chinta

chinta
Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg

maarbal ka bana hua ek roman raaja desiys from the kaipitolin myoojiym se. yeh chitr ka kehna hai "kanveys ain impreshan of enjaaiti end aveyaranes, aij of a main sholdaring hevi [state] responsibiliti."[1]
ICD-9 300
MeSH D001007

chinta sanjnyaaanaatmak, shaareerik, bhaavanaatmak aur vyavahaarik visheshataavaale ghatakon ki manovaigyaanik aur shaareerik dasha hai.[2] yeh ghatak ek apriya bhaav banaane ke liye judte hain jo ki aam taur par bechaini, aashanka, dar aur klesh se sambandhit hain. chinta ek saamaanyakrut manodasha hai jo ki praay: na pahachaane jaane yogya kisi upan dvaara utpann ho sakti hai. dekha jaae to, yeh bhaya se kuchh alag hai, jo ki kisi gyaat khatre ke kaaran utpann hota hai. iske atirikt bhaya, bhaagane aur parihaar, ke vishisht vyavahaaron se sambandhit hai, jabki chinta anubhav kiye gaye aniyantrit ya aparihaarya khataron ka parinaam hai.[3]

ek anya drushtikon yeh hai ki chinta "ek bhavishya unmukh manodasha hai, jismein ek vyakti aagaami nakaaraatmak ghatnaaon ka saamana karne ka prayaas karne ke liye ichhuk ya taiyaar hota hai”[4] jo ki yeh sujhaav deta hai ki bhavishya banaam upasthit khataron ke beech ek antar hai jo bhaya aur chinta ko vibhaajit karta hai. chinta ko tanaav ki ek saamaanya pratikriya maana jaata hai. yeh kisi vyakti ki kisi mushkil sthiti, kaam par ya school mein kisi ko isse nipatne ke liye utsaahit karne par, se nipatne mein madad kar sakti hai. adhik chinta karne par, vyakti dushchinta vikaar ka shikaar ho sakta hai.[5]

anukram

vivran

chinta ke shaareerik prabhaav mein dil ka palpiteshan (palpitations), maansapeshiyon mein kamjori, tanaav, thakaan, michli, seene mein dard, saans ki kami, pet mein dard ya sir dard shaamil ho sakte hain jab shareer khataron se nipatne ke liye hota hai: tab raktachaap aur dil ki gati ki dar badh jaati hai, paseena badh jaata hai, pramukh maansapeshi samoohon ke liye rakt ka bahaav badh jaata hai aur pratirksha aur paachan tantr pranaaleeyaan mein rukaavat aa jaati hai (lado ya bhaago ka pratikriya). peeli tvacha, paseena, kaanp aur papeelaari (pupillary) failaav chinta ke baahari lakshanaaain mein shaamil ho sakte hain. koi, jise chinta hai ise bhaya ya aatank ka bhaav ke roop mein anubhav kar sakta hai. haalaanki har vyakti jise chinta aatank ke daure anubhav naheen karta, ye ek aam lakshan hai. aatank ke daure aam taur par bina chetaavani ke aate hain aur yadyapi aam taur par dar tarkaheen hai, parantu khatre ki dhaarana bahut vaastavik hai. ek vyakti jo aatank ke daure ka anubhav kar raha ho, aksar aisa mahsoos karta hai jaise vah marne ya gujranevaala/gujranevaali hai.

chinta keval bhautik prabhaav hi naheen rakhati balki ismein kai bhaavanaatmak prabhaav bhi shaamil hain karti hai. ismein “aaashanka ya bhaya ki bhaavanaaon, dhyaan keindrit karne mein kathinaai, tanaav ya uchhaal ki bhaavana, nikrushttam ka anumaan, chidchidaapan, bechaini, khatre ya ghatna ke sanketon (aur ghatit hone) ko dekhna (aur intajaar karna) shaamil hain aur mahasoos karna jaise ki tumhaara mastishk shoonya ho gaya ho”[6] aur saath hi saath ”adusvapn/ bure sapane, uttejana ke baare mein duraagrah, mastishk ki bhaavanaaon in ek fanda, deja-voo (Deja Vu) aur bhaavana ki sab kuchh daraavana lag raha hai."[7]

