke chitron ke samaan ban jaate hon. iski ganana adham prakaar ke kaavyon mein hoti hai.

anukram

parichay

"dhvanyaalok" mein jise "chitrakaavya" kaha hai, vahi "kaavyaprakaash" ka avarakaavya (adham kaavya) hai. sfut (spasht) vyangyaarth (chaahe vah manushya ho ya guneebhoot) ka abhaav rahane par shabdaalankaar arthaalankaar aadi se, jismein shabdavaichitryamoolak ya arthavaichitryamoolak kore chamatkaar ki srushti ki jaati hai, use "chitrakaavya" kehte hain. ismein ras-bhaavaadi kaavya ke marmasparshi tatvon ke na rahane se anubhooti ki gaharaai ka abhaav rahata hai; anupraas, yamak ya upama, roopak aadi ki kori shabdaarth kreeda hi mukhya ho uthati hai. shabdon ya arthon ko lekar khilvaad ya vyaayaam hi yahaaain adhiktar abhipret hai. inhi aadhaaron par is kaavya vidha ke do bhed maane gaye hain- (1) shabdachitr aur (2) arthachitr.

jahaaain (sfut vyangya ke abhaav mein) anupraas, yamakaadi shabdaalankaaron ya ojaprasaadaadi gunavyanjak varnon se shabdagat chamatkaar pradarshit hota hai, use shabdachitr kehte hain aur jahaaain upama-utprekshaadi oohaatmak arthaalankaaron se arthagat kreedaaparak chamatkaar lakshit hota hai, use arthachitr kehte hain. inmein bhaavapoorn evam ramaneeyaarth ki avhelna karte hue kreedaavrutti par hi bal diya jaata hai. "shabdachitr" varnaadanbar ke maadhyam se bhi chitrasarjan hota hai- jaise hindi ke "amrutadhvani" naamak kaavyaroop mein. dandi ne svar-sthaan-varn-niyam-krut vaichitryamoolak kuchh shabdaalankaaron ki charcha karte hue do teen chaar vyanjan, svar aadi vaale chitrakaavyabhed ka bhi nirdesh diya hai.

isse bhi aage badhkar shabdakreeda ka ek vishisht prakaar hai jise praaya: chitrabandhakaavya kehte hain aur jismein khadg, padm, hal aadi ki rekhaakrutiyaan mein baddh, saprayaas gadhe padya milte hain. hrudayasparshita se bahut rahit hone se inhein kaavya naheen padya maatr kehna chaahiye. "rudrat" aadi ne ise hi "chitraalankaar" naamak shabdaalankaar ka ek bhed kaha hai. "arthachitr" mein mukhyat: oohaamoolak, kashtakalpanaashrit, kreedaaparak evam asahaj arthavaichitrya maatr ki udbhaavana ki jaati hai. at: ve bhi sahrudaya hrudaya ke sanvaadabhaagi na hokar vismayapoorn kutoohal ke sarjak hote hain. "prahelika" aur "dusht prahelika" ke bhed bhi chitrakaavya hi hain. inasein bhi saprayaas shabdaarth kreeda se kutoohalasarjana ki jaati hai.

taatparya yeh ki chitrakaavya ki prerana kavi ke bhaavaakul antastal se naheen varan kreedaapoorn evam vaichitryasoochak kutoohalavrutti se milti hai. at: kavihrudaya ki bhaavasanpatti se sahaj vilaas ka unmesh yahaaain naheen dikhaai deta.

bandh - chitrakaavya mein chhand ki aisi rachana jiski kuchh vishisht niyamon ke anusaar usaki panktiyon ke akshar baithaane se kisi vishesh prakaar ki aakruti ya chitr ban jaaya. jaise-ashvabandh, khdgabandh, chhatr-bandh aadi.

charan-gupt - ek prakaar ka chitr-kaavya jiske kai bhed hote hain. ismein koshthak banaakar unamein kavita ke charanon ya panktiyon ke akshar bhare jaate hain.

hindi mein chitrakaavya

keshavadaas ka ek savaiya leejiye :

maan sas moh sajai ban been, naveen bajai sah mos sama.
maar lataani banaavati saari, risaati vanaabani taal rama .
maanav hi rahi morad mod, damodar mohi rahi vanama.
maal bani bal kesabadaas, sada basakel bani balama .

is savaiya ki kisi bhi pankti ko kisi or se bhi padhiye, koi antar nahi padega.

sada seal tum sarad ke daras har tarah khaas.
sakha har tarah sarad ke sar sam tulaseedaas.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain