cher

cher, Kerala ka praacheen naam tha. usamein aadhunik traavanakor, kocheen, malaabaar, koyanbattoor aur salem (dakshini) jilon ke pradesh sammilit the1 Dravid athva tamil kahalaanevaale paandya, chol aur cher naam ke teen kshetr dakshin Bhaarat ki sarvapratham raajaneetik shaktiyon ke roop mein dikhaai dete hain. atyant praarambhik cher raajaaon ko vaanavaar jaati ka kaha gaya hai. ashok ne apne saamraajya ke baahar dakshin ki or ke jin deshon mein dharmaprachaar ke liye apne mahaamaatya bheje the, unamein ek tha keralaputr arthaat cher (dekhiye shilaabhilekh dviteeya aur trayodash). sangam yug (lagbhag 100 E. se 250 E. tak) ka sabse pehla cher shaasak tha udiyanjeraal (130 E.) jise sangam saahitya mein bahut bada vijeta kaha gaya hai. use athva uske vansh ko mahaabhaarat ki ghatnaaon se joda gaya hai. usaka putr nedunjeraal aadan bhi shaktishaali tha. usane kuchh yavan (romak) vyaapaariyon ko balaat rokakar dhan vasool kiya, apne saat samakaalik raajaaon par vijay praapt ki aur adhiraaj (imayavaranban) ki upaadhi dhaaran ki. usaka chhota bhaai kuttuvan bhi bada bhaari vijeta tha, jisne apni vijyon dvaara cher raajya ki seema ko pashchimi payodhi se poorvi payodhi tak faila diya. aadan ke putr sheinguttuvan ke anek vivran suprasiddh sangam kavi paranar ki kavitaaon mein milte hain. vah ek kushal ashvaarohi tha tatha uske paas sambhavat: ek jalabeda bhi tha. is vansh ke kudadki iranjeraal irunpodai (190 E.) ne cholon aur paandyon se yuddh ke kai durgon ko jeeta tatha unki dhan-sampatti bhi looti kintu uske baad ke maandarajeraal irunpodai naamak ek raaja ko (210 E.) paandyon se muainh ki khaani padi. in cher raajaaon ki rajdhani veingi thi, jiske aadhunik sthaan ki theek-theek pehchaan kar sakana kathin hai. vidvaanon mein is vishay mein is vishay par bad matabhed hai. aadan udiyanjeraal ka vansh kautilya arthashaastr mein varnit kulasangh ka ek udaaharan maana jaata hai. kulasangh mein ek raaja maatr ka naheen apitu raajaparivaar ke sabhi sadasyon ka raajya par shaasan hota hai.

teesari shati ke madhya se aage lagbhag 300 varshon ka cher itihaas agyaat hai. perumal upaadhidhaari jin raajaaon ne vahaaain shaasan kiya, ve bhi cher ke nivaasi naheen, apitu baahari the. saataveen aathaveen shati ke pratham charan mein paandyon ne cher ke kongu pradesh par adhikaar kar liya. anya cher pradeshon par bhi unke tatha anya samakaalik shaktiyon ke aakraman hote rahe. cher raajaaon ne pallavon se mitrata kar li aur is prakaar apne ko paandyon se bachaane ki koshish ki. aathaveen naveen shati ka cher raaja cheramaan perumaal atyant dharmasahishnu aur kadaachit sarvadharmopaasak tha. anek vidvaanon ke mat mein uske shaasanakaal ke ant ke saath kollam athva malayaalam sanvat ka praarambh hua (824-24 E.). uske samay mein arabi musalmaanon ne malaabaar ke taton par apni bastiyaaain basa leen aur vahaaain ki striyon se vivaah bhi kiya, jinse mopala logon ki utpatti hui. cheramaan perumaal swayam bhi lekhak aur kavi tha. uske samakaalik lekhakon mein prasiddh the shankaraachaarya, jo bhaarateeya dharm aur darshan ke itihaas mein sarvada amar raheinge. perumal ne apne marne ke poorv sambhavat: apna raajya apne sabhi sanbandhiyon mein baaaint diya tha. naveen shateen ke ant mein cher shaasak sthaanuravi ne cholaraaj aaditya ke putr paraantak se apni putri ka vivaah kar cholon se mitrata kar li. sthaanuvi ka putr tha vijyaraagadev. uske vanshajon mein bhaaskar ravivrma (1047-1106) prasiddh hua. kintu raajara pratham aur uske uttaraadhikaari cholon ne cher ka adhikaansh bhaag jeet liya. madura ke paandyon ki bhi usapar drushti thi. aage ravivrma kulashekhar naamak ek cher raaja ne thode samay ke liye apne vansh ki khoi hui kuchh shakti pun: arjit kar li, paandya-pallav kshetron ko raunda tatha apne ko samraat kaha. vah ek kushal shaasak aur vidvaanon ka ashrayadaata thaa1 kollam (kvilaun) usaki rajdhani thi.

