chennai

chennai (Madras) சaaெaaனaa்aaனaaை
mahanagar
चेन्नई सेंट्रल स्टेशन
chennai central station
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya tamil naadu
jila chennai
kaancheepuram
tiruvallur
mahaapaur M subrahmanyam
nagar nigam aayukt raajesh lakhoni
janasankhya
ghanatv
mahanagar
43 lakh (4th) (2001 tak )
• 14,350 /kimi2 (37,166 /varg meal)
• . (chautha) (2009 tak )
kshetrafal
mahanagar
ooainchaai (AMSL)
181.06 ki.mee² (70 varg meal)[1]
• 1,180 km² (456 sq mi)
• 6 meter (20 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.chennaicorporation.gov.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 13°a05′aN 80°a16′aE / 13.09°aN 80.27°aE / 13.09; 80.27 chennai (tamil: சaaெaaனaa்aaனaaை IPA: [ˈaatʃaaɛaannəaaɪ]), poorv naam , Bhaarat mein Bengal ki khaadi ke koromandal tat par sthit Tamil Nadu ki rajdhani, Bhaarat ka paaainchava bada nagar tatha teesara sabse bada bandaragaah hai. iski janasankhya 43 lakh 40 hajaar hai.[2] yeh shahar apni sanskruti evam parampara ke liye prasiddh hai. british logon ne 17veen shataabdi mein ek chhoti-si basti madraasapattnam ka vistaar karke is shahar ka nirmaan kiya tha. unhonne ise ek pradhaan shahar evam nausainik adde ke roop mein viksit kiya. beesaveen shataabdi tak yeh Madras presideinsi ki rajdhani evam ek pramukh prashaasanik kendra ban chuka tha.

chennai mein automobile, praudyogiki, haardaveyar utpaadan aur svaasthya sambandhi udyog hain. yeh nagar software, soochana praudyogiki sambandhi utpaadon mein Bhaarat ka doosra sabse bada niryaatak shahar hai. chennai evam iske upanagareeya kshetr mein automobile udyog viksit hai.[3][4] chennai mandal tamilaanaadu ke GDP ka 39% ka aur desh ke otomotiv niryaat mein 60% ka bhaageedaar hai. isi kaaran ise dakshin Asia ka detrauet bhi kaha jaata hai.[5][6][7]

chennai saanskrutik roop se samruddh hai, yahaaain vaarshik Madras myoojik season mein sainkadॊ kalaakaar bhaag lete hain. chennai mein rangashaala sanskruti bhi achhe star par hai aur yeh bharatanaatyam ka ek mahattvapoorn kendra hai. yahaaain ka tamil chalachitr udyog, jise kauleevud bhi kehte hain, Bhaarat ka dviteeya sabse bada film udyog kendra hai.

anukram

naamakaran

Madras naam madraasapatnam se liya gaya hai. madraasapatnam british East India company dvaara san 1639 mein chuna gaya sthaayi nivaas sthal hai. iske dakshin mein chennapatnam naamak gaaainv sthit tha. kuchh samay baad in donon gaaainvon ke sanyog se milkar bane shahar ko "Madras" naam diya gaya. parantu usi jagah ke nivaasi ise "chennapatnam" ya "chennapuri" kehte the. san 1996 mein shahar ka naam badal kar "chennai" rakha gaya (hindi mein "chennai" bhi likha jaata hai), kyonki "Madras" shabd ko purtagi naam maana jaata tha. yeh maana jaata hai ki is shahar ka purtagi naam "maadre-di-sauis" naamak purtagi sarkaari afsar ke naam se liya gaya tha, jo lagbhag san 1550 mein is jagah ko apne sthaayi nivaas banaane vaale pehle logon mein shaamil the. par kuchh log yeh maanate hain ki "Madras" shabd hi tamil mool ka hai, tatha "chennai" shabd kisi anya bhaasha ka ho sakta hai.

itihaas

park taaun, chennai sthit Victoria pablik hall - chennai mein british sthaapatya kala ke sabse utkrusht namoonon mein se ek
varsh jan.
1881 4,05,848
1891 4,52,518 11.5%
1901 5,09,346 12.6%
1911 5,18,660 1.8%
1921 5,26,000 1.4%
1931 6,45,000 22.6%
1941 7,76,000 20.3%
1951 14,16,056 82.5%
1961 17,29,141 22.1%
1971 24,20,000 40.0%
1981 32,66,034 35.0%
1991 38,41,398 17.6%
2001 42,16,268 9.8%

chennai evam aas-paas ka kshetr pehli sadi se hi mahattvapoorn prashaasanik, sainik, evam aarthik gatividhiyon ka pramukh kendra raha hai. yeh dakshin Bhaarat ke bahut se mahattvapoorn raajavanshon yatha, pallav, chol, paandya, evam vijyanagar ityaadi ka kendra bindu raha hai. mayalaapur shahar jo ab chennai shahar ka hissa hai, pallavon ke jamaane mein ek mahattvapoorn bandargaah hua karta tha. aadhunik kaal mein purtagaaliyon ne 1522 mein yahaaain aane ke baad ek aur bandargaah banaaya jise saao tome kaha gaya. purtagaaliyon ne apna basera aaj ke chennai ke uttar mein puleekat naamak sthaan par basaaya aur vaheen dach ist India company ki neenv rakhi.

