chinpainji

chinpainji[1]
आम चिंपैंजी (पैन ट्रोग्लोडाइट्स)
aam chinpainji (pain troglodaaits)
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: Animalia
sangh: Chordata
varg: Mammalia
gan: Primates
kul: Hominidae
upakul: Homininae
traaib: Hominini
sabataaaib: Panina
prajaati: pain
Oken, 1816
prakaar jaati
pain troglodaaits (aam chinpainji)

pain painiskas (bonobo)

पैन ट्रोग्लोडाइट्स (आम चिंपैंजी) और  पैन पैनिस्कस (लाल बोनोबो) का वितरण
pain troglodaaits (aam chinpainji) aur pain painiskas (laal bonobo) ka vitran
Species

pain troglodaaits
pain painiskas

chinpainji jise aam bolachaal ki bhaasha mein kabhi-kabhi chimp bhi kaha jaata hai, pain jeenas (vansh) ke vaanaron (ep) ki do vartamaan prajaatiyon ka saamaanya naam hai. kaango nadi donon prajaatiyon ke mool nivaas sthaan ke beech seema ka kaam karti hai:[2]

chinpainji; gorilla, maanav aur oraangautaan ke saath hominide parivaar ke sadasya hain. eps prajaati ke jeevon ko saadhaaran bhaasha mein chimpaanji kehte hain. sabse jaana maana chimpaanji pain trodalodaaitas (Pan troglodytes) hai, jo mukhyat: pashchimi tatha madhya afrika me paaya jaata hai. chimpaanji homeeneeda parivaar ka sadasya hai. manushya tatha gorilla bhi isi parivaar ke hain. chimpaanji lagbhag saath lakh varsh pehle maanav vikaas ki prakriya se alag ho gaye the aur chimpaanji ki do prajaatiyaaain manushya ki sabse kareebi jeevit sambandhi hain, ye sabhi homini janajaati (hominiya up-janajaati ki vartamaan prajaatiyon ke saath) ke sadasya hain. chimpaanji painina up-janajaati ke ekamaatr gyaat sadasya bhi hain. in do pain prajaatiyon ka vibhaajan keval das lakh (1 million) varsh pehle hi hua tha.

anukram

vikaasavaadi itihaas

vikaasavaadi sambandh

hominoide ke teksonomik sambandh

pain jeenas ko hominini up-parivaar ka hissa maana jaata hai jisse manushyon ka sambandh hai. ye do prajaatiyaaain manushyon ki sabse kareebi jeevit vikaasavaadi sambandhi hain tatha saath lakh (chh: million) varsh pehle manushyon aur inke poorvaj ek hi the.[3] 1973 mein mairi-kleyar King ki shodh mein manushyon aur chimpaanjiyon ke beech 99% ek saamaan DNA paae gaye,[4] haalaanki gair-koding DNA mein kuchh bhinnata ke kaaran uske baad ki shodh mein is aankade ko badalkar lagbhag 94%[5] kar diya gaya. yeh prastaav kiya gaya hai troglodaaits aur painiskas ka sambandh sepiyans ke saath jeenas pain ki bajaay homo se hai. iske liye diye gaye tarkon mein se ek yeh hai ki anya prajaatiyon ko manushyon aur chimpaanjiyon ke beech ki tulana mein kam aanuvanshik samaanata ke aadhaar par ek hi jeenas mein rakhane ke liye pun: vargeekrut kiya gaya hai.

jeevaashm

maanav jeevaashm kaafi maatra mein paae gaye hain lekin chimpaanji ke jeevaashmon ke baare mein 2005 tak koi varnan maujood naheen tha. pashchim aur madhya Africa mein chimpaanji ki maujooda aabaadi poorvi Africa mein pramukh maanav jeevaashm sthalon se mel naheen khaati hain. haalaanki ab chimpaanji ke jeevaashmon ke baare mein kenya se jaankaari praapt hui hai. isse yeh sanket milta hai ki manushya aur pain kled ke sadasya, donon madhya plestoseen kaal ke dauraan poorvi afreeki rift valley mein maujood the.[6]

shaareerik rachana aur shareer vigyaan (enaatomi aur feejiyolauji)