madhyayug aur uske baad ka cher itihaas bahut spasht naheen hai. kaalaantar mein vah purtagaali, anya Europeeya aakramanakaariyon, isaai dharm-prachaarakon aur bhaarateeya rajavaadon ki aapasi pratispardha ka vishay ban gaya. angreji yug mein traavanakor aur kocheen jaise deshi raajya bache to rahe kintu unke paas apni koi svatantr raajaneetik shakti naheen thi.

vidya aur saahitya ki seva mein cheradesh ke nanboodari braahman paranparaya agrani the. unamein yeh pratha thi ki keval jetha bhaai vivaah kar gharabaar ki chinta karta tha. shesh sabhi chhote bhaai paarivaarik chintaaon se mukt hokar saadhaaran janta mein vidya ka prachaar aur swayam vidyaadhyayan mein lage rahate the. aaryavanshi kurunandadakkan (naveen shati) naamak vahaaain ke shaasak ne vaidik vidyaaon ke prachaar ke liye ek vidyaalaya aur chhaatraavaas ki sthaapana hetu ek nidhi sthaapit ki thi. vah vidyaalaya dakshini traavanakor mein paarthivshekharapuram ke ek vishnumandir mein lagta tha. vaastav mein us kshetr ke sabhi math aur satr apne apne dhang se gurukulon ka kaam karte the.

saanskrutik sthiti

tamil saahitya ke itihaas mein truteeya sangam ki rachanaaon mein se ettuthokai mein aath sangrah hain. inmein chauthe sangrah paditrupaattu mein das-das padonvaali das kavitaaeain theen. in kavitaaon mein se pehli aur aathaveen upalabdh naheen hai. shesh aath kavitaaeain cher raajaaon ke yuddhon aur gunon se sambandhit hain. inse cher raajya mein tamil sanskruti ki kai visheshataaon ka gyaan hota hai.

vanshagat raajatantr hi raajya ka prachalit svaroop tha. us kaal mein kuchh chhote saamant shaasak bhi the jo paristhiti ke anusaar pramukh raajyon ki adheenata sveekaar karte ya unase yuddh karte the. raajya ko vansh ki paarivaarik sampatti maana jaata tha jismein vansh ke sabhi vayask purush bhaag lete the. ek sthal par kaha gaya hai ki sansaar raaja ka anukaran karta aur praja ke satkaaryon se raaja ki aayu badhti hai. raaja ka kartavya hai ki praja ke jeevan ko sukhamaya banaakar unhein baahar jaakar basane se roke aur vijit desh ki praja ko punarvaasit kare. shaasak ke liye vijigeeshu ka aadarsh tha. saat raajaaon par vijay ek uchch pad tha jiske soochak ke roop mein vijit raajaaon ke mukut ki maala dhaaran ki jaati thi. vishesh shaktishaali raajaaon ke liye digvijya ke dvaara chakravarti ka pad praapt karne ka aadarsh tha. yuddhakala mein durgon ka vishesh mahatva tha. durgon ki praacheer, unke dwaar aur parvatadurg tatha samudradarg aadi kai prakaar ke durgon ka ullekh milta hai. sainikon ke shareer ke liye vyaaghracharm ke paritraan hote the. yuddh ke nagaadon ki pooja ki jaati thee1 us samay yeh vishvaas tha ki yuddh mein mare sainikon ko veerasvarg praapt hota hai. veeron ki smrutiyon mein patthar gaadne or unki pooja karne ka chalan tha. yuddh mein shoorata ke aadarshon ke sambandh mein kai niyam aur vishvaas prachalit the. sainikon mein adarakh aur pushp ki maala pahanane ka vishisht chalan tha. raajya ko naushakti bhi sangathit thi.

saanskrutik jeevan ki pramukh visheshata usaka mishrit svaroop thi jismein tamil aur aarya donon hi tatv vartamaan the. tamil kaviyon ko aarya parampara ke anuvrutton aur daarshanik tatha dhaarmik vichaaron ka gyaan tha. rinatraya ke vichaar ka bhi ullekh milta hai. isi prakaar sanskrut ke kavismayon or varnanashaili ki kuchh roodhiyon ka bhi upayog dikhlaai padta hai.

