cheeta

cheeta[1]
jeevaashm kaal: der plaayoseen se vartamaan
TheCheethcat.jpg
sanrakshan sthiti
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: jantu
sangh: kasheruki
varg: stanapaayi
gan: maansaahaari
kul: failidi
upakul: failini
prajaati: ऍsinauniks
jaati: A. jubaitas
dvipd naam
ऍsinauniks jubaitas
(shraibar, 1775)
prakaar jaati
Acinonyx venator
bruks, 1828 (= Felis jubata, shraibar, 1775) by monotypy
चीते का वास क्षेत्र
cheete ka vaas kshetr
Subspecies

See text.

billi ke kul (vidaal) mein aane wala cheeta (eseenoniks jubetas) apni adbhut foorti aur raftaar ke liye pahachaana jaata hai. yeh eseenoniks prajaati ke antargat rahane wala ekamaatr jeevit sadasya hai, jo ki apne panjon ki banaavat ke roopaantaran ke kaaran pahachaane jaate hain. isi kaaran, yeh ikalauta vidaal vanshi hai jiske panje band naheen hote hain aur jiski vajah se iski pakad kamzor rahati hai (at: vrukshon mein naheen chadh sakta hai haalaanki apni furti ke kaaran neechi tahaniyon mein chala jaata hai). jameen par rahane wala ye sabse tej jaanavar hai jo ek chhoti si chhalaang mein 120 ki॰amee॰ prati ghante[3][4] tak ki gati praapt kar leta hai aur 460 mi. tak ki doori tay kar sakta hai aur maatr teen second ke andar ye apni raftaar mein 103 ki॰mi॰ prati ghante ka izaafa kar leta hai, jo adhikaansh suparakaar ki raftaar se bhi tej hai.[5] haaliya adhyayan se ye saabit ho chuka hai ki dharati par rahane wala cheeta sabse tej jaanavar hai.[6]

cheeta shabd ki utpatti sanskrut shabd chitrakaay: se hui hai jo hindi cheeta ke maadhyam se I hai aur jiska arth hota hai bahurangi shareer wala.[7]

anukram

aanuvaanshiki aur vargeekaran

cheete ki prajaatiyon ko greek shabd mein eseenoniks kehte hain, jiska arth hota hai na ghoomane wala panja, vaheen laatin mein iski jaati ko jubetas kehte hain, jiska matlab hota hai ayaal, jo shaayad shaavakon ki gardan mein paaye jaane vaale baalon ki vajah se pada ho.

shaavak ke saath maaain

cheeta mein asaamaanya roop se aanuvaanshik vibhinnata kam hoti hai jiske kaaran veerya mein bahut kam shukraanu paaye jaate hain jo kam gatisheel hote hain kyonki aanuvaanshik kamajori ke kaaran vah vikrut kashaabhika (pooainchh) se grast hote hain.[8] is tathya ko is tarah samjha ja sakta hai ki jab do asanbaddh cheeton ke beech tvacha pratiropan kiya jaata hai to aadaata ko pradaata ki tvacha ki koi asveekruti naheen hoti hai. yeh socha jaata hai ki iska kaaran yeh hai ki pichhle him yug ke dauraan aanuvaanshik maargaavarodh ke kaaran aantarik prajanan lambi avadhi tak chalta raha. cheeta shaayad Asia pravaas se pehle afreeka mein maayoseen (2.6 karod-75 lakh varsh pehle) kaal mein viksit hua hai. haal hi mein vauren Johnson aur Stefan aubren ki aguvaai mein ek dal ne jeenomik daaivarasiti ki prayogashaala (fredarik, mereelaind, sanyukt raajya) ke national Cancer instityoot mein ek naya anusandhaan kiya hai aur Asia mein rahane vaale 1.1 karod varsh ke roop mein sabhi maujooda prajaatiyon ke pichhle aam poorvajon ko rakha hai jo sanshodhan aur cheeta vikaas ke baare mein maujooda vichaaron ke shodhan ke liye netrutv kar sakte hain. lupt prajaatiyon mein ab shaamil hain: esinoniks paradinenasis (pliyosin) kaal jo aadhunik cheeta se bhi kaafi bada hota hai aur Europe, Bhaarat aur cheen mein paaya jaata hai; esinoniks intaramidiys, (plistosen avadhi ke madhya), mein ek hi doori par mila tha. vilupt jeenas miraasinoniks bilkul cheeta jaisa hi dikhne wala praani tha, lekin haal hi mein DNA vishleshan ne pramaanit kiya hai ki miraasinoniks ineksapekatetas, miraasinoniks studeri aur miraasinoniks trumani, (plistosen kaal ke ant ke praarambh) uttar America mein paae gaye the aur jise "uttar ameriki cheeta" kaha jaata tha lekin ve vaastavik cheeta naheen the, balki ve kaugar ke nikat jaati ke the.

prajaatiyaan

haalaanki kai sroton ne cheeta ke chhah ya usase adhik prajaatiyon ko soocheebaddh kiya hai, lekin adhikaansh prajaatiyon ke vargeekaran ki sthiti anasulajhe hain. esinoniks reks -King cheeta (neeche dekhein)- se alag ki khoj ke baad ise parityakt kar diya gaya tha kyonki yeh keval aprabhaavi jeen tha. aprabhaavi jeen ke kaaran esinoniks jubetas gutaatus prajaati ke ooni cheeta ka bhi shaayad badlaav hota raha hai. sabse adhik maanyata praapt kuchh prajaatiyon mein shaamil hain:[9]

vivran

cheeta ka vakshasthal sudrudh aur usaki kamar patali hoti hai. cheeta ki laghu charm par kaale rang ke mote-mote gol dhabbe hote hain jiska aakaar 2 se 3 semi (0.79 se 1.18 inch) ke uske poore shareer par hote hain aur shikaar karte samay vah isse aasaani se chhalaavaran karta hai. iske safed tal par koi daag naheen hote, lekin poonchh mein dhabbe hote hain aur poonchh ke ant mein chaar se chh: kaale gole hote hain. aam taur par iska poonchh ek ghana safed guchha ke saath samaapt hota hai. badi-badi aankho ke saath cheeta ka ek chhota sa sir hota hai. iske kaale rang ke "aaainsoo chinh" iske aankh ke kone vaale bhaag se naak ke neeche uske munh tak hoti hai jisse vah apne aankh se soorya ki raushani ko door rakhata hai aur shikaar karne mein isse use kaafi sahaayata milti hai aur saath hi iske kaaran vah kaafi door tak dekh sakta hai. haalaanki yeh kaafi tej gati se daud sakta hai lekin iska shareer lambi doori ki daud ko bardaasht naheen kar sakta. arthaat yeh ek tej dhaavak hai.