22 August 1639, ko sant Francis diwas ke mauke par british East India company ne vijyanagar ke raaja peda veinkat rai se koromandal tat chandragiri mein kuchh jameen khareedi. is ilaake mein damarela veinkatapati, jo is ilaake ke naayak the, unka shaasan tha. unhonne britaani vyaapaariyon ko vahaaain ek factory evam godaam banaane ki anumati di. ek varsh vaad, britaani vyaapaariyon ne seint George kila banavaaya jo baad mein aupaniveshik gatividhiyon ka kendra bindu ban gaya. 1746 mein, Madras evam seint George ke kile par fraasinsi faujon ne apna kabja jama liya. baad mein britaani company ka is kshetr par niyantran pun: 1749 mein ex la chaipal sandhi (1748) ki badaulat hua. is kshetr ko fraansisiyon evam Mysore ke sultaan haidar Ali ke hamlon se bachaane ke liye is poore kshetr ki kilebandi kar di gayi. athaarahaveen sadi ke ant hote-hote britishon ne lagbhag poore aadhunik Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradesh evam Karnataka ke hisson ko apne adheen kar liya evam Madras presideinsi ki sthaapana ki jiski rajdhani Madras ghoshit ki gayi.[8] britishon ki hukumat ke adheen chennai shahar ek mahattvapoorn aadhunik shahari kshetr evam jalasena kendra bankar ubhara.

bhoogol

kaamaaraajaar salaai jo mareena beech ke saath saath chalne waali ek sadak hai

chennai Bhaarat ke dakshin poorvi tat par Tamil Nadu pradesh ke uttari poorvi tateeya kshetr mein sthit hai. is tateeya kshetr ko poorvi tateeya maidaani kshetr bhi kaha jaata hai. is kshetr ki samudra tal se ausat ooainchaai 6.7 meter hai[9] aur sabse ooaincha sthaan 60 meter ki ooainchaai par hai.[10] mareena beech ke naam se prasiddh chennai ke samudra tat ka vistaar 12 kilometer tak hai. shahar ke madhya mein bahne waali koovam nadi aur dakshin se bahne waali adyaar nadi aaj ki taareekh mein bahut hi jyaada pradooshit ho chuki hain. adyaar nadi koovam se kam pradooshit hai aur iske tat par anek pashu-pakshiyon ka basera hai.[11][12] in donon nadiyon ko bakingham nahar ke dvaara joda gaya hai. yeh nahar apni 4 kilometer ki doori saagar tat ke saamaanaantar tay karti hai. shahar ke pashchimi bhaag mein kai jheelein hain, jinmein se red hills, sholaavaram aur chembaraamabakkm se peya jal ki aapoorti hoti hai. chennai ka bhoomigat jal bhi pradooshit hota ja raha hai.[13]

chennai mein bahne waali koovam nadi. pradooshan ke kaaran is nadi par astitv ka sankat mandara raha hai.

chennai shahar ko uttar, madhya, dakshin aur pashchimi chennai naamak chaar bhaagon mein bainta hai. hai. uttari chennai ek audyogik kshetr hai. madhya chennai shahar ka vyaavasaayik kendra hai. yahau par sthit perij corner, jise sthaaneeya log perij bhi kehte hain, ek pramukh vyaavasaayik kshetr hai. dakshin aur pashchimi chennai soochana praudyogiki ka kshetr banta ja raha hai. badhti aabaadi ke kaaran shahar vibhinn dishaao me badhta ja raha hai. jin kshetro me sarvaadhik vikaas ho raha hai vah hain- puraana mahaabaleepuram road, dakshini grand trank road aur pashchim me anbaattur, koyamabedu aur shreeperambadoor ki disha ke kshetr.[14] chennai ki shahar seema mein ek raashtreeya udyaan bhi hai, jise gundi raashtreeya udyaan ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[15]

chennai mein vaarshik taapamaan lagbhag ek samaan hota hai. iska kaaran chennai ka saagar tat par evam tharmal ikvetar par sthit hona hai. varsh bhar mausam aam taur par garm evam umas bhara hota hai. May evam June ka pratham saptaah varsh ka sabse garm samay hota hai. is samay jab taapamaan 38-42 degree celcius ke aas-paas pahuainch jaata hai, to sthaaneeya log ise agni nakshatram ya kathiri veyyi kehte hai.[16] varsh ka sabse thanda maheena January ka hota hai, jab nyoonatam taapamaan 18-20 degree celcius tak painhuch jaata hai. ab tak yahaaain ka sabse nyoonatam taapamaan 15.8 degree celcius aur uchchatam taapamaan 45 degree celcius darj kiya gaya hai.[17][18] chennai mein varsh mein ausatan 1,300 mileemeetar varsha hoti hai. mukhyat: varsha sitmbar se December ke madhya hoti hai. desh ke anya bhaagon se vipreet chennai mein varsha monsoon ke lautane ke dauraan uttar-poorvi havaaon ke chalte hoti hai. Bengal ki khaadi mein aane vaale chakravaat kai baar chennai bhi pahuainch jaate hai. san 2005 mein aaj tak ki sabse jyaada varsha 2,570 mileemeetar darj ki gayi thi.[19]