kaviyon ne bhoomi ki urvara shakti ke gun-gaan gaae hain. cher desh apni bhains, mirch, haldi aur moolyavaan pattharon ke liye prasiddh tha. sambhavat: adigaimaan ke vansh ne hi ganne ki kheti ko is pradesh mein aarambh kiya tha. vanapashuon mein se Singh ke do ullekh hain, kintu sambhavat: cher kaviyon ko usaka koi niji gyaan naheen tha. ullekh hai ki resham aur oon aadi bina kataai ke bante the (noolaakkaligm). aarthik jeevan mein vinimay ka atyadhik upayog hota tha. cher desh mein, poorvi tat ki tulana mein, adhik bandargaah the jinka rom ke vyaapaariyon se adhik gahra sambandh tha. mushiri pramukh bandargaah tha jahaaain yavan vyaapaari sone se lade apne bade jahaajon mein aate the aur viniym mein praapt mirch aur samudra tatha parvaton ki durlabh upajon ke saath lautate the. puranaanuru mein dhaan ke badle machhali aur mirch ki gaaainthon ke vikraya ka aur bade jahaajon se chhote jahaajon par saamaan laadne k varnan hai. anya prasiddh bandaragaahon mein bandar aur kodumanam ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. jahaajon ki marammat mein nipun kaareegaron k ullekh milta hai. rom ke saath cher desh ke is laabhakaari vyaapaar sambandh ki pushti periplas aur adhik sankhya mein desh mein upalabdh hui chaaaindi tatha sone ko rom ki mudraaon se hoti hain.

uchch varg ki striyaaain kanchuki pahanati theen aur keshon mein lep karti theen. kesh ki paaainch shreniyon mein baaaintane ka chalan tha. striyon ko samaaj mein paryaapt svatantrata praapt thi. vidhvaaon ki dasha buri thi. sati ka prachalan vishesh roop se uchch aur sainik vargon mein tha. keshakartan karne ke liye kainchiyon ka ullekh milta hai. ghadon mein rakhi taadi aur hari botalon mein aayaat hui sharaab ke kai ullekh milte hain. inka svaad sudhaarane ke liye inmein kabhi kabhi adarakh mila diya jaata tha. braahman maans aur taadi ka sevan karte the. greeshm ki tapan se bachane ke liye raaja apne mitron aur sanbandhiyon ke saath nadi ke tat par kunjon ki sharan lete the.

is saahitya se upalabdh saamaajik vyavastha ka chitr santulan, santosh aur sukh ka hai. nrutya aur sangeet janajeevan ke mahatvapoorn ang the. apni veena (yaal), dhol (padalai) aur anya vaadyon ke saath nartakon ke dal vichran karte the. nartakiyon (virli) ke nrutyon ka aayojan raatri ko deepon ke prakaash mein hota tha. nartak geet ke bhaavon ke anuroop athva kabhi taal ke liye apne haathon ko hilaate the. tunangai aur alliym nrutyon mein stri aur purush donon bhaag lete the.

dhaarmik aur naitik jeevan mein yadyapi uttar Bhaarat ka prabhaav spasht hai, tathaapi usamein samaaj ke vibhinn vargon ke pruthak utpattivaale kai tatv sammishrit milte hain. vaidik yajnyaon ka poorn prabhaav dikhlaai padta hai. raajaaon aur saamanton ke dvaara anek yajnyaon ke anushthaan ka ullekh aata hai. braahman apne gharon mein teenon prakaar ki agni ka pratisthaapan karte the aur niyamit roop se devataaon ka yagya aur atithi ka bhojan se satkaar karte the. braahmanon ko daan sadaiv jal ke arpan ke saath diya jaata tha. anya dharmon ki tulana mein braahman dharm ka atyadhik prasaar tha. kai devi-devataaon ki pooja ke ullekh milte hain. vishnu ki pooja mein tulaseepatr, ghant aur anya upakaranon ka ullekh aata hai. vishnu ki anukanpa praapt karne ke liye unke upaasak unke mandir mein upavaas karte the. kaali se subrahmanya ki utpatti aur unke shaurya ke krutya vishesh roop se asur shoor ka ant kaviyon ke priya vishay the. sheinguttuvan ke liye kaha jaata hai ki usane pattini sanpradaaya ko prachaarit kiya jismein kannagi ki aadarsh patni ke roop mein pooja hoti thi. shishu mein vishesh gunon ke vikaas ke liye uske janm se poorv kuchh dhaarmik anushthaan aur krutya kiye jaate the. shavon ko jalaane or vishesh bartanon mein gaadne ka prachalan tha. adhikaansh kavitaaon mein jeevan ke bhautik sukhon ke upabhog ka aashaavaadi drushtikon dikhlaai padta hai logon ke shakun, jyotish aur doosare vishvaason ke ullekh milte hain.