aam nar chimp ki ooainchaai khade hone par 1.7 meter (5.6 fut) tak hoti hai aur iska vajan adhik se adhik 70 kilogram (150 paaund) hota hai; maada chimpaanji kuchh chhoti hoti hai. aam chimp ke lambe haath failaae jaane par shareer ki ooainchaai se adhik se adhik dedh guna adhik hote hain aur chimpaanji ke haath iske pairon se lambe hote hain.[7] bonobo aam chimpaanji ki tulana mein thoda chhota aur durbal hota hai lekin iske haath-pair lambe hote hain. donon prajaatiyaaain apne lambe, shaktishaali haathon ka istemaal pedon par chadhne ke liye karti hain. jameen par chimpaanji aam taur par apne sabhi chaaron haath-pairon par apni uaingaliyon ki gaanthon (nakkals) ka istemaal karte hue chalte hain aur sahaare ke liye haathon ko bheech kar rakhate hain, chalne-firne ka yeh tareeka nakkal-vaaking kahalaata hai. chimpaanji ke pair oraangautaan ki tulana mein chalne-firne ke liye kaheen adhik anukool hote hain kyonki chimpaanji ke talave apekshaakrut chaude aur angoothe chhote hote hain. aam chinpaanji aur bonobo donon apne haathon aur baajuon se kisi cheej ko uthaakar le jaate samay do pairon par seedhe khade hokar chal sakte hain. bonobo ke haath aanupaatik roop se adhik lambe hote hain aur ye aam chimpaanji ki tulana mein aksar seedhe khade hokar chalana pasand karte hain. iski khaal kaali hoti hai; chehare, uaingaliyon, haath ki hatheliyaaain aur pair ke talave baalarahit hote hain; aur chimp ke paas pooainchh naheen hoti hai. donon prajaatiyon mein chehare, haathon aur pairon ki baahari tvacha gulaabi se lekar bahut gahre rang ki hoti hai lekin yuva chimpaanjiyon mein aam taur par yeh rang apekshaakrut halka hota hai, paripakva (vayask) hone par iska rang gahra hone lagta hai. Chicago medical center vishvavidyaalaya ke ek adhyayan mein chimpaanji ki aabaadiyon ke beech kaafi aanuvanshik bhinnataaen paayi gayi hain.[8] aaainkhon ke oopar ek haddi ka shelf maathe ko ek dhalavaan svaroop deta hai aur naak chaudi hoti hai. haalaanki jabade baahar nikle hue hote hain, hoth keval tabhi failaae jaate hain jab koi chimp muainh fulaane (kheejhane) ki mudra mein hota hai. chimpaanji ka mastishk manushya ke mastishk ke aadhe aakaar ka hota hai.[9]

chimpaanji ke andakosh uske shareer ke aakaar ke hisaab se asaamaanya taur par bade hote hain jinka sanyukt vajan ek gorilla ke andakosh 1 auns (28 gra) ya ek maanav andakosh 1.5 auns (43 gra) ki tulana mein lagbhag 4 auns (110 gra) hota hai. iske liye aam taur par chimpaanji ke sanbhog sambandhi aacharan ki bahupateetv (poleeendras) prakruti ke kaaran hone waali shukraanu ki pratispardha jimmedaar hai.[10] chimpaanji 8 se 10 varsh ke beech ki aayu mein yauvanaavastha tak pahuainch jaate hain aur jangalon mein shaayad hi kabhi 40 saal ki umr se adhik jeevit rahate hain lekin kaid mein iske 60 varsh se adhik ki umr tak pahuainchane ke baare mein gyaat hai.

vyavahaar

bonobo

aam chimpaanji aur bonobo ke beech shaareerik rachana mein maamooli antar hota hai lekin inke yaun sambandhi aur saamaajik vyavahaar mein kaafi bhinnataaen hoti hain. aam chimpaanji ka ek sarvabhakshi aahaar hota hai, ye beeta naron par ek alfa nar ke netrutv ke aadhaar par tukadi banaakar shikaar karne ki sanskruti ka anusaran karte hain aur inke saamaajik sambandh atyant jatil hote hain. doosari aur bonobo ka aahaar jyaadaatar falaahaari (froojeevoras) hota hai aur inka aacharan samataavaadi, ahinsak, maatrusattaatmak aur yaun sambandhon ke liye grahanasheel hota hai.[11] bonobo lagaataar yaun sambandh banaane ke liye prasiddh hain jismein naron aur maadaaon donon ke liye tareeka ubhayalingi hota hai, iske alaava ye yaun sambandhon ka istemaal vivaadon ko rokane aur sulajhaane mein madad ke liye bhi karte hain. upakaranon ke prakaar ki praathamikta ke anusaar vibhinn samoohon ke chimpaanjiyon ke saanskrutik aacharan bhi alag-alag hote hain.[12] aam chimpaanji bonobo ki apeksha adhik aakraamak hote hain.[13]

saamaajik sanrachana

chimpaanji, anek nar aur maada vaale saamaajik samoohon mein rahate hain jinhein samudaaya kaha jaata hai. samudaaya ke bheetar ek nishchit saamaajik padaanukram hota hai jo ek sadasya ki saamaajik sthiti aur doosaron par uske prabhaav se nirdhaarit hota hai. chimpaanji ek nimn (leenar) padaanukram mein rahate hain jismein ek se adhik sadasya itne prabhaavi ho sakte hain ki ve kam raink vaale anya sadasyon par apna dabadaba kaayam kar sakein. aam taur par ismein ek prabhaavashaali nar sadasya hota hai jise alfa mel ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. alfa mel sarvochch-ranking wala nar sadasya hota hai jo samooh par niyantran rakhata hai aur kisi bhi vivaad ke dauraan vyavastha ko banaae rakhata hai. chimpaanji samaaj mein 'pramukh nar' hamesha sabse bada ya sabse taakatavar nar naheen hota hai balki yeh sadasya sabse adhik jod-tod karne wala aur raajaneetik nar hota hai jo ek samooh ke bheetar chal rahi gatividhiyon ko prabhaavit kar sake. nar chimpaanji aam taur par apna varchasv aise mitr banaakar haasil karta hai jo shakti ke liye us sadasya ki bhavishya ki mahatvaakaankshaaon ke maamale mein sahaayata pradaan karega. taakat dikhaane aur doosaron se maanyata praapt karne ki koshish ka pradarshan karna ek nar chimpaanji ke charitra mein hota hai jo apni saamaajik sthiti ko kaayam rakhane ke liye buniyaadi taur par jaroori ho sakta hai. alfa nar apni shakti par pakad aur adhikaar ko banaae rakhane ke prayaas mein anya sadasyon ko dhamakaane ke liye apne aakaar ko bada aur daraavana dikhaane aur jitna adhik sambhav ho apni shakti ka pradarshan karne ke liye aksar apni saamaanya roop se patali khaalon ko fula kar mota kar lete hain. nichli-shreni ke chimpaanji shaareerik bhaasha mein aajnyaaakaari haav-bhaav banaakar ya ghuraghuraate hue apne haath ko baahar nikaalkar sammaan ka pradarshan karte hain. maada chimpaanji apne putthon (haaind-kvaartars) ko pesh kar alfa nar ke prati apni adheenata ka pradarshan karti hain.