prashaasanik evam upayogi sevaaen

inhein bhi dekhein: chennai ka sthaapatya evam Bhaarat ke upabhaag
shahar ke adhikaareegan, (sitan. 07)
mahaapaur[21][22]
ma. subrahmaaniym
up-mahaapaur
aar satyabhaama
nagar nigam aayukt
raajesh lakhoni
police aayukt
ke Radhakrishnan

chennai shahar ka prashaasan chennai nagar nigam ke paas hai. 1688 mein sthaapit hua yeh nigam Bhaarat mein hi naheen, Britain ke baahar kisi bhi raashtramandal desh mein sabse pehla nagar nigam hai. ismein 155 paarshad hai, jo chennai ke 155 wardon ka pratinidhitv karte hain. inka chunaav seedhe chennai ki janta hi karti hai. ye log apne aap mein se hi ek mahaapaur evam ek up-mahaapaur chunate hain jo chh: samitiyon ka sanchaalan karta hai.[23] chennai, tamil naadu raajya ki rajdhani hone se raajya ki kaaryapaalika aur nyaayapaalika ke mukhyaalaya shahar mein mukhya roop se fort seint George mein sachivaalaya imaarat mein aur shesh kaaryaalaya shahar mein vibhinn sthaanon par anek imaaraton mein sthit hain. Madras uchch nyaayaalaya ka adhikaar-kshetr tamil naadu raajya aur puducheri tak hai. yeh raajya ki sarvochch nyaaya sanstha hai aur chennai mein hi sthaapit hai. chennai mein teen Loksabha nirvaachan kshetr hain – chennai uttar, chennai madhya aur chennai dakshin aur 18 vidhaan-sabha nirvaachan kshetr hain.

chennai metropolitan police paitrol

chennai ka mahaanagareeya kshetr kai upanagaron tak vyaapt hai, jismein kaancheepuram jila aur tiruvallur jila ke bhi kshetr aate hain. badae upanagaron mein vahaan ki taaun-nagar paalikaaen hain aur chhote kshetron mein taaun-parishad hain jinhein panchaayat kehte hain. shahar ka kshetr jahaan 174 ki.mi.² (67 meela²) hai,[24] vaheen upanagareeya kshetr 1189 ki.mi.² (458 meela²) tak faile hue hain.[25] chennai mahanagar vikaas praadhikran (si.M.di.A) ne shahar ke nikat upagrah-shaharon ke vikaas ke uddeshya se ek dviteeya master plaan ka draaft taiyaar kiya hai. niktasth upagrah shaharon mein mahaabalipuram (dakshin mein), cheingalapattu aur mariyaamalai nagar dakshin-pashchim mein, shreeperanbudoor, tiruvallur aur arakkonam pashchim mein aate hain.

greater chennai police vibhaag tamil naadu police ka hi ek anubhaag hai, jo shahar mein kaanoon evam suraksha vyavastha ki dekharekh mein sanlagn hai. shahar ki police ke adhyaksh police aayukt, chennai hain aur prashaasanik niyantran raajya gruh mantraalaya ke paas hai. is vibhaag mein 36 up-bhaag aur 121 police-station hai. shahar kha yaataayaat chennai city traffic police dvaara niyantrit hota hai. mahanagar ke upanagar chennai metropolitan police ke adheen aate hain, evam baahari jele kaancheepuram evam tiruvallur police vibhaagon ke antargatt hain.

raaipan bilding, 1913 mein nirmit, chennai nagar nigam ka mukhyaalaya tatkaalin vaaisarauya Lord raaipan ke naam par hai.

chennai nagar nigam aur upanagareeya nagarapaalikaaen naagrik suvidhaaen muhaiya karaati hain. adhikaansh kshetron mein kooda-prabandhan neel metal fainaalika envaayaranameint management; ek niji company aur kuchh anya kshetron mein nagar nigam dekhta hai. jal-aapoorti evam mal-nikaas (seevej treetameint) chennai metropolitan vautar saplaai end seevej board dekhaata hai. vidyut aapoorti tamil naadu vidyut board prabandh karta hai.[26] shahar ki doorabhaash seva chh: mobile aur chaar laindalaain companiyon ke dvaara prabandh hota hai,[27][28] aur yahi companiyaan tatha sifi aur haithave braudabaind seva dvaara Internet bhi upalabdh karaati hain.

