cheeni mitti

cheeni mitti ke tukade

cheeni mitti (ya, keolinaait / Kaolinite) ek prakaar ki safed aur sughatya mitti hain, jo praakrutik avastha mein pai jaati hai. iska raasaayanik sanghatan jalayukt ailyoomino-siliket (Al2O3. 2SiO2. 2H2O) hai. cheeni mitti ko 'keolin' bhi kehte hain. cheeni bhaasha mein keolin ka arth 'pahaadi daaainda' hota hai. daande bahudha felsapaar khanij ke hote hain aur is felsapaar ka raasaayanik vightan hone ke kaaran cheen mitti ya keolin inheen daaaindon mein pai jaati hai, balki us safed aur sughatya mitti ko bhi kehte hain jo vightan ke sthaan se bahakar kisi anya sthaan mein jama ho jaati hai. isaliye cheeni mitti do prakaar ki hoti hai :

1. vah jo vightanasthal par pai jaati hai, tatha
2. vah J vightan ke sthaan se bahakar doosare sthaan mein jami pai jaati hai.

anukram

upayog

cheeni mitti ka upayog bartan, pyaale, katori, thaali, aspataal mein kaam mein laae jaanevaale saamaan, bijli ke pruthakkaari (insuletar), motaragaadiyon ke spaark plag, taapasah itein ityaadi banaane mein hota hai. rabar, kapda tatha kaagaj banaane mein cheeni mitti ko poorak ki tarah upayog mein laate hain. kabhi kabhi ise dava ke roop mein bhi khilaate hain. haija ityaadi beemaari mein keolin di jaati hai.

Bhaarat mein cheeni mitti

Bhaarat mein cheeni mitti Bihar ki raajamahal pahaadiyon aur patharagatta naamak sthaan ke paas, Delhi ke aaspaas ki pahaadiyon mein tatha Kerala mein triveindram ke paas kundaara naamak sthaan mein achhi aur prachur maatra mein milti hai. Rajasthan mein kai sthaanon par (visheshakar pahaadiyon par), Madhya Pradesh, Mumbai, Gujarat, chennai, Bengal aur aandhrapradeshon mein bhi cheeni mitti bahutaayat se pai jaati hai. asam aur Punjab mein bhi cheeni mitti prachur maatra mein pai jaane ki sambhaavana hai.

gunadharm evam vargeekaran

Spain ki ek Khan se nikli 'cheeni mitti'

mrudbhaand (pottery) udyog mein upayaagi haane ke liya cheeni mitti ke kuchh anya gun bhi hone chaahiye jaise,

  • geeli rahane par use manachaahi aakruti de dena,
  • sookhane par kathor ho jaana,
  • ooainche taap par na galana
  • sookhane par ya aag mein pakane par bhi di hui aakruti ka jyon ka tyon bana rahana,
  • sookhane va aag mein pakaane par niyamit roop se sikudna, tatha

in gunon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue uparyukt do prakaar ki cheeni mitti ka aage aur bhi vargeekaran kiya ja sakta hai, jaise:

1. vah cheeni, mitti jo aag mein pakaane par safed rahati hai aur vah cheeni mitti jo aag mein pakaane par safed naheen rahati;

2. sookhane aur pakaane par adhik sikudnevaali cheeni mitti aur kam sikudnevaali cheeni mitti;

3. ooainche taap par gal jaanevaali aur na galanevaali cheeni mitti;

4. vishesh sughatya aur kam sughatya mitti tatha

5. chhote kanonvaali mitti aur bade kanonvaali mitti.

vishesh prakaar ke gunonvaali mitti hi vishesh prakaar ke udyog mein adhik upayogi siddh hoti he, jaise ooainche taap ko sah sakanevaali mitti ka upayog taapasah iton ke banaane mein hota hai. makaan ityaadi banaane ke liye pakaane par sundar aur laal ho jaanevaali mitti adhik upayogi hai. pyaale, katori ityaadi banaane mein aag mein pakaane par safed rahanevaali mitti ko hi log adhik pasand karte hain. kapda, kaagaj ya rabar banaane ke udyog mein khoob chhote kanonvaali safed mitti ki hi adhik maaaing hai.

upayog mein laane ke pehle cheeni mitti ko apadravyon se mukt karna padta hai. yeh kriya cheeni mitti ko paani se 'dhokar' ki jaati hai. iske liye cheeni mitti ko paani mein milaakar naaliyon mein bahaaya jaata hai. apadravya bhaari hone ke kaaran neeche baith jaate hain aur cheeni mitti paani ke saath bah jaati hai. kuchh door bahne ke baad is cheeni-mitti-yukt paani ko ek tanki mein jama kar liya jaata hai. kuchh samay ke baad cheeni mitti bhi paani mein neeche baith jaati hai. oopar ka paani nikaal liya jaata hai aur mitti sukha li jaati hai.

baahari kadiyaaain