maada chimpaanji bhi ek padaanukram rakhati hain jo kisi samooh ke bheetar ek maada ki vyaktigat sthiti se prabhaavit hota hai. kuchh chimpaanji samudaayon mein yuva maadaaen ek uchch-shreni ki maaain se viraasat ke taur par apni uchch saamaajik sthiti haasil kar sakti hai. maadaaen bhi nichle-kram ki maadaaon par apna varchasv kaayam karne ke liye nae mitr banaati hain. naron ke vipreet jinka varchasv ka darja haasil karne ka mukhya prayojan yaun sambandhon mein visheshaadhikaar praapt karna aur kabhi-kabhi apne adheenasthon par hinsak prabhaav dikhaana hota hai, maadaaen bhojan jaise sansaadhanon ko praapt karne ke liye varchasv ka darja haasil karti hain. uchch-shreni ki maadaaon ko aksar sansaadhanon tak pehli pahuainch haasil hoti hai. aam taur par nar aur maadaaen donon ek samooh ke bheetar saamaajik sthiti mein sudhaar ke liye prabhaavashaali darja haasil karte hain.

aksar maadaaen hi alfa nar ka chayan karti hain. ek nar chimpaanji ko alfa ka darja haasil karne ke liye samooh ke bheetar maadaaon se sveekruti praapt karna anivaarya hota hai kyonki vaastav mein ve hi ye tay karti hain ki kis tarah ki jeevanashaili nirdhaarit ki jaae (maadaaen hi agali peedhi ki aajeevika sunishchit karti hain; unhein yeh sunishchit karna hota hai ki unka samooh un sthaanon mein ja raha hai jahaaain unhein paryaapt maatra mein bhojan ki aapoorti hogi). kai aise maamale hain jahaaain prabhaavashaali maadaaon ka ek samooh apni praathamikta ke anuroop na hone ke kaaran alfa nar ko bedakhal kar deta hai aur iske bajaay ve doosare nar ka samarthan karti hain jiske paas unhein ek safal alfa nar ke roop mein samooh ka netrutv karne ki kshamata dikhaai deti hai.

buddhimtta

mastishk ka chitr. chimpaanji ke motor fild mein fosaai ke mukhya samoohon ki topograafi (sthalaakruti)

chimpaanji apne upakaran banaate hain aur unka upayog bhojan-saamagriyon ko jutaane aur saamaajik pradarshan ke liye karte hain; unke paas shikaar karne ki aadhunik rananeetiyaan hoti hain jiske liye samanvaya, prabhaav aur raink ki jaroorat hoti hai; ve apne status ke liye samvedansheel, jod-tod karne vaale aur chhal-kapat ke liye yogya hote hain; ve sanketon ka istemaal karna seekh sakte hain aur insaani bhaasha ke pahaluon ko samajh sakte hain jinmein shaamil hain kuchh sanbandhaparak vaakya vinyaas, sankhya aur sankhyaatmak anukram ki avadhaaranaaen;[14] aur ve bhavishya ki sthiti ya ghatna ke liye tatkaal yojana taiyaar karne mein saksham hote hain.[15]

upakaran ka upayog

October 1960 mein jen gudaol dvaara chimpaanjiyon ke beech upakaranon ke istemaal ki khoj ko sabse mahatvapoorn khojon mein se ek maana gaya hai. haal ke shodh se yeh sanket milta hai ki chimpaanji dvaara patthar ke upakaran ka istemaal kam se kam 4,300 saal pehle shuroo kiya gaya tha.[16] chimpaanji ke upakaran sambandhi upayog mein ek bade chhadeenuma upakaran se deemak ke dher ki khudaai aur uske baad ek chhoti roopaantarit chhadi ka upayog kar deemakon ko "baahar" nikaalna shaamil hai.[17] haal ke ek adhyayan se bhaale jaise unnat aujaaron ka pata chala hai jise senegal ke aam chimpaanji apni daanton se paina karte the aur usaka istemaal senegal ki bushabebeej ko pedon ke chhote-chhote chhidron se baahar nikaalne mein karte the.[18][19] chimpaanjiyon mein aujaaron ke istemaal ki khoj se pehle yeh maana jaata tha ki manushya hi ekamaatr aisi prajaati thi jo aujaar banaana aur usaka istemaal karna jaanti thi, lekin aujaar ka istemaal karne waali kai anya prajaatiyon ke baare mein ab gyaat ho chuka hai.[20][21]

samaanubhooti

chimpaanji ki maaain aur bachche

haal ke adhyayanon se pata chala hai ki chimpaanji samoohon ke bheetar jaahir taur par paropakaari vyavahaar mein sanlagn hote hain,[22][23] lekin ye asanbandhit samooh ke sadasyon ki bhalaai ke prati udaaseen rahate hain.[24]