chinta ke sanjnyaaanaatmak prabhaav mein, aashankit khataron ke vichaar, jaise mrutyu ka dar bhi shaamil ho sakta hai. "tum dar sakte ho ki seene mein dard [chinta ke shaareerik lakshan hain] ghaatak dil ka daura hai ya sir mein shooting dard [chinta ka ek aur shaareerik lakshan] tyoomar ya dhamaneevisfaar ka parinaam hain. aap gahan bhaya ka bhaav anubhav karte hain jab aap marne ki sonchate hain ya aap is ke vishay mein saamaanya.se aksar adhik sonchate hain ya ise apne mastishk se baahar naheen kar sakte hain."[8]

jaivik aadhaar

chinta ka vichaar pramastishkakhand aur hippokaimpas mein shaamil tantrika kirkuitrya ke neeche kaayam hai.[9] jab apriya aur sambhaavit haanikaarak uddeepan (stimuli) jaise ki dooshit odors ya svaad ke saath saamana kiya hai, peeiti scan-sho pramastishkakhand mein bladaflo (rakt pravaah) mein vruddhi dikhaate hain.[10][11] in adhyayanon mein, pratibhaagiyon ne bhi udaaravaadi chinta ki soochana di. yah sanket ho sakta hai ki chinta, sambhaavit haanikaarak vyavahaaron mein jeev ko ulajhaane se rokane ke liye dijaain ek surakshaatmak mein tantr hai.

kishor, jab ve shishu the, atyaadhik aashankit, satark aur dare hue the parantu anusandhaan ne paaya ki jab unhein ek kaarya karne ke liye chuna gaya jisse ye tay hua ki kya unhone koi inaam praapt kiya hai to doosare logon ke mukaabale unke naabhikeeya aikambeins (accumbens) adhik samvedansheel paaye gaye.[12] yeh utsuk logon mein sarkit ke beech ek kadi ka sujhaav deta hai jo is dar aur inaam ke liye bhi jimmedaar hai. shodhakartaaon ke not mein svabhaav ki drushti se asankochi (Noninhibited) kishoron ki tulana mein sankochi (inhibited) kishoron mein anishchitta (sanbhaavya parinaam) ke sandarbh mein “'jimmedaari' ka ehsaas ya aatm agency epetetiv (appetitive) prerana (arthaat naabhikeeya accumbens) mein antarnihit tantrika pranaali ko adhik jordaar roop chalaate hain."[12]

haalaanki ekal jeen jatil lakshan par thoda hi prabhaav rakhate hain aur khud aapas mein tatha baahya kaarakon donon ke saath atyaadhik pratikriya dete hain chinta mein antarnihit sambhaavya aanavik tantr aur komorbid paristhitiyon ko spasht karne ke liye anusandhaan chal raha hai. PLXNA2, bahuroopata ke saath ek ummeedavaar jeen hai, jo chinta ko prabhaavit karta hai.[13]

naidaanik paimaane (kleenikl skels)

HAM-A (ek haimiltan chinta skel)[14], 14 maapadandon par aadhaarit, ek vyaapak roop se prayog kiya jaanevaala saakshaatkaar paimaana hai jo ek mareej ki chinta ki gambheerta ko maapane ke liye, ismein utsuk mood, tanaav, bhaya, anidra, shaareerik shikaayatein aur saakshaatkaar ke samay vyavahaar shaamil hai.