shahar ke kshetr se koi mukhya nadi naheen gujarati hai, at: chennai mein vaarshik monsoon varsha ke jal ko sarovaron mein sahej kar rakhane ka itihaas raha hai. shahar ki badhti aabaadi aur bhoomigat jal ke girte star ke kaaran shahar ko jal abhaav ka saamana karna pada hai. is disha mein veeraanam jheel pariyojana bhi kaaragar naheem siddh hui hai. nayi veeraanam pariyojana ne kaafi had tak is samasya ka samaadhaan kiya hai aur shaahar ki sudoor sroton par nirbharata ghati hai.[29] haal ke varshon mein bhaari maanaseeni varshaaon ke chalte anna nagar mein jal punarchakreekaran ko sahaara mila hai aur isse shahar mein jalaabhaavon ki kaafi kami aayi hai.[30] iske saath saath telugu ganga pariyojana jaise nayi pariyojanaaon dvaara Andhra pradesh se Krishna nadi ka jal bhi pahuchaaya ja raha hai, jisne is sankat ko lagbhag samaapt hi kar diya hai. shahar mein saagareeya jal ke alavaneekaran-sanyantr ki sthaapana bhi pragati par hai, jisse saagar ke jal ko bhi jalaapoorti mein prayog kiya ja sakega.[31][32]

sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: tamil khaana evam tamil chalachitr
ek bharatanaatyam nartaki

chennai Bhaarat ki saanskrutik evam sangeet rajdhani hai.[33] shahar shaastreeya nrutya-sangeet kaaryakramon aur mandiron ke li prasiddh hai. pratyek varsh chennai mein panch-saptaah Madras myoojik season kaaryakram ka aayojan hota hai. yeh 1927 mein Madras sangeet academy ki sthaapana ki varshagaanth maanane ke saath aayojit hota hai.[34] ismein shahar aur nikat ke sainkadon kalaakaaron ke shaastreeya Karnataka sangeet ke kaaryakram aayojit hote hain. ek anya utsam chennai sangamam pratyek varsh January mein tamil naadu raajya ki vibhinn kalaaon ko darshaata hai. chennai ko bharatanaatyam ke liye bhi jaana jaata hai. yeh dakshin-Bhaarat ki prasiddh nrutya shaili hai. shahar ke dakshini bhaag mein tateeya kshetr mein kalaakshetr naamak sthaan bharatanaatyam ka prasiddh saanskrutik kendra hai.[35] chennai mein Bhaarat ke kuchh sarvottam kauyars hain, jo christmas ke avsar par angreji aur tamil mein vibhinn kairal kaaryakram karte hain.[36][37] Madras musical asosiyeshan Bhaarat ke sabse puraane aur pratishthaavaan kvaayars mein se ek hain aur inhonne vishv bhar mein kaaryakram diye hain.[38][39]

chennai tamil chalachitr udyog, jise kauleevud bhi kehte hain, ka aadhaar shahar hai. yeh udyog kodamabakkam mein sthit hai, jahaan adhikaansh film stoodiyon hain.[40] is udyog ke dvaara aajkal 150 se adhik filmein vaarshik banaayi jaati hain[41] aur inke saaundatraik ke elbam bhi shahar ko sangeetamaya karte hain. is udyog se jude kuchh vyaktiyon ke naamon mein ilaiyaaraaja, ke baalaachandar, shivaaji Ganeshan, M ji Ramchandran, Rajnikant, kamal hasan, mani ratnam aur S shankar hain.

tarah tarah ke tamil vyanjan

A aar Rahman ne chennai ko antarraashtreeya prasiddhi dilaayi hai. Rahman ko 2009 mein slamadaug mileniyr ke liye do oscar sammaan mile the.[42] chennai mein rangamanch par tamil naatak manchit kiye jaate hain, jinmein raajaneetik, vyangya, haasya, pauraanik, aadi sabhi rason ka mishran hota hai.[43][44][45] inke alaava angreji naatakon ka bhi manchan aayojit hota hai.

shahar ke utsavon mein January maah mein aane wala panch-divseeya pongal pramukh hai. iske alaava sabhi mukhya tyauhaar jaise deepaavali, Eid, christmas aadi bhi harshollaas se manaaye jaate hain. tamil vyanjanon mein shaakaahaari aur maansaahaari donon hi vyanjanon ka sammiln hai. shahar mein vibhinn sthaanon par alpaahaar ya tifin bhi upalabdh hai, jismein pongal, dosa, idali, vada, aadi milte hain, jisko garma garm ya thandi kaufi ke saath parosa jaata hai.

arthavyavastha

Tidel Park

chennai dakshin Bhaarat ke pramukh vyavasaaya-vaanijya evam yaataayaat ka kendra hai. 19veen shataabdi ke ant mein audyogik kshetr ki sthaapana chennai mein hui. chennai ke nikat peraamboor mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara Asia ka sabse vishaal railway dibba nirmaan ka kaarkhaana inteegral coach bilding factory sthaapit kiya gaya hai. yahaaain ke udyogon mein sooti vastr udyog, raasaayanik udyog, kaagaj evam kaagaj se nirmit vastuon ke udyog, mudran yantr evam isse sambandhit udyog, chamada, diesel engine, motaragaadi, cycle, seement, cheeni, diyaasalaai, rel ke dibbe taiyaar karne ke udyog aadi pramukh hain. iske alaava sarkaar dvaara sanchaalit vibhinn prakaar ke udyog evam kaarkhaane chennai mein avasthit hain. inmein intigral coach factory, Hindustan teleeprintar, chennai rifaainari evam chennai fartilaaijar aadi pramukh hain. Madras petrokemikls mein petro-rasaayan padaarth ka utpaadan hota hai.