"chimpaanji ke adhyaatm" ke saakshyon mein shaamil hain shok ka pradarshan, "praarambhik romantic pyaar", "varsha nrutya", praakrutik saundarya ki saraahana jaise ki kisi jheel ke oopar sooryaast ka drushya, vanyajeev ke prati jijnyaaasa aur aadar bhaav (jaise ki ajagar, jo chimpaanjiyon ke liye na to koi khatra hai aur na hi bhojan ka srot), anya prajaatiyon ke prati samaanubhooti (jaise ki kachhuon ko khilaana) aur yahaaain tak ki bachchon ko khilaate samay "enimijm (naatak)" ka pradarshan.[25]

samvaad

chimpaanji manushya ke gair-shaabdik samvaad ki tarah svaron ke uchchaaran, haath ke ishaaron aur chehare ke haav-bhaav ke prayog se aapas mein samvaad karte hain. chimpaanji ke mastishk par kiye gaye shodh mein yeh pata chala hai ki chimp ka samvaad unke mastishk ke ek kshetr ko sakriya karta hai jo usi sthaan par maujood hai jahaan maanav mastishk mein bhaasha ka kendra, broka ka kshetr maujood hota hai.[26]

bhaasha ke adhyayan

chimpaanji ka side profaail

vaigyaanik lambe samay se bhaasha ke adhyayan ke prati is vishvaas ke saath aakarshit hote hain ki yeh ek adviteeya maanav sanjnyaaanaatmak kshamata hai. is parikalpana ka pareekshan karne ke liye vaigyaaniko ne vishaalakaaya vaanaron ki kai prajaatiyon ko maanaveeya bhaasha sikhaane ka prayaas kiya hai. 1960 ke dashak mein elan aur beetris gaardanar dvaara ki gayi ek shuruaati koshish mein vaashoo naamak ek chimpaanji ko ameriki saanketik bhaasha sikhaane ke liye 51 maheene ka samay bitaana shaamil tha. gaardanar ne bataaya ki vaashoo ne 151 sanketon ko seekh liya tha aur yeh ki usane tatkaal inhein anya chimpaanjiyon ko sikha diya tha.[27] ek lambi avadhi ke baad vaashoo ne 800 se adhik sanketon ko seekh liya tha.[28]

kuchh vaigyaaniko, visheshakar nom chomaski aur David primaik ke beech gair-maanav vishaalakaaya vaanaron ki bhaasha seekhane ki kshamata ke baare mein lagaataar bahas chal rahi hai. vaashoo par shuruaati report ke baad kai anya adhyayanon ko vibhinn staron ki safalta praapt hui hai,[29] jismein Columbia vishvavidyaalaya ke harbart teres dvaara prashikshit pairodi ke roop mein rakhe gaye nim chimpski naam ke ek chimpaanji par kiya gaya adhyayan shaamil hai. haalaanki unke praarambhik report kaafi sakaaraatmak the, November 1979 mein teres aur unki team ne nim ke veediyotepon ka uske prashikshakon ke saath pun: moolyaankan kiya jismein unhonne sanketon aur sahi sandarbh (nim ke sanketon ke pehle aur uske baad donon hi sthitiyon mein kya ho raha tha) moolyaankan donon se pehle aur neem ke sanket ke baad) ke liye frem dar frem iska vishleshan kiya. fir se vishleshan mein teres ne yeh nishkarsh nikaala ki nim ke javaabon ki vyaakhya keval prayogakartaaon ki or se protsaahan aur aankadon ki jaankaari dene mein trutiyon ke roop mein ki ja sakti hai. unhonne kaha, "vaanaron ka adhikaansh vyavahaar, abhyaas maatr hota hai." "bhaasha abhi bhi maanav prajaati ki ek mahatvapoorn paribhaasha ke roop mein maujood hai." is vipreet pratikriya mein teres ab yeh tark dete hain ki nim dvaara eesael ka istemaal ek maanaveeya bhaasha ko apanaana naheen tha. nim ne kabhi swayam baatcheet ki shuruaat naheen ki, naye shabdon ka istemaal shaayad hi kabhi kiya aur logon ne jo kiya usane sirf usaki nakal ki. nim ke vaakya insaani bachchon ke vipreet jyaada lambe naheen hote the jinki shabdaavali aur vaakya ki lanbaai ek majaboot aapasi sambandh ko pradarshit karte hain.[30]

smaran shakti

kyoto vishvavidyaalaya ke praaimet research instityoot mein 30-saal tak kiye gaye ek adhyayan ne yeh dikhaaya ki chimpaanji 1 se 9 tak ki sankhyaaon aur unke maanon ki pehchaan karna seekhane mein saksham hain. isse aage chimpaanji ne fotograaf sambandhi smaran shakti ke prati ek rujhaan dikhaaya, jise prayogon mein dikhaaya gaya tha jismein 1 se 9 tak ki sanyukt sankhyaaon ko ek computer screen par ek second ke chauthaai hisse se bhi kam samay tak flaish kiya gaya tha jiske baad chimp, ayoomoo aarohi kram mein dikhaaye gaye sthaanon ko sahi tareeke se aur turant bataane mein safl raha tha. yahi prayog vishv smaran shakti champion ben pridmor dvaara kai koshishon ke baavajood asafl raha tha.[31]

vaanaron mein hainsi

Young chimpanzees
khelta hua yuva chimpaanji

hainsi manushyon ki tarah seemit ya vishisht naheen ho sakti hai. chimpaanji aur manushya ki hainsi mein bhinnataaen un roopaantaranon ka parinaam ho sakti hain jo insaani boli ke roop mein viksit hua hai. darpan pareekshan mein dekhe gaye ke anusaar kisi ki sthiti ke baare mein aatm-jaagrukta ya doosare ki avastha ke saath usaki pehchaan karne ki kshamata (dekhein mirror nyurons), hainsi ke liye aavashyak shartein hain, iseeliye sanbhavat: jaanvaron ke hainsane ka tareeka bhi manushyon ke samaan hi hota hai.