kismein (prakaar)

chinta, ek chikitsa lakshan ya shart ke roop mein

chinta, ek antarnihit svaasth ke mudde jaise ki fefade ka kronik avarodhak rog (seeopeedi), dil ki vifalta ya dil ke layaheen (arryathmiya) ka lakshan ho sakta hai.[15] asaamaanya aur paithalauji sambandhi chinta ya bhaya svanya mein hi ek chikitsa dasha ho sakti hai jiske antargat dushchinta vikaaraki shabdaavali mein sab dhak jaaye. aisi sthiti 19 veen shataabdi[16] ke ant mein manorog ke tahat aayi aur vartamaan manorog naidaanik maanadand ke vikaaron ke anek vishisht roopon ki pehchaan ban gayi. haal ke sarvekshan ne paaya hai ki se kam 18% amereeki unamein se ek ya adhik se prabhaavit ho sakta hain.[17]

astitv ki chinta

daarshanik, soren kiyerkegaard ne chinta ki sankalpana mein chinta ya bhaya ko svatantrata ki bhraamakta se joda aur jimmedaari ke prati swayam sajag abhyaas va chunaav dvaara chinta ke sakaaraatmak samaadhaan ki sambhaavana par sujhaav diya. manovaigyaanik otto raink ne kala aur kalaakaar (1932), mein likha hai ki janm ke manovaigyaanik aaghaat astitv ki chinta ke prakhyaat maanaveeya prateek the aur rachanaatmak vyakti ke judaai, akelepan (individuation) aur bhedabhaav ke samaannatar dar -aur ichha -ko ghere rahate hain.

thealojiyn paul teeleech ne astitv ki chinta ki visheshata ka varnan [29] is prakaar kiya “aek aisi dasha jismein astitv, sambhaavit astitvaheenata (nonbeing) ke baare mein jaagruk rahata hai” aur unhone astitvaheenata (nonbeing) ko teen shreniyon mein soocheebaddh kiya: ontik (ontic) (bhaagya aur maut), naitik (aparaadh aur ninda) aur aadhyaatmik (khaaleepan aur arthaheenata). teeleech ke anusaar, in teen prakaar ke astitv chinta mein se aakhiri, yaani aadhyaatmik chinta, aadhunik samay mein pramukh hai, jabki anya pehle ke samay mein pramukh theen. teeleech ka tark hai ki is chinta ko maanav ki sthiti ke bhaag ke roop mein sveekaar kiya ja sakta hai ya iska virodh kiya ja sakta hai lekin nakaaraatmak parinaamon ke saath. aadhyaatmik chinta apni rogaatmak sthiti mein "vyakti ko arthapoorn system mein nishchitta ka nirmaan karne ki disha mein agrasar kar sakti hain jo parampara aur adhikaar dvaara.samarthit hain" haalaanki yeh “aasandigdh nishchitta vaastavikta ki chattaan par naheen banaayi gayi hai."

arth ke liye main ki khoj ke lekhak Victor frainkal ke anusaar, jab sabse nashvar khataron ka saamana karna pada tab sabhi maanavon mein buniyaadi ichha, astitvaheen (nonbeing) hone ke aaghaat se mukaabala karne ke liye jeevan ka arth khojana hai jabki maut ati nikat hai.

pareekshan aur pradarshan ki chinta

yaarkes-dodasan niyam ke anusaar ek kaarya ko sarvashreshth roop mein poora karne ke liye uttejana ka ek ishtatam star, aavashyak hai jaise ki ek pareeksha, pradarshan ya pratispardhi ghatna.. haalaanki, jab chinta ya uttejana ke star ishtatam se adhik hota hai, tab parinaam pradarshan mein giraavat hota hai.

asafalata se dare hue chhaatron mein mahasoos ki jaane waali bechaini, aashanka, ya ghabaraahat, pareeksha ki chinta hai. chhaatr jinhein pareekshan chinta hai nimn mein se kuchh bhi anubhav kar sakte hain vyaktigat moolya ka gred ke saath judna, shikshak dvaara pareshaan kiye jaane ka bhaya, maata –pita ya mitron se alagaav ka bhaya samay ka dabaav ya niyntran khone ka bhaav. paseena, chakkar aana, sir dard, resing dil ki dhadkan, matali, vyagr hona aur ek desk bajaana sab saamaanya hain. kyonki pareekshan chinta nakaaraatmak moolyaankan ke dar par tiki hoti hai, bahas maujood hai ki kya pareekshan chinta apne aap mein ek anootha dushchinta vikaar ya kya yeh saamaajik bhaya ki ek vishisht prakaar hai.