ek vayask cheeta ka naap 36 se 65 kigra (79 se 143 paaund) se hota hai. iske poore shareer ki lanbaai 115 se 135 semi (45 se 53 inch) se hota hai jabki poonchh ki lanbaai 84 semi (33 inch) se maap sakte hain. cheeta ki kandhe tak ki oonchaai 67 se 94 semi (26 se 37 inch) hoti hai. nar cheete maada cheete se aakaar mein thode bade hote hain aur inka sir bhi thoda sa bada hota hai, lekin cheeta ke aakaar mein kuchh jyaada antar naheen hota aur yadi unhein alag-alag dekha jaae to donon mein antar karna mushkil hoga. samaan aakaar ke tenduen ki tulana mein aam taur par cheeta ka shareer chhota hota hai lekin iski poonchh lambi hoti hai aur cheeta unase oonchaai mein bhi jyaada hota hai (ausatan 90 semi (35 inch) lanbaai hoti hai) aur isliye yeh adhik suvyavasthit lagta hai.

kuchh cheeton mein durlabh charm paitarn parivartan hote hain: bade, dhabbedaar, mile hue daag vaale cheeton ko "King cheeta" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. ek baar ke liye to ise ek alag prajaati hi maan liya gaya tha, lekin yeh mahaj afreeki cheeta ka ek parivartan hai. "King cheeta" ko keval kuchh hi samay ke liye jungle mein dekha jaata hai, lekin iska paalan-poshan kaid mein kiya jaata hai.

ek cheeta.

cheeta ke panje mein ardh sikudn yogya naakhun hote hain[8], (yeh pravruti keval teen anya billi prajaatiyon mein hi paaya jaata hai: matsya grahan billi, chipte-sir waali billi aur iriyomot billi) jisse use uchch gati mein atirikt pakad milti hai. cheeta ke panje ka asthibandh sanrachana anya billiyon ke hi samaan hote hain aur keval tvacha ke aavaran ka abhaav hota hai aur anya kismon mein charm rahate hain aur isliye divklau ke apavaad ke saath panje hamesha dikhaai dete hain. divklau bahut chhote hote hain aur anya billiyon ki tulana mein seedhe hote hain.

cheeta ki rachana kuchh is prakaar se hui hai ki yeh kaafi tej daudne mein saksham hota hai, iske tej daudne ke kaaranon mein iska vruhad naasaadvaar hai jo jyaada se jyaada okseejan lene ki anumati pradaan karti hai aur ismein ek vistrut dil aur fefade hote hain jo okseejan ko kushalataapoorvak parichaalit karne ke liye ek saath kaarya karte hain. jab yeh shikaar ka teji ke saath peechha karta hai to iska shvaas dar prati minute 60 se badh kar 150 ho jaata hai.[8] arddh sikudn yogya naakhun hone ke kaaran jameen par pakad ke saath yeh daud sakta hai, cheeta apni poonchh ka upayog ek disha niyantrak ke roop mein karta hai, arthaat steeyaring[krupaya uddharan jodein] ke arth mein karta hai jo ise teji se mudne ki anumati deta hai aur yeh shikaar par peechhe se hamla karne ke liye aavashyak hota hai kyonki shikaar aksar bachane ke liye vaise ghumaav ka prayog karte hain.

botsavaana ke okaavango delta mein sooryaast ke samay cheeta

badi billi ke vipreet cheeta ghuraghuraahat ke roop mein saans lete hain, par garjan naheen kar sakte hain. iske vipreet, keval saans lene ke samay ke alaava badi billiyaan garjan kar sakti hain lekin ghuraghuraahat naheen kar sakti. haalaanki, abhi bhi kuchh logon dvaara cheeta ko badi billiyon ki sabse chhoti prajaati ke roop mein maana jaata hai. aur aksar galati se cheeta ko teinduaa maan liya jaata hai jabki cheeta ki visheshataaen usase bhinn hai, udaaharan svaroop cheeta mein lambi aansoo-chinh rekha hoti hai jo uske aankh ke kone vaale hisse se uske munh tak lambi hoti hai. cheeta ka shaareerik dhaancha bhi teinduaa se kaafi alag hota hai, khaaskar iski patali aur lambi poonchh aur teindue ke vipreet iske dhabbe gulaab fool ki nakkaashi ki tarah vyavasthit naheen hote.


cheeta ek samvedansheel prajaati hai. sabhi badi billi prajaatiyon mein yeh ek aisi prajaati hai jo nae vaataavaran ko jaldi se sveekaar naheen karti hai. isne hamesha hi saabit kiya hai ki ise kaid mein rakhana mushkil hai, haalaanki haal hi mein kuchh chidiyaaghar iske paalan-poshan mein safal hue hain . iske khaal ke liye vyaapak roop se iska shikaar karne ke kaaran cheeta ab praakrutik vaas aur shikaar karne donon mein asaksham hote ja rahe hain.

poorv mein billiyon ke beech cheeta ko vishesh roop se aadim maana jaata tha aur lagbhag 18 million varsh pehle ye prakat hue the. haalaanki nae anusandhaan se yeh pata chalta hai ki maujooda billi ki 40 prajaatiyon ka udaya itna puraana naheen hai-lagbhag 11 million saal pehle ye prakat hue the. vahi anusandhaan ingit karta hai ki aakruti vigyaan ke aadhaar par cheeta vyutpann hai, jo paanch karod saal pehle ke aaspaas vishesh roop se praacheen vansh ke rahane vaale cheeta apne kareebi rishtedaaron se alag hote hain (puma konakolor, kaugar, aur puma yaaguaarondi, jeguerundi[10][11] puraakaaleen dastaavejon mein jab se ye dikhaai deti hain tab se kaafi maatra mein in prajaatiyon mein parivartan naheen hua hai.