janasaankhyiki

ranganaathan street ti nagar mein patari par khareedne bechne vaalon ki bheed lagi rahati hai.

chennai ke vaasi ko angreji mein chennaiyaait aur hindi mein praay: madraasi kah diya jaata hai. 2001 mein Bhaarat ki janaganana ke anusaar chennai shahar ki janasankhya 43.4 lakh thi jabki kul mahaanagareeya janasankhya 70.4 lakh thi.[46] 2006 ki anumaanit mahaanagareeya janasankhya 45 lakh aayi hai.[47] 2001 mein shahar ka janasankhya ghanatv 24,682 varg ki॰mee॰ (63,926 prati varg meal) tha, jabki mahaanagareeya kshetr ka ghanatv 5,922 prati varg ki॰mee॰ tha, jisse yeh vishv ke sarvochch janasankhya vaale shaharon mein gina jaane laga.[46][48] yahaan ka ling anupaat 951 striyaan/1000 purush hai,[49] jo raashtreeya ausat 944 se kuchh adhik hi hai.[50] shahar ki ausat saaksharata dar 80.14% hai,[51] jo raashtreeya ausat dar 64.5% se kaheen adhik hai. nagar mein jhuggi-jhonpadi nivaasiyon ki janasankhya Bhaarat ke anya mahaanagaron ke mukaabale chauthe sthaan par aati hai, jismein 8,20,000 log (kul janasankhya ka 18.6%) log hain.[52] yeh sankhya Bhaarat ki kul janasankhya ka 5% hai. 2005 mein shahar mein aparaadh dar 313.3 prati 1 lakh vyakti thi, jo Bhaarat ke sabhi pradhaan shaharon mein hue aparaadhon ka 6.2% hai.[53] ye aankade 2004 se 61.8% badhe hain.[54]

chennai mein tamil log bahusankhyak hain. yahaan ki mukhya bhaasha tamil hi hai. vyaapaar, shiksha aur anya adhikaari varg ke vyavasaayon evam naukariyon mein angreji mukhyata se boli jaati hai. inke alaava kam kintu gananeeya sankhya telugu tatha malayaali logon ki bhi hai.[55] chennai mein tamil naadu ke anya bhaagon va Bhaarat ke sabhi bhaagon se aaye logon ki bhi achhi sankhya hai. 2001 ke aankadon ke anusaar shahar ke 9,37,000 pravaasiyon (chennai ki kul janasankhya ka 21.57%) mein se; 74.5% raajya ke anya bhaagon se aaye the, 23.8% desh ke anya bhaagon se tatha 1.7% videshiyon ki janasankhya thi.[56] kul janasankhya mein 82.27% hindu, 8.37% muslim, 7.63% isaai aur 1.05% jain hain.[57]

yaataayaat

chennai mein I.ti highway, jiske shiropari M aar ti S (chennai) niklata hua dikhaai de raha hai

chennai dakshin Bhaarat ke praveshadvaar ki bhaanti prateet hota hai, jismein anna antarraashtreeya terminal evam kaamaraaj antardesheeya taarminl sahit chennai antarraashtreeya havaai adda Bhaarat ka teesara vyastatam vimaanakshetr hai.[58][59] chennai shahar dakshin Asia, dakshin-poorv Asia, poorvi Asia, madhya poorv, Europe evam uttari amareeka ke pradhaan binduon par 30 se adhik raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya vimaan sevaaon se juda hua hai. yeh vimaanakshetr desh ka doosra vyastatam kaargo tarmins hai. vartamaan vimaanakshetr mein adhik aadhunikeekaran aur vistaar kaarya pragati par hain. iske alaava shreeperanbudoor mein naya greenafeeld airport lagbhag 2000 karod Ru. ki laagat se banana tay hua hai.[60] shahar mein do pradhaan saagarapattan (bandargaah) hain, chennai port jo sabse bade krutrim bandaragaahon mein ek hai, tatha ennor port. chennai port Bengal ki khaadi mein sabse bada bandargaah aur Bhaarat ka doosra sabse bada saagareeya-vyaapaar kendra hai, jahaan automobile, motorcycle, saamaanya audyogik maal aur anya thok khanij ki aavaajaahi hoti hai.[61] mumbai ke baad Bhaarat ka yahi sabse bada pattan hai. is krutrim bandaragaah mein jalayaanon ke langar daalne ke liye kankreet ki moti deevaarein saagar mein khadi karke ek saath darjanon jalayaanon ke thaharaane yogya potaashraya bana liya gaya hai. dakshini Bhaarat ka saara dakshin-poorvi bhaag (Tamil Nadu, dakshini aandhrapradesh tatha Karnataka raajya) iski prushthabhoomi hai. yahaaain mukhya niryaat mooaingafali aur iska tel, tambaakoo, pyaaj, kahava, abarakh, mainganeej, chai, masaala, telahan, chamada, naariyl ityaadi hain tatha aayaat mein koyala, petrolium, dhaatu, machinery, lakdi, kaagaj, motor-cycle, rasaayan, chaaval aur khaadyaann, lambe reshe waali kapaas, raasaayanik padaarth, pramukh hain. ek chhota bandargaah royaapuram mein bhi hai, jo sthaaneeya machhuaaron aur jalapoton dvaara prayog hota hai. poorvi tat par chennai ki mahattvapoorn sthiti ne praakrutik suvidha ke abhaav mein bhi krutrim vyavastha dvaara ek pattan ka vikaas paaya hai. ek bandaragaah hone ke kaaran Kolkata, vishaakhaapattanam, kolambon, rangoon, port bleyar aadi sthaanon se samudri maarg dvaara sambaddh hai.