chimpaanji, gorilla aur oraangautaan shaareerik sampark jaise ki kushti, peechha karne ke khel ya gudagudi ke javaab mein hainsi ki tarah ke svarochchaaran ka pradarshan kar sakte hain. yeh jangali aur kaid mein rakhe gaye chimpaanjiyon ke maamale mein pralekhit hai. aam chimpaanji ki hainsi ko manushyon dvaara aasaani se naheen pahachaana ja sakta hai kyonki yeh saaains lene aur chhodne ki vaikalpik kriyaaon se utpann hoti hai jiski aavaaj kaafi had tak saaains lene ya haaainfane jaisi hoti hai. kai aise udaaharan hain jinmein gair-maanav prajaatiyon ko khushi jaahir karte dikhaaya gaya hai. ek adhyayan mein maanav shishu aur bonoboj ke gudagudi karne par nikaale gaye aavaajon ka vishleshan kiya gaya aur inhein rikaard kiya gaya hai. aisa dekha gaya hai ki haalaanki bonobo ki hainsi uchch aavrutti ki thi, is hainsi mein maanav shishuon ke samaan hainsi ke tareeke ka anusaran kiya gaya tha aur ismein chehare ke bhaav bhi usi tarah ke the. manushya aur chimpaanji ke shareer mein ek jaisi jagahon par gudagudi hoti hai jaise ki kaaainkh aur pet. chimpaanjiyon mein gudagudi ka aanand umr ke saath kam naheen hota hai.[32]

inhein bhi dekhein: Laughter in animals

gussa

tanjaaniya ke mahaale national park mein nar chimpaanji

aam vayask chimpaanji vishesh roop se nar bahut hi aakraamak ho sakte hain. ye apne kshetr ke prati ati samvedansheel hote hain aur anya chimpaanjiyon ko jaan se bhi maar sakte hain.[33] chimpaanji nimn shreni ke praaimets jaise ki red kolobas[34] aur bush bebeej[35][36] ka lakshya banaakar shikaar karne mein bhi sanlagn rahate hain aur in shikaaron se praapt maaains ka istemaal apne samudaaya ke beech "social tool" ke roop mein karte hain.[37] fravari 2009 mein ek aisi ghatna ke baad jismein traivis naamak ek paalatoo chimp ne stainford, Connecticut mein ek maada par hamla kiya tha aur use vikrut kar diya tha, jiske baad ameriki pratinidhi sabha ne sanyukt raajya America mein aadim paalatoo jaanvaron par pratibandh ko manjoori di thi.[38]

insaanon se melajol

itihaas

62-year-old chimpanzee
gregoire: 62 varsheeya vruddh chimpaanji

afreekiyon ka chimpaanjiyon ke saath sahastraabdiyon se sampark raha hai. kuchh afreeki gaaainvon, visheshakar kaango ke lokataantrik ganaraajya mein chimpaanjiyon ko sadiyon tak paalatoo jaanvaron ke roop mein rakha gaya tha. desh ke poorv mein sthit virunga national park mein park ke adhikaari niyamit roop se un logon se chimpaanjiyon ko jabt kar lete the jo unhein paalatoo jaanvaron ke roop mein rakhate the.[39] Europeeya logon ke saath chimpaanjiyon ka pehla sampark 17veen sadi ke dauraan vartamaan samay ke angola mein darj kiya gaya tha. purtagaali raashtreeya sangrahaalaya (tore do tombo) mein sanrakshit purtagaali anveshak dvaarte paicheko parera (1506) ki daayari sanbhavat: yeh bataane wala pehla Europeeya dastaavej hai ki chimpaanjiyon ne apne chattaani aujaaron swayam banaaya tha.

haalaanki “achimpaanjee” naam ka pehla prayog 1738 tak naheen dekha gaya tha. yeh naam shilooba bhaasha ke shabd "kivili-chimpenje" se liya gaya hai jo is jaanavar ka sthaaneeya naam hai aur iska saadhaaran anuvaad "maukamain" ya sambhavat: sirf "vaanar" hai. bhaasha vigyaan mein "chimp " ko kaafi had tak 1870 ke dashak ke ant mein kisi samay shaamil kiya gaya tha.[40] jeev vijnyaaaniyon ne pain ko is jaanavar ke jeenas naam roop mein rakha hai. chimpaanjiyon tatha anya vaanaron ke baare mein kathit roop se praacheen kaal ke pashchimi lekhakon ko gyaat tha; lekin unki yeh jaankaari mukhyat: Europeeya yaatriyon ke khandit varnanon se upaje Europeeya aur arab samaaj ke mithkon ya kinvadantiyon par hi aadhaarit thi. vaanaron ka ullekh arastoo aur angreji baaibal mein bhi kai jagah kiya gaya hai jahaaain inhein soloman dvaara ekatr kiye jaane ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai. (1 kings 10:22. haalaanki hibroo shabd qőaf ka matlab vaanar ho sakta hai). Quraan mein bhi vaanaron ka ullekh kiya gaya hai (7:166), jahaaain shabbat ka ullanghan karne vaale ijaraayaliyon se Allah kehte hain "bi ye eps".