aakaar aur bhinnaroop

King cheeta

apni anoothi kot paitarn dikhaate hue ek King cheeta.

ek vishisht khaal paddhati visheshata ke chalte King cheeta doosaron cheeton se bilkul alag aur durlabh hote hain. pehli baar 1926 mein Zimbabwe mein iski khoj ki gayi thi. 1927 mein prakrutivaadi rejinaald innes paukauk ne iske ek alag prajaati hone ki ghoshana ki thi, lekin saboot ki kami ke kaaran 1939 mein is faisale ko khandit kar diya gaya tha, lekin 1928 mein, ek vaaltar rothsachild dvaara khareedi tvacha mein unhonne King cheeta aur dhabbedaar cheeta mein antar paaya aur abel chaipamain ne dhabbedaar cheeta ke rang roop par vichaar kiya. 1926 aur 1974 ke beech aise hi kareeb baais khaal paae gaye. 1927 ke baad se jungle mein paanch guna adhik King cheeta ke hone ko soochit kiya gaya tha. haalaanki Africa se ajeeb chihnit khaal baraamad hue the, haalaanki 1974 tak dakshin Africa ke kroogar national park mein jinda King cheeta dikhaai naheen diye the. prachhann praaneevijnyaaani paul aur lena botariyel ne 1975 mein ek abhiyaan ke dauraan ek photo liya tha. saath hi ve kuchh aur namoone praapt karne mein bhi safal rahe the. yeh ek dhabbedaar cheeta se kaafi bada lag raha tha aur uske khaal ki banaavat bilkul alag thi. saat varshon mein pehli baar 1986 mein ek aur jungle nireekshan kiya gaya tha. 1987 tak adtees namoone darj kiye gaye the jismein se kai khaal namoone the.

thos roop se is prajaati ke hone ki sthiti ka pata 1981 mein chala jab dakshin Africa ke di vildt cheeta end wild life center mein King cheeta ka janm hua tha. May 1981 mein do dhabbedaar maada cheeton ne vahaan cheete ko janm diya hai aur jismein ek King cheeta tha. donon maada cheeta ko nar cheeton ke saath traansavaal kshetr ke jungle se pakada gaya tha (jahaan King cheeton ke hone ki sambhaavana jataai gayi thi). iske alaava uske baad bhi center par King cheeton ka janm hua tha. Zimbabwe, botsavaana aur dakshin Africa ke traansavaal praant ke uttari bhaag mein unke maujood hone ka gyaat kiya gaya. ek pratisaari jeen ka vanshaagat jaroor is paddhati se donon maata-pita se hua hoga jo unke durlabh hone ka ek kaaran hai.

anya bhinn rang

anya durlabh rang ke prajaatiyon mein chitti aakaar, meleninta avarnata aur gre rangaai ke cheete shaamil hain. jyaadaatar bhaarateeya cheeton mein ise soochit kiya gaya hai, vishesh roop se bandi bane cheete mein yeh paaya jaata hai jise shikaar ke liye rakha jaata hai.

1608 mein Bhaarat ke mugal samraat jahaangeer ke paas safed cheeta hone ka pramaan darj kiya gaya hai. tujke-A-jahaangeer ke vrutaant mein, samraat ka kehna hai ki unke raajya ke teesare varsh mein: raaja beer Singh Dave ek safed cheeta mujhe dikhaane ke liye laae the.haalaanki praaniyon ke anya prakaaron mein pakshiyon aur doosare jaanvaron ke safed kismon ke the.... lekin mainne safed cheeta kabhi naheen dekha tha. iske dhabbe, jo (aamtaur par) kaale hote hain, neele rang ke the aur uske shareer ke safedi rang par neele rang ka chhaaya tha. yeh sanket deta hai ki chinchila utparivrtan jo baal shaaft par ranjak ki maatra ko seemit karta hai. haalaanki dhabbe kaale rang ke ho jaate hai aur kam ghane ranjakata ek dhundhale aur bhoora prabhaav deta tha. saath hi Agra par jahaangeer ke safed cheeta, guggisbarg ke anusaar praarambhik avarnata ki report biufort pashchim se aaya tha.

1925 mein H ef stonahem ne "nechar in ist Africa" ko ek patra mein keniya ke traans-joiya jile mein meleninta cheeta (bhoot chihnon ke saath kaale rang ki) ke hone ki baat bataai. vese fijraald ne jaambiya mein dhabbedaar cheeton ki company mein ek meleninta cheete ko dekha gaya tha. laal (ereethristik) cheeton mein sunahare prushthabhoomi par gahre peele rang ke dhabbe hote hain. kreem (isaabelleen) cheeton mein peeli prushthabhoomi par laal peele dhabbe hote hai. kuchh registaan kshetr ke cheete asaamaanya roop se peele hote hain; sanbhavat: ve aasaani se chhoop jaate hain aur isliye ve ek behtar shikaari hote hain aur unamein adhik nasl ki sambhaavana hoti hai aur ve apne is peele rang ko barkaraar rakhate hain. neele (maalteej ya bhoore) cheeton ko vibhinn safed-bhoore-neele (chinchila) dhabbe ke saath safed rang ya gahre bhoore dhabbe ke saath peele bhoore cheeton (maalteej utparivrtan) ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai. 1921 mein tanjaaniya mein (paukauk) mein bilkul kam dhabbon ke saath ek cheeta ko paaya gaya tha, iske gardan aur prushthabhoomi ke kuchh sthaanon mein bahut kam dhabbe the aur ye dhabbe kaafi chhote the.

kram vistaar evam praakrutik vaas

serenageti national park, tanjaaniya mein ek cheeta.