jabki shabd "pareekshan chinta" vishesh roop se chhaatron ke sambandh mein sandarbhit hai, kai kaaryakarta usi anubhav ko apne kairiyr ya vyavasaaya mein samaan roop se mahsoos karte hain. ek kaarya ke asafal rahane ka bhaya aur us ke liye nakaaraatmak moolyaankan kiya jaana vayask par bhi ek isi tarah nakaaraatmak prabhaav daal sakta hai.

ajnabi aur saamaajik chinta

jab agyaat logon ke saath milte ya baatcheet karte samay chinta yuva logon mein vikaas ki ek aam avastha hai. doosaron mein, yeh vayaskata tak bani rahti hai aur saamaajik chinta ya saamaajik bhaya ban jaati hai. chhote bachchon mein " ajnabi chinta" ek dar naheen hai. balki, yeh ladkhada ke chalne vaalon (toddlers) aur poorvaskooli bachchon ka, unase jo maata-pita ya parivaar ke sadasya naheen hain, ek unnatasheel (developmentally) upayukt dar hai. vayaskon mein, anya logon se atyadhik dar ek saamaany unnatasheel (developmentally) avastha naheen hai yeh ek saamaajik chinta kahalaati hai.

lakshan chinta (tret chinta)

chinta ya to ek chhoti avadhi ki 'dasha' ya ek lambi avadhi ke "lakshan" ho sakti hai. dhamaki ki pratyaasha mein chinta ki avastha ka pratyuttar dene ke liye lakshan chinta sthir pravruttiyon ko paraavartit karti hain. [33] yeh nayorotosism (neuroticism) ke lakshan vaale vyaktitv se niktata se sambandhit hai.

pasand ya nirnaya chinta

logon aur sangathanon ke liye samaan vikalpon ke beech chayan ki aavashyakta dvaara utpann chinta teji se pahachaani ja rahi hai. [35] [36]

"aaj ham sab apne vikalpon par vichaar ya sahi salaah karne ke liye adhik vikalp, adhik pratiyogita aur samay ki kami ka saamana kar rahe hain"[37]

asatyavat chinta

atirikt soochanaarth: dhyaan ke vipreet prabhaav

asatyavat chinta tareekon ya takaneek se utapann chinta hai jo saamaanya roop se chinta ko kam karne ke liye prayog ki jaati hain. ismein vishraam ya dhyaan ki takaneek bhi shaamil hai.[40] iske saath saath kuchh nishchit davaayein bhi upayog ki jaati hain.[42] kuchh bauddh dhyaan saahitya mein is prakaar varnit hai ki kuchh hai jo svaabhaavik roop se uthata hai aur use bhaavanaaon ki prakruti ka poorn gyaan praapt karne tatha aatma ki prakruti ko aur adhik gaharaai se jaanane ke liye, saavadhaani se vistaarit kar, mod dena chahiye, haalaanki lekhan ke dhaarmik sandarbh ke kaaran yeh prabhaav vahaaain chinta ke roop mein sandarbhit naheen kiya gaya hai. [44]

sakaaraatmak manovijnyaaan mein chinta

sakaaraatmak manovijnyaaan mein, chinta ko ek aisi mushkil chunauti ke liye javaabi kaarravaai ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai, jiska saamana karne ke liye vyakti aparyaapt kaushal rakhata hai.[46]

sambhaavit kaaranon

Boston vishvavidyaalaya ke manovijnyaaani Barlow David H.ne ek adhyayan. aayojit kiya jisne deerghakaalik chinta se grasit logon mein teen saamaanya visheshataaon ko dikhaaya, jinki visheshata unhone "ek saamaanyakrut jaivik bhedyata", "ek saamaanyakrut manovaigyaanik bhedyata" aur "ek vishisht manovaigyaanik bhedyata" ke roop mein bataayi.[48] jab mastishk me rasaayan utpann hote hain jo chinta parinaamit karte hain (vishesh roop se jeen se utpann) achhi tarah se pralekhit hain, yeh adhyayan ek atirikt paryaavaraneeya kaarak jo aise maata pita dvaara utpann kiya jaata hai jo svanya deerghakaalik chinta se peedit hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kaitestrofijeshan (atastrofijtion)
  • aatank ka daura
  • maanasik unmaad
  • saamaajik chinta
  • chinta jaal