in praarambhik antaramahaadveepeeya chimpaanjiyon mein se pehla angola se aaya tha aur use 1640 mein oreinj ke Rajkumar fredarik henari ko upahaar svaroop bheint kiya gaya tha aur agale kai saalon tak iske bhaai-bandhuon dvaara is silsile ka anusaran kiya gaya tha. vaigyaaniko ne in pehle chimpaanjiyon ka varnan "pigmeej" ke roop mein kiya aur manushya ke saath inki gahari samaanata par dhyaan diya. agale do dashakon mein Europe mein anekon jeevon ka aayaat kiya gaya jinhein mukhyat: vibhinn praani udyaanon mein darshakon ke manoranjan hetu mangaaya gaya tha.

hyoogo reenhold ki 'efe mit shaadel ("dimaag wala vaanar"), 19 veen sadi ke ant mein chimpaanjiyon ko kis prakaar dekha jaata tha usaka ek udaaharan hai.

daarvin ke praakrutik chayan ke siddhaant (1859 mein prakaashit) ne chimpaanjiyon adhikaansh jeev vigyaan mein vaigyaaniko ki dilchaspi jaga di jiske kaaran jangalon aur kaid mein rakhe gaye jaanvaron ke kai adhyayan kiye gaye. us samay ke chimpaanjiyon ke paryavekshak mukhyat: manushyon se sambandhit vyavahaaron mein dilchaspi rakhate the. isko vishuddh roop se vaigyaanik naheen kaha ja sakta kyonki jyaadaatar dhyaan is baat par keindrit kiya ja raha tha ki kya in jaanvaron mein aise gun maujood hain jinhein "achha" kaha ja sake; chimpaanjiyon ki buddhi ko aksar kaafi badha-chadha kar bataaya jaata tha, udaaharan ke liye hyoogo renahold ki ati prasiddh efe mit shaidel (baayeen or ke chitr ko dekhein) mein. 19veen sadi ke ant tak chimpaanji manushyon ke liye kaafi had tak ek rahasya bane huye the jiski bahut hi kam vaigyaanik jaankaari upalabdh thi.

loss enjils chidiyaaghar mein chimpaanji

20veen sadi mein chimpaanji vyavahaar mein vaigyaanik shodh ke ek nae adhyaaya ka shubhaaranbh hua. 1960 se pehle chimpaanji ke apne praakrutik aavaas mein uske vyavahaar ke baare mein lagbhag koi bhi jaankaari naheen thi. usi saal July mein jen gudaol tanjaaniya ke gombe van mein chimpaanjiyon ke beech rahane ke liye chali gayeen jahaaain unhonne praathamik roop se kaasaakela chimpaanji samudaaya ke sadasyon par adhyayan kiya. unki yeh khoj dhamaakedaar thi ki chimpaanji apne aujaar swayam banaate the aur unka upayog karte the, kyonki pehle yeh maana jaata tha ki aisa karne waali ekamaatr prajaati maanav hai. chimpaanjiyon par sabse adhik pragatisheel praarambhik adhyayan volfgaing kohalar aur raabart yarkes dvaara kiye gaye the, donon hi prasiddh manovaigyaanik the. donon vaigyaaniko aur unke saathiyon ne chimpaanjiyon ki seekhane, visheshakar samasya ko sulajhaane ki bauddhik kshamata ke baare mein adhyayan par khaas taur se dhyaan keindrit karne vaale chimpaanjiyon ke prayogashaala adhyayanon ko nirdhaarit kiya. ismein prayogashaala ke chimpaanjiyon par vishesh roop se buniyaadi, vyaavahaarik pareekshanon ko shaamil kiya gaya tha jiske liye saaf taur par ek uchch stareeya bauddhik kshamata (jaise ki pahuainch se door maujood kele ko haasil karne ki samasya ka samaadhaan kaise karein) ki aavashyakta thi. ullekhaneeya roop se yarkes ne jangalon mein chimpaanjiyon par vistaarit pareekshan kiye jisse chimpaanjiyon aur unke vyavahaar ki vaigyaanik samajh ko viksit karne mein kaafi madad mili. yarkes ne dviteeya vishv yuddh ke samay tak chimpaanjiyon par adhyayan kiya jabki kohalar ne paaainch varsh ke adhyayan ke nateeje ko apni prasiddh rachana 1925 mein (jo sanyogavash vahi samay tha jab yarkes ne apna vishleshan shuru kiya tha) meintaaliti aaf eps mein prakaashit kiya, unhonne antat: yeh nishkarsh diya ki "chimpaanji manushyon mein dekhe jaane vaale saamaanya tarah ke bauddhik vyavahaar ko viksit kar lete hain... ek aisa vyavahaar jise vishesh taur par manushyon mein dekha jaata hai" (1925).[41]

American journal aaf praaimetoloji ke August 2008 ke ank mein tanjaaniya ke mahaale maauntens national park mein chimpaanjiyon par ek saal tak chale ek adhyayan ke parinaamon ke baare mein bataaya gaya tha jismein yeh saakshya prastut kiye gaye the ki chimpaanji virus ke sankraman se hone waali beemaariyon ke shikaar hote hain jo sanbhavat: unhein manushyon ke sampark se hua hoga. aanavik, sookshmadarsheeya aur mahaamaari sambandhi jaaainchon ne yeh dikhaaya ki mahaale maaunten national park mein rahane vaale chimpaanji ek saans ki beemaari se grast the jiska kaaran sambhavat: maanav paaraamaaiksovaayaras ka ek prakaar tha.[42]

adhyayan

antariksh mein jaane wala chimpaanji enos, 1961 mein markari-etalas 5 kaipsool mein daale jaane se pehle.