bhaugolik drashti se Africa aur dakshin pashchim Asia mein cheeton ki aisi aabaadi maujood hai jo alag-thalag rahati hai. inki ek chhoti aabaadi (lagbhag pachaas ke aaspaas) Iran ke khuraasaan pradesh mein bhi rahati hai, cheeton ke sanrakshan ka kaaryabhaar dekh raha samooh inhe bachaane ke prayaas mein poori tatparata se juta hua hai.[12] sambhav hai ki inki kuchh sankhya Bhaarat mein bhi maujood ho, lekin is baare mein vishvaas ke saath kuchh naheen kaha ja sakta. apusht riporton ke anusaar Pakistan ke bloochistaan raajya mein bhi kuchh Asiaee mool ke cheete maujood hain, haal hi mein is kshetr se ek mrut cheeta paaya gaya tha.[13]

cheeto ki nasl un kshetron mein adhik panapati hai jahaan maidaani ilaaka kaafi bada hota hai aur ismein shikaar ki sankhya bhi adhik hoti hai. cheeta khule maidaanon aur ardhamaroobhoomi, ghaas ka bada maidaan aur moti jhaadiyon ke beech mein rahana jyaada pasand karta hai, haalaanki alag-alag kshetron mein inke rahane ka sthaan alag-alag hota hai. misaal ke taur par naameebiya mein ye ghaasabhoomi, savaana ke jangalon, ghaas ke bade maidaanon aur pahaadi bhoobhaag mein rahate hain.

jis tarah aaj chhote jaanvaron ke shikaar mein shikaari kutton ka upayog kiya jaata hai, usi tarah abhijaat varg ke us samay hiran ya chikaara ke shikaar mein cheete ka upayog kiya karte the.

prajanan evam vyavahaar

cheeta shaavak.

maada cheeta bees se chaubees maheene ke andar vyask ho jaati hai jabki nar cheete mein ek varsh ki aayu mein hi paripkvata aa jaati hain (haalaanki nar cheeta teen varsh ki aayu se pehle sanbhog naheen karta) aur sanbhog poora saal bhar hota hai. serenagati mein paae jaane vaale cheeton par taiyaar report se pata chalta hai ki maada cheeta svachhand pravrutti ki hoti hain, yahi vajah hai ki uske bachchon ke baap bhi alag-alag hote hain.[14]

maada cheeta garbh dhaaran karne ke baad ek se lekar nau bachchon ko janm de sakti hai lekin ausatan ye teen se paanch bachchon ko janm deti hai. maada cheeta ka garbhakaal 150 se 300 gra (5.3 se 10.6 auns) dinon ka hota hai billi parivaaron ke doosare jaanvaron ke vipreet cheeta janm se hi apne shareer par vishisht lakshan lekar paida hota hai. paidaaish ke samay se hi cheete ki gardan par roendaar aur mulaayam baal hote hain, peeth ke beech tak faile is mulaayam roen ko meintal bhi kehte hain. ye mulaayam aur roendaar baal ise ayaal hone ka aabhaas dete hain, jaise-jaise cheete ki umr badhti hai, iske baal jhadne lagte hain. aisa anumaan kiya jaata hai ki ayaal (retal) ke kaaran cheete ke bachche Honey bejar ke sambhaavit aakramanakaari ke bhaya se mukt ho jaate hain.[15] cheete ka bachcha apne janm ke terahavein se lekar beesavein maheene ke andar apni maan ka saath chhod deta hai. ek aajaad cheete ki aayu baarah jabki pinjade mein kaid cheete ki adhiktam umr bees varsh tak ho sakti hai.

nar cheete ki tulana mein maada cheete akele rahati hain auऱ praaya ek doosare se kataraati hain, haanlaaki maan aur putri ke kuchh jode thode samay ke liye ek saath jrur rahate hain. cheeton ka saamaajik dhaancha adbhut aur anokha hota hai. bachchon ki paravarish karte samay ko chhod diya jaae to maada cheete akele rahati hai. cheete ke bachche ke shuruaati atthaarah maheene kaafi mahatvapoorn hote hain, is dauraan bachche apni maan se jeene ka hunar seekhate hain, maan unhein shikaar karne se lekar dushmanon se bachane ka gur sikhaati hai. janm ke dedh saal baad maan apne bachchon ka saath chhod deti hai, uske baad ye bachche apan bhaaiyon ka alag samooh banaate hain, ye samooh agale chhah maheenon tak saath rahata hai. do varshon ke baad maada cheeta is samooh se alag ho jaati hai jabki nar cheete hamesha saath rahate hain.

kshetr

nar

cheeton mein saamudaayik evam paarivaarik bhaav prachoor maatra mein hota hai, nar cheete aamtaur par apne paarivaarik sadasyon ke saath rahate hain, agar parivaar mein ek hi nar cheeta hai to vo doosare parivaar ke nar cheeton ke saath milkar ek samooh bana lete hai, ya fir vo doosare samoohon mein shaamil ho jaata hai. in samoohon ko sangathan bhi kah sakte hain. kairo evam kolins dvaara tanjaaniya ke maidaani ilaakon mein paae jaane vaale cheeton par kiye gaye adhyayan ke anusaar 41 pratishat cheete akele rahate hain, jabki 40 pratishat jodon aur 19 pratishat tikdi ke rup mein rahate hain.[16]

sangathit rup se rahane vaale cheete apne kshetr ko adhik samay tak apne niyantran mein rakhate hain, doosari taraf akele rahane wala cheeta apne kshetron ko paraspar badalta rahata hai, haanlaaki adhyan se pata chalta hai ki sangathit rup se rahane vaale aur akele rahane vaale donon apne adhikaar kshetron par samaan samay tak niyantran rakhate hain, niyantran ki ye avadhi chaar se lekar saadhe chaar saal tak ke beech ki hoti hai.

nar cheete ek nishchiti pareedhi mein rahana pasand karte hain. jin sthaanon par maada cheete rahate hain, unka kshetrafal bada ho sakta hai, ye isi ke aasaapaas apna kshetr banaate hain, lekin bade kshetrafal suraksha ki drashti se khatarnaak siddh ho sakte hain. isliye nar cheete maada cheeton ke kuchh hom reinjes ka chayan karte hain, in sthaanon ki suraksha karna aasaan hota hai, iski vajah se prajanan ki prakriya bhi charam par hoti hai, yaani inhe santaan utpatti ke adhik avsar milte hain. samooh ka ye prayaas hota hai ki kshetr mein nar aur maada cheete aasaani se mil sake. in ilaakon ka kshetrafal kitna bada ho iska daaromadaar Africa ke hisson mein maujood moolabhoot suvidhaaon par nirdhaarit karta hai.37 se 160 kimi2 (14 se 62 varg meal)

nar cheete apne ilaake ko chihnit aur usaki seema nishchit karne ke liye kisi vishesh vastu par apna mutr visrjit karte hain, ye ped, lakdi ka lattha ya fir mitti ki koi munder ho sakti hai. is prakriya mein poora samooh sahayog karta hai. apni seema mein pravesh karne vaale kisi bhi baahari jaanvaron ko cheeta sahan naheen karta, kisi ajnabi ke pravesh ki soorat mein cheeta usaki jaan tak le sakta hai.

