chirsammat yaantriki

chirsammat yaantriki

nyootan ka gati ka dviteeya niyam
itihaas · samayarekha
is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

bhautik vigyaan mein chirsammat yaantriki, yaantriki ke do vishaal kshetron mein se ek hai, jo balon ke prabhaav mein vastuon ki gati se sambandhit bhautiki ke niymo ke samuchchaya ki vivechana karta hai. vastuon ki gati ka adhyayan bahut praacheen hai, jo chirsammat yaantriki ko vigyaan, abhiyaantriki aur praudyogiki sabse praacheen vishyon mein se ek aur vishaal vishay banaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: chirsammat yaantriki ki samayarekha evam vigyaan ka itihaas

kuchh praacheen yoonaani daarshanikon ke anusaar, jaise arastu, arastu bhautiki ka janak ke anusaar "har ghatna ke pichhe koi kaaran hota hai", ho sakta hai yeh is tarah ka pratham vichaar hai aur saiddhaantik vichaar prakruti ko samajhne mein bahut sahaayak hai. jabki ek aadhunik paathak ke liye ye vichaar bahut uchit najar aate hain, yahaaain ek suspasht ganitiya siddhaant aur niyantrit praayogik khaamiyaaain shaamil thi. ye chirsammat yaantriki se aarambh hue aur aadhunik bhautiki ke nirmaan mein nirnaayak bhoomika nibhaate hain.

albart of saaksoni ke anusaar aaveg siddhant ke teen star.

grahon ki gati se sambandhit kaaran sahit vyaakhya sarvapratham 1905 mein jauns keplar estronoma nova se mili.

saiddhaantik vivran

antarraashtreeya ikaai pranaali dvaara kilogram, meter aur saikand
mein vyutpan yaantrik ikaaiyaan
(vidyut chumbakeeya ya taapeeya naheen).
lambaai (sthiti) m (meter)
koneeya sthiti/kon maatrakaheen (rediyn)
veg m·aas−1 (meter prati saikand)
koneeya veg s−1(rediyn prati saikand)
tvaran m·aas−2(meter prati varg saikand)
koneeya tvaran s−2(rediyn prati varg saikand)
jerk m·aas−3
"angular jerk" s−3
vishisht oorja m2·as−2(varg meter prati varg saikand)
absorbed dose rate m2·as−3(varg meter prati ghan saikand)
jadtvaaghoorn kg·aam2(kigra-meter)
sanveg kg·aam·aas−1(kigra-meter prati saikand)
koneeya sanveg kg·aam2·as−1 (kigra varg meter prati saikand)
bal kg·aam·aas−2 (kigra meter prati varg saikand)
balaaghoorn kg·aam2·as−2 (kigra varg meter prati varg saikand)
oorja kg·aam2·as−2 (kigra varg meter prati varg saikand)
shakti kg·aam2·as−3 (kigra varg meter prati ghan saikand)
daab aur oorja ghanatv kg·aam−1·as−2 (kigra prati meter prati varg saikand)
prushth tanaav kg·aas−2 (kigra prati saikand)
spring niytaank kg·aas−2 (kigra prati varg saikand)
prakaash vikeeran aur oorja falaks kg·aas−3 (kigra prati ghan saikand)
shuddh gatik shyaanata m2·as−1 (varg meter prati saikand)
gatik shyaanata kg·aam−1·as−1 (kigra prati meter prati saikand)
ghanatv (dravyamaan ghanatv) kg·aam−3 (kigra prati ghan meter)
ghanatv (bhaar ghanatv) kg·aam−2·as−2 (kigra prati meter prati varg saikand)
sankhya ghanatv m−3 (prati ghan meter)
kriya kg·aam2·as−1 (kigra varg meter prati saikand)

bindu kan ki sthiti kisi samashti mein nirdesh tantr mein yaadruchhik roop se sthir nirdesh bindu O ke saapeksh paribhaashit ki jaati hai jahaaain nirdesh bindu O mul bindu par sthit hota hai. ise bindu O se kan tak sadish r dvaara paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. saamaanya roop se bindu kan ka O ke saapeksh sthir hona aavashyak naheen hai at: r samay ka falan hota hai. aainsateen se poorv ki aapekshikta mein (gaililiyn saapekshikta ke rup mein jaani jaati hai) samay ko nirpeksh maana jaata tha at: kinheen do ghatnaaon ke madhya samay antaraal samaan sabhi prekshakon ke liye samaan rahata hai.[1]

sthiti aur aur uske avakalan

veg aur chaal

nirdesh tantr

bal, nyootan ka dviteeya niyam

sarvapratham nyootan ne sanveg aur bal ke madhya sambandh ko ganiteeya roop mein vyakt kiya. kuchh bhautik vigyaani nyootan ke gati ke dviteeya niyam ko dravyamaan evam bal ki paribhaasha ke roop mein dekhte hain, jabki anya ise prakruti ka niyam evam ek moolabhoot abhigruheet maanate hain. doosari vyaakhya ganiteeya parinaam hai jise aitihaasik roop se "nyootan ka dviteeya niyam" ke naam se jaana jaata hai:

jahaaain raashi mv ko kan sanveg kaha jaata hai. at: kan par kaaryarat kul bal kan ke sanveg mein parivartan ki dar ke baraabar hoga. chooainki tvaran ki paribhaashaanusaar a = dv/dt, dviteeya niyam ko saral roop mein nimn prakaar likha ja sakta hai:

at: kisi kan par kaaryarat bal gyaat hone par, nyootan ka dviteeya niyam usaki gati ko samajhne ke liye paryaapt hai. jab kan par kaaryarat sabhi balon ke svatantr sambandh gyaat hone par, saadhaaran avakal sameekaran praapt karne ke liye nyootan ke dviteeya niyam mein rakha ja sakta hai jise gati ki sameekaran kaha jaata hai.

ek udaaharan ke roop mein, maana ki ek kan par keval gharshan bal kaaryarat hai evam ise kan ke veg ke falan ke roop mein likha ja sakta hai:

jahaaain λ ek dhanaatmak niytaank hai. at: gati ki sameekaran nimn prakaar hogi

ise samaakalit karne par

jahaaain v0 praarambhik veg hai. arthaat kan ka veg charaghaataanki roop se kam ho raha hai aur samay ke saath shoonya ki aur agrasar hai. is avastha mein tulya drushtikon yeh diya ja sakta hai ki kan ki gatij oorja gharshan (jo yahaaain oorja sanrakshan ke niymaanusaar ushma oorja ke roop mein parivrtit kar raha hai.) dvaara avashoshit ki ja rahi hai aur kan avamandit ho raha hai. is sameekaran ko kan ki sthiti r ko samay ke falan ke roop mein gyaat karne ke liye aage bhi samaakalit kiya ja sakta hai.

mukhya balo mein gurutvaakarshan bal aur vidyutachumbakatv ke liye lorents bal pramukh hain.

kaarya aur oorja

nyootan ke niyamon se pare

vaidhata ki seemaaen

vishisht aapekshikta ke liye nyootaneeya sanniktan

pramaatra yaantriki mein chirsammat sanniktan

shaakhaaen

ye bhi dekhein

tippani

sandarbh

aage ka paath

baahari kadiyaaain