chhaayaachitr

kisi bhautik vastu se nikalne vaale vikirn ko kisi samvedansheel maadhyam (jaise fotograafi ki film, elektraanik censor aadi) ke upar rekaard karke jab koi sthir ya chalaayamaan chhabi (tasveer) banaayi jaati hai to use chhaayaachitr (fotograf) kehte hain. chhaayaachitran (fotograafi) ki prakiya kuchh seema tak kala bhi hai. is kaarya ke liye yo yukti prayog ki jaati hai use camera kehte hain. vyaapaar, vigyaan, kala evam manoranjan aadi mein chhaayaachitrakaari ke bahut se upayog hain.

thumb
An historic camera: the Contax S of 1949 — the first pentaprism SLR.
Nikon F of 1959 — the first 35mm film system camera.
Late Production Minox B camera with later style "honeycomb" selenium light meter

camera

camera chhavi banaane divaais hai, aur photo film ya ek silikaun electronic chhavi sanvedak sanvedan maadhyam hai. sambandhit rikaurding maadhyam film hi hai, ya ek digital electronic ya chunbakeeya smruti ho sakta hai. photographer (digital kaimaron mein) ek " avyakt chhavi " (film par) ya kachche faail ke liye firm prakaash ke liye aavashyak raashi ke liye (jaise ki film ke roop mein) prakaash rikaurding saamagri " benakaab " karne ke liye camera aur leins niyantran hai, jo uchit prasanskaran ke baad, ek prayog karne yogya chhavi mein badal jaati hai. digital kaimaron aise aarop divaais yugmit (seeseedi) ya poorak dhaatu oksaaid ardhachaalak praudyogiki ke roop mein prakaash ke prati samvedansheel electronics par aadhaarit ek electronic chhavi sanvedak ka upayog karein. parinaamasvaroop digital chhavi electronic sangraheet kiya jaata hai, lekin kaagaj ya film par kiya ja sakta hai. camera (ya ' kaala camera ') ke roop mein jahaaain tak sambhav ho, sab prakaash chhavi roopon ki prakaash ko chhodkar baahar rakha gaya hai, jismein se ek andhere kamre ya kaksh hai. tasveerein kheenchi ja rahi vishay hai, tathaapi, prabuddh kiya jaana chaahiye . camera chhote se photo khinchavaane ke liye vastu ise theek se prakaashit hai jahaan doosare kamre mein hai, jabki andhere rakha hai ki ek poore kamre mein, bahut bade tak ho sakti hai. badi film mein nakaaraatmak (prakriya camera dekhein) ka prayog kiya gaya hai, jab is flat ki nakal ki prajanan fotograafi ke liye aam tha. jaise hi fotograafik saamagri khara ya chhal tasveerein lene ke liye paryaapt (samvedansheel) "teji " ban gaya ke roop mein, chhote " jaasoos" kaimaron kuchh ek ke peechhe chhipa vaastav mein ek pustak ya haindabaig ya jeb ghadi (camera) ke roop mein prachhann ya bhi pahana, banaaya gaya vaastav mein leins tha ki ek taai pin ke saath eskaut nekataai .film camera film ke strips par tasveeron ki ek teji se anukram leta hai jo fotograafik camera ka ek prakaar hai. ek samay mein ek hi snaipashaut kabja jo ek abhi bhi camere ke vipreet, film camera ek "frem " naamak chitr, pratyek ki ek shrrunkhala leta hai. yeh ek aantaraayik tantr ke maadhyam se poora kiya hai. frem baad mein " frem dar " (frem prati second ki sankhya) kaha jaata hai, ek vishisht gati se ek film projektar mein vaapas khela jaata hai. dekhne ke dauraan, ek vyakti ki aankhon aur mastishk gati ka bhram paida karne ke liye ek saath alag chitron vilay.

anukram

camera niyantran

kuchh vishesh kaimaron lekin sab mein, ek prayog karne yogya jokhim praapt karne ki prakriya fotograaf, spasht, tej aur achhi tarah se ujaagar kar raha hai yeh sunishchit karne ke liye kuchh niyantranon ke, swayam ya svat:, istemaal ko shaamil karna chaahiye . niyantran aamtaur par shaamil hain, lekin nimnalikhit tak seemit naheen hain.