maada

gorangagoro sanrakshan kshetr mein maada cheeta aur shaavak.

billi se dikhne vaale doosare jaanvaron aur nar cheete ki tulana mein maada cheeta apne rahane ke liye koi kshetr nirdhaarit nahi karti. maada cheeta un sthaanon par rahane ko praathamikta deti hain, jahaan ghar jaisa ehsaas hota hai, ise hom range kah sakte hain. in sthaanon par parivaar ke doosare maada sadasyon jaise usaki maan, bahanein aur putri saath saath rahate hain. maada cheete hamesha akele shikaar karna pasand karte hain, lekin shikaar ke dauraan vo apne bachchon ko saath rakhati hai, taaki vo shikaar karne ka tareeka seekh sakein, janm ke lagbhag dedh maheene baad hi maada cheeta apne bachchon ko shikaar par le jana shuru kar deti hai.

hom range ki seema poorn rup se shikaar karne ki upalabdhata par nirbhar karta hai. dakshini afreeki vudalaind mein cheete ki seema kam se kam 34 kimi2 (13 varg meal) jabki naameebiya ke kuchh bhaagon mein 1,500 kimi2 (580 varg meal) tak pahunch sakte hain.

svarochchaaran

cheeta sher ki tarah dahaad naheen sakta, lekin iski gurraahat kisi bhi tarah sher se kam bhayaavah naheen hoti, cheete ki aavaaj ko ham nimn svaron se pehchaan sakte hain:

  • - chirping - cheeta apne saathiyon aur maada cheeta apne bachchon ki talaash ke dauraan jor-jor se aavaaj lagaati hai jise chirping kehte hain. cheete ka bachcha jab aavaaj nikaalata hai to ye chidiyon ki chahachahaat jaisa svar paida karta hai, yahi kaaran hai ise chirping kehte hain.
  • charing ya stataring - yeh vokalijeshan saamaajik baithakon ke dauraan cheeta dvaara utsarjit hota hai.

nar aur maada cheete jab milte hain to unke svar mein hakalaahat aa jaati hai, ye bhaav ek doosare ke prati dilchaspi, pasand aur anishchitta ka soochak hote hain (haalaanki pratyek ling vibhinn kaaranon ke liye charras karte hain).

  • gurraahat - cheeta jab naaraaj hota hai to ye gurraane aur fufakaarane lagta hai, iske nathunon se thook bhi nikalne lagta hai, aise svar cheete ki jhallaahat ko darshaate hain, cheeta jab khatre mein hota hai tab bhi isi tarah ke svar nikaalata hai.
  • aartanaad - khatre mein ghire cheete ko jab bachakar nikalne ki soorat nazar naheen aati to usaki fufakaar chillaahat mein badal jaati hai.
  • ghuraghuraahat - maada cheeta jab apne bachchon ke saath hoti hai, billi jaisi aavaaj nikaalati hai (jyaadaatar bachche aur unki maataaon ke beech). ghuraghuraahat jaisi ye aavaaj aakraamakata aur shithilta donon ka aabhaas karaati hai. cheeta ki ghuraghuraahat Robert eklund ke ingresiv speech website [1] ya Robert eklund vaaildalaaif pej [2] par suna ja sakta.

aahaar aur shikaar

impaala maar ke saath ek cheeta.

moolarup se cheeta maansaahaari hota hai, ye adhiktak stanapaayi ke antargat 40 kigra (88 paaund) jaanvaron ka shikaar karta hai, jo apne bachchon ko doodh pilaate hain, ismein thaumasan chikaare, graant chikaare, ek prakaar ka harin aur impala shaamil hain. bade stanadhaariyon ke yuva roopon jaise afreeki hiran aur jebara aur vayasko ka bhi shikaar kar leta jab cheete apne samooh mein hote hain. cheeta kharagosh aur ek prakaar ki afreeki chidiya guniyaafaul ka bhi shikaar karta hai. aamtaur par billi ka prajaatiyon vaale jaanavar raat ko shikaar karte hain, lekin cheeta din ka shikaari hai. cheeta ya to savere ke samay shikaar karta hai, ya fir der shaam ko, ye aisa samay hota hai jabki na to jyaada garmi hoti hai aur na hi adhik andhera hota hai.

cheeta apne shikaar ko usaki gandh se naheen balki usaki chhaaya se shikaar karta hai. cheeta pehle apne shikaar ke peechhe chupake chupake chalta hai 10–30 mi (33–98 fut) fir achaanak usaka peechha karna shuru kar deta hai, ye saari prakriya minton ke andar hoti hai, agar cheeta apne shikaar ko pehle hamle mein naheen pakad paata to fir vo use chhod deta hai. yahi kaaran hai ki cheeta ke shikaar karne ki ausatan safalta dar lagbhag 50% hai.[8]

uske 112 aur 120 kimi/ghanta (70 aur 75 meal/ghanta) ke raftaar se daudne ke kaaran cheeta ke shareer par jyaada dabaav padta hai. jab ye apni poori raftaar se daudta hai to iske shareer ka taapamaan itna adhik hota hai ki ye uske liye ghaatak bhi saabit ho sakta hai. yahi kaaran hai ki shikaar ke baad cheeta kaafi der tak aaraam karta hai. kabhi-kabhi to aaraam ki avidhi aadhe ghante ya usase bhi adhik ho sakti hai. cheeta apne shikaar ko peechha karte samay maarta hai, fir uske baad shikaar ke gale par prahaar karta hai, taaki usaka dam ghut jaae, cheeta ke liye chaar pairon vaale jaanvaron ka gala ghontana aasaan naheen hota. is duvidha se paar karne ke liye hi vo inke gale ke shvaasanali mein panjo aur daanto se hamla karta hai. jiske chalte shikaar kamzor padta jaata hai, iske baad cheeta parabhakshi dvaara uske shikaar ko le jaane se pehle hi jitna jaldi sambhav ho apne shikaar ko niglane mein der naheen karta .