chennai mein M.aar.ti.S train ka station

aaj relamaargon aur sadkon ka mukhya jankshan hone ke kaaran yeh nagar desh ke vibhinn shaharon se juda hua hai. yeh vaayu maarg dvaara bangalor, Kolkata, mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad aadi desh ke vibhinn shaharon se juda hua hai. chennai desh ke anya bhaagon se rel dvaara bhi bhali-bhaanti juda hua hai. yahaan se paaainch mukhya raashtreeya raajamaarg shahar ko Mumbai, Kolkata, tiruchiraapalli, tiruvallur, tindivnam aur puducheri ko jodte hain.[62] chennai mofassil bas tarmins, chennai se sabhi antarraajyeeya bas sevaaon ka adda hai. yeh Asia ka sabse bada bas-adda hai.[63] saat sarkaari yaataayaat nigam antar-shahari aur antarraajyeeya bas sevaaen sanchaalit karte hain. bahut si niji bas sevaaen bhi chennai ko anya shaharon se sulabh karaati hain.

chennai dakshin railway ka mukhyaalaya hai. shahar mein do mukhya railway taarminl hain. chennai central railway station, jahaan se sabhi bade shaharon jaise Mumbai, Kolkata, bangaluru, Delhi, Hyderabad, kochchi, koyanbatoor, tiruvanantapuram, ityaadi ke liye rel-suvidha upalabdh hain.[64] chennai egamor railway station se praay: Tamil Nadu ke shaharon ki rel sevaaen hi upalabdh hain. kuchh niktavarti raajya ke shaharon ki bhi railgaadiyaan yahaan se chalti hain.[65]

M.ti.si ki vaulvo bas

shahar mein lok yaataayaat hetu bas, rel, autorickshaw aadi sarvasulabh yaataayaat hain.chennai upanagareeya railway network Bhaarat mein sabse puraana hai. ismein chaar braud gej rel kshetr hain jo shahar mein do sthaanon chennai central aur chennai beech railway station par milte hain. in terminal se shahar mein nimn sectoron ke liye niyamit sevaaen upalabdh hain:

chennai metro ke bhoomigat jaal ka nirmaan kaarya bhi pragati hai.[66]

metropolitan traansport corporation (MTC) shahar mein bas yaataayaat sanchaalit karta hai. nigam ka 2773 bason ka beda 288 maargon par 32.5 lakh yaatriyon ko dainik parivhan upalabdh karaata hai.[67]

shahar ke bahut se maargon par maiksi cab naam se vain aur savaari bhaade par autorickshaw bhi chalte hain, jo bas seva ka vikalp dete hain. chennai ki yaataayaat sanrachana achha sampark upalabdh karaati hai, kintu badhati hui janasankhya ko dekhte hue yaataayaat sankulan (kanjeshan) aur pradooshan ki samasyaaen bhi khadi ho gayi hain. prashaasan ne in samasyaaon ke samaadhaan svaroop flyover tatha gred-separetar nirmaan kiye hain, jiska shubhaaranbh 1973 mein jemini flyover se shahar ki sabse mahattvapoorn sadak anna saalai se hua tha.[68][69] aur haal hi mein taiyaar hua is shrunkhala ki naveenatam kadi kaatheepaada flaaiovar hai.

shiksha

chennai me sthit anna vishvavidyaalaya

chennai me sarkaari evam niji dono prakaar ke vidyaalaya hai. shiksha ka maadhyam tamil athva angreji hota hai. adhikaansh vidyaalaya Tamil Nadu raajya shiksha mandal ya kendreeya maadhyamik shiksha board (CBSE) se jude hai.[70] shahar me kul 1,389 vidyaalaya hai jis me se 731 praathamik, 232 maadhyamik aur 426 uchchatar maadhyamik vidyaalaya hai.[71]

engineering shiksha ke liye chennai me bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan, 1794 me sthaapit college of engineering gindi, 1949 me sthaapit Madras praudyogiki sansthaan (Madras Institute of Technology) aur S aar M vishvavidyaalaya jaane maane sansthaan hai. adhikaansh engineering mahaavidyaalaya anna vishvavidyaalaya se sambandhit hai. Madras medical college, stenali medical college, kilpauk medical college aur S aar M medical college evam anusandhaan sansthaan chennai ke pramukh chikitseeya mahaavidyaalaya hai.