sandarbh

  1. Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Thames & Hudson, 1995. pp.168-169.
  2. seligmain, em.i.pi., vaukar, i.ऍf. evam rosanahan, di.L). asaamaanya manovijnyaaan, {4 Ed.) New York: dabloo. dabloo. nortan end company, ink.
  3. ohamain, A. (2000). bhaya aur chinta: vikaasavaadi, sanjnyaaanaatmak aur naidaanik drushtikon. M. luis aur J. M. haveelaind-jons (eds.). bhaavanaaon ki hastapustika. (peepi.573-593). New York: the gildaford press.
  4. Barlow, David H. (November 2002). "Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory". American Psychologist: 1247–63. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/55/11/1247.pdf.
  5. raashtreeya sansthaan maanasik svaasthya 3 September 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  6. smith, melinda (2008, June). chinta ke hamle aur vikaar: chinhon, lakshanon aur upachaar ke vikalpon ke liye guide karte hain. helpagaaid website par 3 March 2009 ko pun:praapt: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/anxiety_types_symptoms_treatment.htm>
  7. (1987-2008). chinta lakshan, chinta ke hamle ka lakshan (aatank hamla lakshan) chinta ke lakshan. chinta saintar website se 3 March 2009 ko liya gaya: http://www.anxietycentre.com/anxiety-symptoms.shtml
  8. (1987-2008). chinta lakshan - marne ka dar. chinta saintar website se 3 March 2009 ko pun:praapt: http://www.anxietycentre.com/anxiety-symptoms/fear-of-dying.shtml
  9. Rosen JB, Schulkin J (1998). "From normal fear to pathological anxiety". Psychol Rev 105 (2): 325–50. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.325. PMID 9577241.
  10. Zald, D.H.; Pardo, JV (1997). "Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation". Proc Nat'l Acad Sci (USA) 94 (8): 4119–24. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.8.4119. PMC 20578. PMID 9108115.
  11. Zald, D.H.; Hagen, M.C.; & Pardo, J.V (1 fravari 2002). "Neural correlates of tasting concentrated quinine and sugar solutions". J. Neurophysiol 87 (2): 1068–75. PMID 11826070. http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/87/2/1068.
  12. a aa baar-haim vaai, fauks enae, bensan bi, gaayar ei, Williams A, nelsan ii, peres-edagar ke, paain DS, arnast M. (2009). sankochi svabhaav ka ek itihaas rakhane vaale kishoron mein tantrika inaam prasanskaran ke saath sambaddh ho jaati hai. saaikol vigyaan. 20(8):1009-18. PMID 19594857
  13. Wray NR, James MR, Mah SP, Nelson M, Andrews G, Sullivan PF, Montgomery GW, Birley AJ, Braun A, Martin NG (March 2007). "Anxiety and comorbid measures associated with PLXNA2". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64 (3): 318–26. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.3.318. PMID 17339520. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17339520.
  14. manashchikitseeya times. naidaanik upayogi manorog skel: haim-A (haimiltan chinta skel). 6 March 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  15. NPS abhyaasaki sameeksha 48: chinta vikaar (2009) http://www.nps.org.au/health_professionals/publications/prescribing_practice_review/current/prescribing_practice_review_48 par upalabdh
  16. Berrios GE (1999). "Anxiety Disorders: a conceptual history". J Affect Disord 56 (2-3): 83–94. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00036-1. PMID 10701465.
  17. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (June 2005). "Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62 (6): 617–27. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. PMC 2847357. PMID 15939839. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/62/6/617.

HJHLLL;N

baahari links

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
anxiety ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
Spoken Wikipedia
This is an audio file which was created from an article revision dated [[June 27, 2006 (2006-06-27)]], and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
ye ek aavaaj-lekh hai, jo is lekh ka [[June 27, 2006 (2006-06-27)]] dinaank ko bana aavaaj pratiroop hai . ise aap sun sakte hain .