cheeta ka bhojan uske parivesh par aadhaarit hota hai. misaal ke taur par poorvi Africa ke maidaani ilaakon mein ye hiran ya chinkaara ka shikaar karna pasand karta hai ye cheeta ki tulana mein chhota hota hai (lagbhag 53–67 semi (21–26 inch) uncha aur 70–107 semi (28–42 inch) lambaai) iske alaava iski raftaar bhi cheete se kam hoti hai (sirf 80 kimi/ghanta (50 meal/ghanta) tak) yahi vajah hai ki cheeta ise aasaani se shikaar kar leta hai, cheeta apne shikaar ke liye un jaanvaron ko chunata hai jo aamtaur par apne jhund se alag chalte hain. ye jruri naheen hai ki cheeta apne shikaar ke liye kamzor aur vruddh jaanvaron ko hi nishaana banaaye, aam taur par cheeta apne shikaar ke liye un jaanvaron ka chunata hai jo apne jhund se alag chalte hain.

thaumasan ke chinkaare ki khoj karta ek cheeta. gorangoro jvaalaamukhi, tanjaaniya.

antarvishisht hinsak sambandh

apni gati aur shikaar karne ki kaushal hone ke baavajood, mote taur par usaki seema ke adhikaansh doosare bade parabhakshiyon dvaara cheeta ko chhaant diya jaata hain. kyonki ve kuchh samay ke liye atyadhik gati se daud to sakte hain lekin pedon par chadh naheen sakte aur Africa ke adhikaansh shikaari prajaatiyon ke khilaaf apni raksha naheen kar sakte hain. aam taur par ve ladaai se bachane ki koshish karte hain aur jkhmi hone ke khatre ke bajaae ve bahut jaldi hi apne dvaara shikaar kiye gaye jaanavar ka samarpan kar dete hain, yahaan tak ki apne dvaara tatkaal shikaar kiye gaye ek lakadbagghe ko bhi arpan kar dete hain. kyonki cheeton ko bharosa hota hai ki ve apni gati ke aadhaar par bhojan praapt kar sakte hain, lekin yadi kisi prakaar se ve chotil ho gaye to unki gati kam ho jaaegi aur anivaarya roop se jeevan ka khatra bhi ho sakta hai.

cheeta dvaara kiye gaye shikaar ka anya shikaariyon ko saunp dene ki sambhaavana lagbhag 50% hoti hai.[8] din ke vibhinn samayon mein cheeta shikaar karne ka sangharsh aur shikaar karne ke baad turant hi khaane se bachane ki koshish karta hai. upalabdh range ke roop mein katauti hone ke chalte Africa mein jaanvaron ki kami hui hai aur yahi kaaran hai ki haal ke varshon mein cheeta ko anya deshi afreeki shikaariyon se adhik dabaav ka saamana karna pad raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

jeevan ke shuruaati saptaah ke dauraan hi adhikaansh cheeton ki mrutyu ho jaati hai; shurooaati samay ke dauraan 90% tak cheeta shaavakon ko sher, teindue, lakadbagghe, jangali kutton ya cheel dvaara maar diye jaate hain. yahi kaaran hai ki cheeta shaavak aksar suraksha ke liye mote jhaadiyon mein chhip jaate hain. maada cheeta apne shaavakon ki raksha karti hai aur kabhi-kabhi shikaariyon ko apne shaavakon se door tak khadedne mein safal bhi hoti hai. kabhi-kabhi nar cheeton ki madad se bhi doosare shikaariyon ko door khaded sakti hai lekin iske liye uske aapasi mel aur shikaariyon ke aakaar aur sankhya nirbhar karte hain. ek svasth vayask cheeta ke gati ke kaaran uske kaafi kam parabhakshi hote hain.[17]

manushyon ke saath sambandh

aarthik mahatva

ek cheeta ke saath ek mangol yoddha.

cheeta ke khaal ko pehle pratishtha ka prateek maana jaata tha. aaj cheeta ikoparyatan ke liye ek badhti aarthik pratishtha hai aur ve chidiyaaghar mein bhi paae jaate hain. anya billi ke prajaatiyon prakaaron mein cheeta sabse kam aakraamak hota hai aur use shikshit bhi kiya ja sakta hai yahi kaaran hai ki cheeta shaavakon ko kabhi-kabhi avaidh roop se paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein becha jaata hai.

pehle aur kabhi-kabhi aaj bhi cheeton ko maara jaata hai kyonki kai kisaanon ka maanana hai ki cheeta pashuon ko kha jaate hain. jab is prajaati ke lagbhag lupt ho jaane ke khatre saamane aae tab kisaanon ko prashikshit karne ke liye kai abhiyaanon ko chalaaya gaya tha aur cheeta ke sanrakshan ke liye unhein protsaahit karna shuroo kiya gaya tha. haal hi mein praamaanit kiya gaya hai ki cheete paalatoo pashuon ka shikaar karke naheen khaate choonki ve jangali shikaaron ko pasand karte hain isliye cheeton ko na maara jaae. haalaanki apne kshetr ke hisse mein khet ke shaamil ho jaane se bhi cheeton ko koi samasya naheen hoti aur ve sangharsh ke liye taiyaar rahate hain.

praacheen misr ke nivaasi aksar cheeton ko paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein paalate the aur paalne ke saath-saath unhein shikaar karne ke liye prashikshit karte the. cheete ke aankhon par patti baandh kar shikaar ke liye chhote pahiye vaale gaadiyon par ya hudadaar ghode par shikaar kshetr mein le jaaya jaata tha aur unhein chen se baandh diya jaata tha jabki kutte unke shikaar se uttejit ho jaate the. jab shikaar kaafi nikat hota tha tab cheeton ke munh se patti hataakar use chhod diya jaata tha. yeh parampara praacheen faarasiyon tak pahuncha aur fir vaheen se isne Bhaarat mein pravesh kiya aur beesaveen shaataabdi tak bhaarateeya raajaaon ne is parampara ka nirvaah kiya. pratishtha aur shishtata ke saath cheeta ka juda rahana jaari raha, saath hi saath paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein cheeton ko paalne ke peechhe cheeton ke shikaar karne ka adbhoot kaushal tha. anya raajakumaaron aur raajaaon ne cheeta ko paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein rakha jismein changej Khan aur chaarlemagne shaamil hain jo cheeton ko apne mahal ke maidaan ke bheetar khula rakhate the aur use apna shaan maanate the. mugal saamraajya ke mahaan raaja Akbar, jinka shaasan 1556 se 1605 tak tha, unhonne kareeb 1000 cheeton ko rakha tha.[8] haal hi mein 1930 ke dashak tak ithiyopiya ke samraat heli selaasiye ko aksar ek chen mein bandhe cheeta ke aage chalte hue photo ko dikhaaya gaya hai.