in kavitaaon mein kavi aur uske sanrakshak raaja ke sambandh, vishesh roop se raaja dvaara use maan aur upahaar ke anek ullekh hain jo atishyokti ki sambhaavana ke baad bhi siddh karte hain ki saahitya ka srujan raajya ke sanrakshan mein pallavit ho raha tha. kai raaja swayam vidvaan the. is yug ke prasiddh kaviyon mein paranar, kapilr, palai kothamnaar aur kaakkai paadiniaar pramukh hain. prasiddh granth shilppadikaaram ke rachayita ilango adigl ko cher naresh sheinguttuvan ka bhaai kaha jaata hai.

samuchit pramaanon ke abhaav mein sangam yug ke anantar cher saamraajya ki saanskrutik sthiti ke vishay mein bhi kramabaddh itihaas naheen prastut kiya ja sakta. fir bhi aisa prateet hota hai ki baad ke yugon mein bhi pashchimi deshon ke saath vyaapaar mein inka ullekhaneeya bhaag tha. videshi dharmon ke prati sahishnu vyavahaar praarambh se hi cher raajya ki visheshata rahi hai. isaai yaatri kausmas ne chhathi shataabdi mein kviln mein ek church dekha tha. sthaaneeya janta mein se bhi kuchh logon ne isaai dharm ko sveekaar kar liya tha aur unako taamrapatron ke dvaara anudaan diye gaye the jinmein sarvapratham 774 E. ka hai. naveen shataabdi mein arab malaabaar tat par aakar base aur unhonne sthaaneeya striyon se vivaah kiya. inki santaan maappill (mopla) ke naam se prasiddh hui. cher naresh cheramaan perumaal ke sambandh mein katha hai ki usane islaam sveekaar kiya tha aur makka ki yaatra ki thi jahaaain se usane bhaarateeya nareshon ko musalmaanon ka aadar karne aur masjidein banavaane ke liye kaha tha. yahoodiyon ke vishay mein bhi kaha jaata hai ki ve pehli shataabdi isavi mein aae the. cher naresh bhaaskar ravivrman ne jojef rabban aur uske anuvartiyon ko daan mein kuchh bhoomi aur visheshaadhikaar diye the. vaishnav aalvaaron mein kulashekhar cher desh ka hi nivaasi tha prasiddh daarshanik shankaraachaarya bhi cher ke the1 Kerala dakshinaachaar sanpradaayaan ke kendra ke roop mein bhi prasiddh tha.

Kerala ki striyon ka keshavinyaas us yug mein prasiddh tha. kuchh Kerala raajakanyaaon ka vivaah paandya aur chol nareshon se hua tha. chol aur lanka mein kai adhikaari Kerala ke hi the. raajaaditya ka guru chaturaanan pandit Kerala ka hi tha. lanka mein Kerala ke sainik raajasena mein kaafi sankhya mein rahate the.

kulashekhar ne mahaabhaarat par aadhaarit do naatak rache- tapta sanvaran aur subhadra-dhananjaya. ravivrman ne 13veen shataabdi mein pradyumnaabhyudaya naatak ki rachana ki.

Kerala mein prachalit tamil hi shataabdiyon mein svayamev viksit hokar malayaalam bhaasha bani. isne bhi sanskrut-prabhaav ko grahan kiya aur sanskrut-uchchaaranon ko vyakt karne ke liye praacheen batte luttu lipi ke sthaan par tamilgranth par aadhaarit ek nai lipi ka vikaas kiya. malayaalam mein prachalit palaiyaapaattu naam ke lokageeton mein se kuchh praacheen bhi hain1 raamaayan ke yuddhakaand par aadhaarit raamacharitm ko 10veen aur 13veen shataabdi ke beech tirvaankur ke kisi naresh ki kruti kaha jaata hai. raamakathaappaattu ki rachana iske baad hui hai. malayaalam ki pratham upalabdh saahityik rachana unnuneeli sandesham (14veen shataabdi) mein ravivrman kulashekhar ka ullekh hai. chaakkiyaarakoottu naam ke nrutya geeton ke kaaran saahityik rachanaaon ko protsaahan mila aur kai chanpoo granthon ki rachana hui.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh granth

  • neelakanth shaastri : A history ov south India;
  • di ej ov inpeeriyl kannauj, bha. vidyaabhavan