niyantran vivran

ek saaf chhavi ka utpaadan karne ke liye ek hi mein vastu ya aavashyak ek optikl divaais ke samaayojan ki sthiti focus : . focus mein, dhyaan se baaharaef- sankhya leins ke maadhyam se gujarane waali prakaash ki maatra ko niyantrit karta hai, jo ke roop mein maapa leins kholne ke eparchar samaayojan, . eparchar bhi kshetr aur vivrtan ki gaharaai par ek prabhaav hai - uchch ch sankhya, chhote kholne, kam roshani, kshetr ke adhik se adhik gaharaai, aur adhik vivrtan kalank . ef- sankhya se vibhaajit fokal lanbaai prabhaavi eparchar vyaas deta hai. gati ka shatar gati samaayojan imejing madhyam pratyek pradarshan ke liye prakaash ke sampark mein hai, jiske dauraan samay ki maatra ko niyantrit karne ke shatar ka (aksar second ke bhaagon ke roop mein ya yaantrik band ke saath ek kon ke roop mein ya to vyakt) . shatar gati chhavi vimaan hadtaali prakaash ki maatra ko niyantrit karne ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, ' tej' shatar gati prakaash ki raashi aur chhavi ka vishay hai aur / ya ki gati se dhundhala ki raashi bhi kam (hai ki kam avadhi ke liye un hai) , prakaash vyavastha ki sthiti ka set diya saath jude rang taapamaan ke liye electronic muaavaja, safed prakaash frem mein rang praakrutik dikhaai dega ki isliye imejing chip par is tarah ke roop mein panjeekrut hai aur yeh sunishchit karna ki par safed santulan . maikenikl, film aadhaarit kaimaron ko is samaaroh mein film ke stock ke sanchaalak ki pasand se ya rang sudhaar filtar ke saath parosa jaata hai. chhavi ke praakrutik rangaai rajistar karne ke liye safed shesh raashi ka upayog karne ke alaava, fotograafaron ek garm rang taapamaan praapt karne ke liye ek neele rang ki vastu ko santulan safed udaaharan ke liye, saundarya samaapt karne ke liye safed santulan kaam kar sakte hain daala aur chhaaya ke photographer ki ichhaaon ke anusaar ujaagar kar rahe hain ki itna jokhim ke maapan paimaaish. kai aadhunik kaimaron meter aur svachaalit roop se jokhim nirdhaarit kiya hai. svat: jokhim se pehle, sahi nivesh ek alag prakaash paimaaish divaais ke upayog ke saath ya photographer ke gyaan aur sahi setings ke anubhav ke dvaara poora kiya gaya tha. ek prayog karne yogya eparchar aur shatar gati mein prakaash ki raashi ka anuvaad karne, meter prakaash ko film ya sanvedak ki sanvedanasheelata ke liye samaayojit karne ki jaroorat hai. is meter mein " film ki gati " ya ISO sanvedanasheelata seting ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. ISO gati paramparaagat film kaimaron par chayanit film ki film ki gati " camera bata " karne ke liye istemaal kiya, ISO gati sankhyaatmak utpaadan karne ke liye prakaash se pranaali ke laabh ka ek sanket ke roop mein aadhunik digital kaimaron par kaaryarat hain aur svat: jokhim pranaali ko niyantrit karne ke liye . ek kam ISO sankhya ke saath film prakaash ke prati samvedansheel hai, jabki ISO sankhya adhik se adhik prakaash ko film sanvedanasheelata adhik hai. ISO gati, eparchar, aur shatar gati ka ek sahi sanyojan na to bhi andhera na hi bahut prakaash, isliye yeh sahi dhang se ujaagar ' hai, ek keindrit meter ne sanket diya hai ki ek chhavi ki or jaata hai. kuchh camere par bindu, imejing frem mein ek bindu ka chayan jis par auto focus pranaali dhyaan keindrit karne ka prayaas kareing kai ekal leins palata camera (esaelaaar) drushyadarshi mein kai auto focus ank shaamil hain. imejing divaais ke hi kai anya tatvon kisi diye gaye tasveer ki gunavatta aur / ya saundarya prabhaav par ek spasht prabhaav pad sakta hai, unamein shaamil hain fokal lanbaai aur leins ke prakaar (saamaanya, lambe focus, chaude kon, teleefoto, maikro, ya joom) ke saamane ya leins ke peechhe ya to vishay aur prakaash rikaurding saamagri hog.

baahari kadiyaaain