vigyaan, kala evam vaanijya kshetr me shiksha pradaan karaane vaale adhikaansh mahaavidyaalaya Madras vishvavidyaalaya se sanbaddhit hai. Madras vishvavidyaalaya ki shahar me teen parisar hai. Madras krishchiyn college, loyola college, the new college aur petreesiyn college kuchh prasiddh svashaasi mahaavidyaalaya hai. chennai me kai anusandhaan kendra bhi hai.

khel-kood

M A Chidambaram stadium

chennai shahar vividh khelo ke liye prasiddh hai. shahar ne Bhaarat ko kai pratibhaashaali khilaadi diye hai. S venkat raaghavan aur krushnammaachaari shreekaant ne cricket me Bhaarat ka pratinidhitv kiya hai.[72][73] ingalaind ke prasiddh cricket khilaadi naasir husain ka janm bhi chennai me hua tha. M aar ef pace faaundeshan ek prasiddh tej geindabaaji sikhaane ki sanstha hai jo san 1987 se chennai me sanchaalit ho rahi hai. Indian Premier league me chennai ke sthaaneeya team ka naam chennai super kings hai jiske kaptaan Mahendra Dhoni hai. chepuk me sthit M A Chidambaram stadium Bhaarat ke sabse puraane cricket ke maidaano me se ek hai.[74]

mayor Radhakrishnan stadium hockey ka ek lokapriya maidaan hai. yahaan Asia cup evam champion traufi jaisi pramukh hockey pratiyogitaaen aayojit ho chukeen hai.[75][76] primiyr hockey league me chennai ka pratinidhi chennai veerans naamak team karti hai.

chennai me aayojit hone waali chennai open pratiyogita

chennai open chennai me aayojit hone waali ek prasiddh tennis pratiyogita hai. yeh Bhaarat ki ek maatr A ti pi pratiyogita hai. vijay Amritraj aur ramesh Krishnan prasiddh tennis khilaadi hai jo chennai se sambandh rakhate hai.[77][78][79][80]

san 1995 me chennai dakshin asian gems ka mejabaan raha hai.[81] Jawahar laal neharu stadium futabaul evam ethaletik spardhaaon ke liye upayog hota hai. kai antarang spardhaae jaise vauleebaul, baasketabaul aur table tennis ka aayojan isi stadium me hota hai. jal kreeda spardhaaon ka aayojan velaacheri akvetik complex me hota hai.

car daud pratiyogitaaon me chennai ka naam Bhaarat me sarvapratham liya jaata hai. shreeperambadoor me sthit irungattukottaai me ek race trek jo antaraashtreeya car daud pratiyogita ke liye upayog me liya jaata hai.[82] ghuddaud gindi race course me aayojit hoti hai. Madras bot club naukaayaan pratiyogita ka aayojan karta hai. chennai me do golf ke maidaan hai: kausmopaalitn club aur jimkhaana club. vishvaprasiddh shataranj khilaadi vishvanaath aanand ka bachapan bhi chennai me beeta hai.[83][84][85] 2006 ke raashtramandal khelo me table tennis me svarn jeetne vaale sharath kamaal[86] aur do baar ki vishv kairam vijeta Maria irudayam bhi chennai ke nivaasi hai.[87]

paryatan

chennai ko super prasaarit nagar kehte hain yahaaain anek darshaneeya sthal hain jinmein Madras vishvavidyaalaya, chepauk mahal, matsya paalan kendra, kapileshvar aur paarthasaarathi ka mandir, ajaayabaghar aur chidiyaaghar aadi pramukh hain. chennai ka ek anya mahatvapoorn aakarshan hai seint George fort. ise san‌ 1640 mein East India company ke fraansins de ne banaaya tha. yeh kila East India company ka vyaapaarik kendra tha. 150 varshon tak yeh yuddhon aur shadyantron ka kendra bana raha. is kile mein puraani sainik chhaavani, adhikaariyon ke makaan, seint meri girjaaghar evam Robert klaaiv ka ghar hai. seint meri girjaaghar aaingarejon dvaara Bhaarat mein banavaaya gaya sabse puraana church maana jaata hai.