sanrakshan sthiti

anuvaanshik kaarakon aur cheeta ke bade pratidvandi jaanvaron jaise sher aur lakadbagghe ke kaaran cheeta shaavakon ke mrutyu dar kaafi adhik hote hain. haal hi mein aantarik prajanan ke kaaranon ke chalte cheete kaafi milti julati anuvaanshik rooparekha ka sahabhaagi hote hain. jiske chalte inmein kamjor shukraanu, janm dosh, tang daant, sinkude poonchh aur bankit ang hote hain. kuchh jeev vigyaani ka ab maanana hai ki ek prajaati ke roop mein unka panapana sahaj hain.[18]

cheeta international union for kanjaraveshan of nechar (IUCN) mein cheeta ko asurakshit prajaatiyon ki soochi mein shaamil kiya hai (afreeki up-prajaatiyaan sankat mein, Asiaee up-prajaatiyaan ki sthiti gambhir) saath hi saath America ke luptapraaya prajaati adhiniyam par: CITES ke parishisht mein prajaatiyaan ke sankat mein hone - ke baare mein bataaya hai (antarraashtreeya vyaapaar par viluptapraaya prajaati mein samjhauta). pachchees afreeki deshon ke jangalon mein lagbhag 12,400 cheete bache hue hain, lagbhag 2,500 cheeton ke saath naameebiya mein sabse adhik hain. gambhir roop se sankatagrast kareeb pachaas se saath Asiaee cheete Iran mein bache hue hain. duniya bhar ke chidiyaagharon mein in vitro fartilaaijeshan ke upayog ke saath-saath prajanan kaaryakram sampann karaae ja rahe hain.
1990 mein naameebiya mein sthaapit cheeta kanjaraveshan fand ka mission cheeta aur paryaavaran vyavastha par anusandhaan aur shiksha ke kshetr mein antararaashtreeya star par utkrusht aur maanyata praapt kendra banaana hai, isliye duniya bhar ke cheeto ke sanrakshan aur prabandhan ke liye hitdhaarakon ke saath kaarya kar rahe hain.
saath hi CCF ne dakshin Africa ke chaaron or stationon ki sthaapana ki hai taaki sanrakshan ke prayaas jaari rahein.
cheeta ki suraksha ke liye varsh 1993 mein dakshin Africa par aadhaarit cheeta sanrakshan foundation naamak ek sangathan ko sthaapit kiya gaya tha.

punarjangaleekaran pariyojana

Bhaarat mein kai varshon se cheeton ke hone ka gyaat kiya gaya hai. lekin shikaar aur anya prayojanon ke kaaran beesaveen sadi ke pehle cheeta vilupt ho gaye the. isliye Bhaarat sarkaar ne ek fir se cheeta ke liye punarjangaleekaran ke liye yojana bana rahi hai. guruvaar, July 9, 2009 mein times of India ke prushth sankhya 11 par ek lekh mein spasht roop se Bhaarat mein cheeton ke aayaat ki salaah di hai jahaan unka paalan poshan adheenata mein kiya jaaega. 1940 ke dashak ke baad se Bhaarat mein cheete vilupt hote gaye aur isliye sarkaar is pariyojana par yojana bana rahi hai. cheeta keval jaanavar hai ki Bhaarat mein lupt pichhle varnit paryaavaran aur van mantri jayaraam ramesh July 7 ki 2009 mein raajya sabha mein bataaya ki "cheeta ekamaatr aisa jaanavar hai jo pichhle 100 varshon mein Bhaarat mein lupt hota gaya hai. hamein unhein videshon se laakar is prajaati ki janasankhya ko fir se badhaana chaahiye." pratikriya svaroop bhaarateeya janta party (bhaajapa) ke Rajiv prataap roodi se unhonne dhyaanaakarshan soochana praapt kiya. is yojana ka uddeshya un cheeton ka vaapas laana hai jiska andhaadhundh shikaar aur ek naajuk prajanan paddhati ki jatilta ke kaaran lupt ho rahe hain aur jo baagh sanrakshan ko trast karne waali samasyaaon ko gherati hai. divya bhaanusinh aur M ke ranajeet Singh naamak do prakrutivaadiyon ne Africa se cheeton ke aayaat karne ka sujhaav diya. aayaat ke baad bandi ke roop mein unka paalan-poshan kiya jaaega aur samay ki ek nishchit avadhi ke baad unhein jangalon mein chhoda jaaega.