November 2007 tak America ki 10 prayogashaalaaon mein (vahaaain kaid mein rahane vaale 3,000 vishaal vaanaron mein se) 1300 chimpaanji maujood the jinhein ya to jangalon se pakada gaya tha ya fir sarkason, pashu prashikshakon ya chidiyaagharon se praapt kiya gaya tha.[43] jyaadaatar prayogashaalaaon mein ya to shodh ko swayam kiya gaya ya shodh ke liye chimpaanjiyon ko upalabdh karaaya;[44] is shodh ko "sankraamak agent ke saath teekaakaran, chimpaanji ke hit ke liye naheen balki shodh ke liye ki jaane waali shalya chikitsa ya baayopsi aur/ya aushadhi pareekshan" ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya.[45] sangh dvaara vitt poshit do prayogashaalaaen chimpaanjiyon ka prayog karti hain: jaurjiya ke Atlanta mein imori university mein yarkes national praaimet research leboretari aur Texas ke sain entoniyo mein saauthavest national praaimet center.[46] America mein paaainch sau chimpaanjiyon ko prayogashaala mein istemaal se retire kar diya gaya hai aur ye America ya Canada mein abhayaaranyon mein rahate hain.[44]

jaiv-chikitsa sambandhi anusandhaan mein istemaal kiye gaye chimpaanjiyon ko jyaadaatar prayogashaala sambandhi jaanvaron ke maamale mein prayog karne ke baad maar daalne ke prachalan ki bajaay kai dashakon tak baar-baar istemaal kiya jaata hai. America ki prayogashaalaaon mein vartamaan mein maujood kuchh chimpaanjiyon ko 40 se adhik varshon se prayogon mein istemaal kiya ja raha hai.[47] project aaraendaaar ke anusaar America ki prayogashaalaaon mein rakhe gaye chimpaanjiyon ko mukt karne ke liye ek abhiyaan – new ingalaind anti-vivisekshan society dvaara jen gudaol aur anya praaimet shodhakartaaon ke sahayog se chalaaya ja raha hai – ameriki prayogashaala mein sabse puraana gyaat chimp, venaka hai jiska janm 21 May 1954 ko florida ki ek prayogashaala mein hua tha.[48] use uske janm ke din hi ek drushti prayog mein istemaal ke liye usaki maaain se alag kar diya gaya tha, yeh prayog 17 maheenon tak chala aur uske baad use ek paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein uttari kairolina ke ek parivaar ko bech diya gaya. 1957 mein use fir se yarkes national praaimet research center mein vaapas laaya gaya jab vah itna bada ho gaya tha ki use sanbhaalana mushkil ho gaya tha. tab se usane chh: baar apne bachchon ko janm diya hai aur use sharaab ke istemaal, khaane vaale garbh nirodhakon, budhaapa aur sanjnyaaanaatmak adhyayanon mein istemaal kiya gaya hai.[49]

chimpaanji jeenom ke prakaashan ke saath prayogashaalaaon mein chimpaanjiyon ke istemaal ko badhaane ki kathit taur par yojanaaen taiyaar ki gayi hain jiske baare mein kuchh vaigyaaniko ka tark hai ki shodh ke liye chimpaanjiyon ke prajanan par sangheeya pratibandh (fedaral moretoriym) ko hata liya jaana chaahiye.[46][50] you.S. national instityoots aaf helth (enaaaiech) dvaara 1996 mein paaainch saal ka ek pratibandh lagaaya gaya tha kyonki echaaaivi sambandhi shodh ke liye badi sankhya mein chimpaanjiyon ko paida kiya ja raha tha aur ise 2001 ke baad se vaarshik roop se aage badhaaya ja raha tha.[46]

anya shodhakartaaon ka tark hai ki chimpaanji vishisht prakaar ke jaanavar hain aur inka istemaal ya to prayogashaalaaon mein naheen kiya jaana chaahiye ya fir inke saath alag tarah se vyavahaar kiya jaana chaahiye. ek vikaasavaadi jeev vigyaani aur sain diyego mein kailiforniya vishvavidyaalaya ke praaimet visheshagya, paaskal gaigniyks yeh tark dete hain ki chimpaanjiyon ki apne baare mein samajh, aujaaron ka istemaal aur manushyon se aanuvanshik samaanata ko dekhte hue chimpaanjiyon ke istemaal se kiye jaane vaale adhyayanon mein un naitik dishaanirdeshon ka paalan kiya jaana chaahiye jinhein aam-sahamati dene mein aksham maanaveeya vishyon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.[46] iske alaava haal ke ek adhyayan mein yeh bataaya gaya hai ki prayogashaalaaon se mukt kiye gaye chimpaanjiyon mein yaatana ke baad hone waali ek tanaav sambandhi samasya dekhi jaati hai.[51] yarkes national praaimet research laiboretari ke nideshak, stuart jola is baat se sahamat naheen hain. unhonne national jyograafik ko bataaya: "mujhe naheen lagta hai ki hamein kisi prajaati ke saath maanaveeya roop se vyavahaar karne ke liye apne daayitv ke beech kisi tarah ka antar rakhana chaahiye, chaahe yeh koi chooha ho ya bandar ho ya fir chimpaanji. isse koi frk naheen padta hai ki ham iska kitna bhala chaah sakte hain, aakhirkaar chimpaanji insaan naheen hain."[46]