chennai ka mareena beech paryatakon ka pramukh aakarshan hai. yeh vishv ka doosra sabse lamba samudra tat hai. iske do sau se teen sau gaj chaude reteele tat par shaam ko itni adhik bheed hoti hai ki lagta hai maano saara shahar vaheen aa gaya hai. saare din ki thakaan ko chennai vaasi shaam ko mareena beech ki athaah jal raashi mein baha dena chaahate hon. paryatakon ki suvidha ke liye mereena beech par ek sveeming pool hai jo durghatanaaon ko ghatne se rokata hai kyonki yahaaain samudra ki gaharaai aur laharon ka tej pravaah khatarnaak hai. shaark machhaliyon ki adhikta bhi hai, at: snaan ya tairane ke liye sveeming pool ka hi laabh lena chaahiye. isi ke paas ek machhaleeghar bhi hai, jismein tarah-tarah ki deshi-videshi machhaliyaaain darshanaarth rakhi gayi hain. mareena tat ka uttari bhaag poorv mukhyamantri annaadurai ke samaadhi-sthal ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya hai. yahaaain logon ko shraddhaanavat hote dekha ja sakta hai. saath hi M.ji.aar. smaarak bhi hai jiska pravesh dwaar do vishaal haathi daaaint ke roop mein banaaya gaya hai. yahaaain ek mashaal hamesha prajvalit rahati hai.

chennai ka snek park bhi paryatakon ko prabhaavit karta hai. yeh apni tarah ka ek alag hi park hai jiska nirmaan romulas vhitekar naamak ameriki ne kiya tha. yeh paaainch sau se bhi jyaada khatarnaak bhaarateeya saaainpon ka jeevit sangrahaalaya kaha ja sakta hai. reingate hue ye vishdhar bhaya mishrit romaanch paida karte hain. yahaaain par saaainpon ke alaava sareesrup varg ke anya jeev jaise magaramachh, ghadiyaal ityaadi bhi rakhe gaye hain. chennai mahanagar ki kalaatmak sanskruti ke darshan painthiyaan road sthit national Art gailari mein sahaj hi kiye ja sakte hain.

dhaarmik drushtikon se sampoorn dakshin Bhaarat ek teerth hai jahaaain vaastukala aur moortikla ke adviteeya udaaharan hain. in mandiron mein bhavyata aur kalaashilp dekhne yogya hai. uttar Bhaarat se ekdam alag shaili ke mandir hone ke baavajood shraddha aur bhakti mein ye samast bhaarateeya aastikon ko aakarshit karte hain. tirushailifeni sthit paarth saarathi mandir ke liye ullekh hai ki iska nirmaan aathaveen shataabdi mein raaja pallav ne karavaaya tha. is devasthaan ki deevaaron par sundar kalaakrutiyaaain ankit hain. doosra aakarshak mandir hai Dravid shilpakala mein nirmit milaapor sthit kaaleeshvar mandir. yahaaain maata paarvati ki upaasana ki gaatha ankit hai. samudra ki ret se tapata yeh kshetr atyant garam jalavaayu liye hue hai jo kele, naariyl aur paam ke pedon se khoobsoorat lagta hai.

chitr deergha

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  48. "aeban eriyaaj baae paupuleshan densiti" (pi.di.ef). world urban eriyaaj (world eglomareshans). demograafiya. March 2007. pp. p. 77. http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-09. In terms of population density, Chennai was ranked 51st among all urban agglomerations in the world with over 500,000 people.
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  50. "India". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html. abhigman tithi: 2005-08-04.
  51. "distrikts parfaurmains on litresi rate in tamil naadu faur iyar 2001". Department of school education. http://www.tn.gov.in/schooleducation/statistics/table7and8.htm. abhigman tithi: 2005-08-04.
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  53. "Incidence & Rate Of Total Cognizable Crimes (IPC) In States, UTs & Cities During 2005" (PDF). Bhaarat sarkaar. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927005155/http://ncrb.nic.in/crime2005/cii-2005/Table%201.6.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-19.
  54. "crime in mega siteej" (pi.di.ef). crime in indiya – 2005. Bhaarat sarkaar. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070614203644/http://ncrb.nic.in/crime2005/cii-2005/CHAP2.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-19.
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  60. "New greenfield airport to be set up near Chennai". the hindu. May 22, 2007. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200705221441.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-22.
  61. "Gateway to India for Singapore firms". Business Times. July 6, 2006. http://app.mfa.gov.sg/pr/read_content.asp?View,4753,. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-13.
  62. "GIS database for Chennai city roads and strategies for improvement". Geospace Work Portal. http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/Utility/transport/utilitytr0001.htm. abhigman tithi: 2005-08-04.
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  64. "Sub-urban Train timings". Indian Railways. http://www.southernrailway.org/sutt/arr-dep.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-06.
  65. "35 trains to run at higher speed". the hindu. August 27, 2004. http://www.hindu.com/2004/08/28/stories/2004082807870500.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-04.
  66. "Chennai metro work begins". the hindu. April 18, 2008. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/18/stories/2008041860651200.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-17.
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  71. "No. of Schools in the Town : Chennai". Govt. of Tamil Nadu. http://www.schools.tn.nic.in/TownSchools.asp?DCODE=02&VTCODE=40200988. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-13.
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  75. "India retains Asia Cup hockey title". the hindu. September 10, 2007. http://www.hindu.com/2007/09/10/stories/2007091055590100.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-13.
  76. "Radhakrishnan stadium to have new turf". the hindu. October 20, 2004. http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/20/stories/2004102004161800.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-13.
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