lokapriya sanskruti mein

teetiyn dvaara likhit bachchus aur eriyedane, 1523.
frnaand noff dvaara likhit the keyares, 1887.
  • teetiyn ke bachchus aur eriyaadne (1523), mein Bhagwan ke rath ka vahan cheeton dvaara kiya jaata hai (jo Italy ke punarjaagaran mein jaanvaron ke shikaar ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya tha). Bhagwan diyoniss ke saath cheeta aksar jude hote the aur is Bhagwan ko roman bachchus ke naam se pooja karte the.
  • George stubb ke cheeta vith too Indian atendeints end A staig (1764-1765) mein cheeta ko shikaari jaanavar dikhaaya gaya hai aur saath hi Madras ke british raajyapaal, sar George pijot dvaara George III ko cheeta ke upahaar ko ek smruti bante dikhaaya gaya hai.
  • Belgium prateekavaadi chitrakaar frnaand noff (1858-1921) dvaara the keyares (1896), idips aur sfinks aur ek mahila ke sir ke saath praani chitran aur cheeta shareer (aksar ek teinduaa ke roop mein galat samjha jaata hai) ke mithk ka pratinidhitv karta hai.
  • aandre mersiyer ke avar freind yaambo (1961) ek fraanseesi danpati dvaara apanaae gaye cheeta ki ek anokha jeevani hai, jo peris mein rahata hai. ise born free (1960), ka French javaab ke roop mein dekha jaata hai jinke lekhak joya edamsan ne apne hi cheeta ki jeevani likhi thi jiska sheershak tha the spoted sfinks (1969).
  • animated shrrunkhala thandarakaits mein ek mukhya paatr hai jo ek maanav roopi cheeta tha jiska naam cheetaara tha.
  • 1986 mein frito-le ne ek maanavaroopi cheeta, chestar cheeta ki shurooaat apne cheetos ke liye shubhankar ke roop mein kiya.
  • herold end Kumar go too white kesal ke up-kathaanak mein ek palaayan cheeta hai, jo baad mein jodi ke saath maarijuaana dhoomrapaan karta hai aur unhein savaari karne ki anumati deta hai.
  • 2005 ki film dyooma dakshin Africa ke ek yuva ki kahaani hai jo kai saahasik kaaranaamon ke saath apne paalatoo cheeta, dyooma, ko jungle mein chhodne ki koshish karta hai. yeh film kerol kauthara hopakraaft aur jain hopakraaft dvaara Africa ki ek sachchi kahaani par aadhaarit "how it vaaj vith dums pustak par aadhaarit hai.
  • paitrik O'braain dvaara likhit husain, N entarratenameint upanyaas mein Bhaarat ke british raaj ke dauraan Bhaarat|husain, N entarratenameint[[upanyaas mein Bhaarat ke british raaj ke dauraan Bhaarat mein sthaapit rauyalti ko rakhane ka prayaas aur cheeton ko hiran ke shikaar ka prashikshan ko dikhaaya gaya hai.

sandarbh

nots

  1. Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd san॰). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). pp. 532–533. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3.
  2. Bauer, H., Belbachir, F., Durant, S., Hunter, L., Marker, L., Packer, K. & Purchase, N. (2008). Acinonyx jubatus. 2008 sankatagrast prajaatiyon ki IUCN laal soochi. IUCN 2008. Retrieved on 9 October 2008.
  3. Sharp, N. C. (1994). "Timed running speed of a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)". Journal of Zoology, London 241: 493–494.
  4. Milton Hildebrand (1959). "Motions of Cheetah and Horse". Journal of Mammalogy. http://www.jstor.org/view/00222372/ap050163/05a00030/12?frame=noframe&userID=83e69956@siu.edu/01cce4405a00501cdc4b9&dpi=3&config=jstor. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-30. olado ekording too cheeta, Luke hantar aur dev hammanMilton Hildebrand (1959). "Motions of Cheetah and Horse". Journal of Mammalogy. http://www.jstor.org/view/00222372/ap050163/05a00030/12?frame=noframe&userID=83e69956@siu.edu/01cce4405a00501cdc4b9&dpi=3&config=jstor. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-30. (struik prakaashak, 2003), pp. 37-38, hai cheeta ki sarvaadhik tej gati 110 kimi/ghanta (68 meal/ghanta) darj ki thi.
  5. Kruszelnicki, Karl S. (1999). "Fake Flies and Cheating Cheetahs". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9911.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-07.
  6. Garland, T., Jr. (1983). "The relation between maximal running speed and body mass in terrestrial mammals". Journal of Zoology, London 199: 155–170. http://www.biology.ucr.edu/people/faculty/Garland/Garl1983_JZL.pdf.
  7. cheetah (n.d.). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cheetah. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-16.
  8. a aa i E u oo O'Brien, S., D. Wildt, M. Bush (1986). "The Cheetah in Genetic Peril". Scientific American 254: 68–76.
  9. Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M., san (2005). Mammal Species of the World (3rd san॰). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3.
  10. Mattern, M. Y., D. A. McLennan (2000). "Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids". Cladistics 16: 232–253. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x.
  11. Johnson, W. E., E. Eizirik, J. Pecon-Slattery, W. J. Murphy, A. Antunes, E. Teeling, S. J. O'Brien (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science 311: 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
  12. "Asiatic Cheetah". Wild About Cats. http://www.wildaboutcats.org/asiatic.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-07.
  13. "Asiatic Cheetah". WWF-Pakistan. http://www.wwfpak.org/sc_asiaticcheetah.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-07.
  14. "Scandal on the Serengeti: New light has been shed on the extent of female cheetahs' unfaithfulness to their male partners.". inthenews.co.uk. May 30, 2007. http://www.inthenews.co.uk/infocus/features/in-focus/scandal-on-serengeti-$1090967.htm$. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-07.
  15. iton, raandel L (1976) A posibl case of mimikri in laarjar mamaals ivolyooshan 30(4) :853-856 doi 10.2307/2407827
  16. richrd estes, foravard baae Edward osaborn Wilson (1991) the biheviyr guide too afreekan mamaals. California university press. prushth 371.
  17. M. W. Hayward, M. Hofmeyr, J. O'Brien & G. I. H. Kerley (2006). "Prey preferences of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (Felidae: Carnivora): morphological limitations or the need to capture rapidly consumable prey before kleptoparasites arrive?". Journal of Zoology. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118624020/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-05.
  18. Gugliotta, Guy (2008-02). "Rare Breed". Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/rare-breed.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-07.

granth soochi

  • great kaits, mejestik kriyechars op the wild, ed. John siyedenasteekar, ilus. Frank night, (rodel press, 1991), ISBN 0-87857-965-6
  • cheeta, kaithereen (ya Cathrine) aur kaarl amman, arko pab, (1985), ISBN 0-668-06259-2.
  • cheeta (beeg kait daayari), jonaathan Scott, enjela Scott, (haarparakollins, 2005), ISBN 0-00-714920-4
  • science (Vol 311, p 73)
  • cheeta, Luke hantar aur dev hamman, (struikr prakaashak, 2003), ISBN 1-86872-719-X
  • elasen, Thomas ti. (2006). "nechural history end kalcharl history: the sarkuleshan of hantig lipaards in yooreshiya, seventh-seventeenth seinchurij". in: kauntekt end exchange in the ensiyent world . Ed. Victor H. mer. havaai vishvavidyaalaya press. pp. 116–135. ISBN ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN ISBN 0-8248-2884-4

atirikt jaankaari ke liye

baahari kadiyaaain

saaaincha:Carnivora