sarkaaron dvaara vishaal vaanaron ke shodh par pratibandh lagaane ki sankhya badhti ja rahi hai jo shodh ya jahareele pareekshanon mein chimpaanjiyon aur anya vishaal vaanaron ke istemaal par rok lagaati hai.[52] varsh 2006 tak ostriya, New Zealand, needararlaind, sveedan aur Britain ne is tarah ke pratibandhon ki shuruaat ki hai.[53]

lokapriya sanskruti mein

inhein bhi dekhein: List of fictional apes evam Category:Famous apes

chimpaanjiyon ko lokapriya sanskruti mein ek samaan roop se dikhaaya gaya hai jahaaain unhein jyaadaatar maanakeekrut bhoomikaaon[54] jaise ki bachchon jaise saathiyon ke roop mein, khaas sahayogiyon ya jokaron ke roop mein shaamil kiya gaya hai.[55] apne chehare ki pramukh vishishtataaon, lambe haath-pairon aur teji se chalne-firne ke kaaran khaas sahayogiyon ya jokaron ki bhoomika ke liye ye vishesh roop se anukool hote hain, jo manushyon ke liye manoranjak hote hain.[55] isi prakaar chimpaanjiyon ko manushyon ki tarah kapde pahanaakar dikhaane ke manoranjak kaarya sarkason aur rangamancheeya kaaryakramon ke paaramparik stepals rahe hain.[55]

television ke yug mein chimp ki bhoomika ke liye sanyukt raajya America mein ek nayi shaili ki shuruaat hui hai: ek aisi series jiske paatron mein chimpaanjiyon ko poori tarah se manushyon jaise kapde pahane aur maanav abhinetaaon dvaara dab ki gayi laainon par "bolte" hue dikhaaya jaata hai.[54] ye kaaryakram, jinke udaaharanon mein 1970 ke dashak mein lainselot link, seekret chimp ya 1990 ke dashak mein the chimp channel shaamil hain, apni puraani, kam haasya waali kathaaon ko majedaar banaane ke liye vaanar paatr ki vilkshanata par bharosa kiya gaya tha.[54] unke chimpaanji "abhineta" sarkas ke kisi khel mein vaanaron ke samaan aapas mein badle jaane yogya hote the jo chimpaanjiyon ki tarah manoranjak hote the na ki vyaktigat taur par.[54] maanav adhikaar samooh peta ne pashuon ke saath honevaale durupayog ka havaala dete hue vigyaapan daataaon ko television aur vyaavasaayik vijnyaaapanon mein chimpaanjiyon ke istemaal ke viruddh aagrah kiya tha.[56]

jab anya TV kaaryakramon mein chimpaanjiyon ko dikhaaya jaata hai, aam taur par unhein haasyapoorn dhang se manushyon ko sahaayata pahuainchaane ke liye aisa karte hue pesh kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye us bhoomika mein J. fred mags tude sho ke prastota (host) dev gairove ke saath 1950 ke dashak mein, joodi 1960 ke dashak mein daktaari mein ya daarvin the wild thorn bereej mein 1990 ke dashak mein dikhaai diye the.[54] iske vipreet anya jaanvaron ke kaalpanik chitranon mein jaise ki kutton (laisi ke roop mein), daulfeens (flipr), ghode (the black stailiyn) ya yahaaain tak ki anya vishaal vaanaron (King kaang), chimpaanji ke paatr aur unki bhoomikaaen shaayad hi kabhi kathaanak ke liye praasangik hoti hain.[54]

vigyaan katha mein bhoomikaaen

chimpaanjiyon ke vyaktigat chitran aur kisi kathaanak mein aakasmik ki bajaay unki keindreeya bhoomika ko[54] aam taur par vigyaan kathaaon mein dekha ja sakta hai. Robert A. henalen ki laghu katha "jeri vaaj A main" (1947) mein ek aanuvanshik roop se viksit chimpaanji dvaara behtar chikitsa ke liye kiye gaye mukadame ko darshaaya gaya hai. 1972 ki nikat bhavishya par aadhaarit film kaunkvest of the plaanet of the eps mein ekamaatr bolne vaale chimpaanji, seejar ke netrutv mein gulaam vaanaron dvaara apne maanav maalikon ke khilaaf vidroh ka chitran darshaaya gaya tha.[54] vartamaan samay par aadhaarit Robert silvarabarg dvaara likhit ek anya laghu katha "the Pope of the chimps" mein chimpaanjiyon ke ek samooh mein dhaarmikta ke chihnon ko viksit hote dikhaaya gaya hai, jo unke vyavahaar par nazar rakhane vaalon ke liye kaafi had tak aashcharyajanak tha. David barn ke sudhaarak upanyaason mein bhavishya ki ek aisi sthiti ko prastut kiya gaya hai jismein manushyon dvaara chimpaanjiyon (aur kuchh anya prajaatiyon) ka "utthaan" karke unamein maanav-stareeya kshamataaon ko viksit kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/m' not found.

  • chimp heven (svarg)
  • chimpaanji jeenom pariyojana
  • great ep parsanahud
  • vaanaron ki soochi

sandarbh

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