cheeni lipi

cheeni lipi sansaar ki praacheenatam lipiyon mein se hai. yeh chitralipi ka hi roopaantar hai aur ismein aksharon ki bajaae hajaaron cheeni bhaavachitron ke dvaara likha jaata hai. ismein maanav jaati ke mastishk ke vikaas ki adbhut kahaani milti hai - maanav ne kis prakaar machhali, vruksh, chandra, soorya aadi vasatuon ko dekhkar unke aadhaar par apne manobhaavon ki vyakt karne ke liye ek vibhinn chitralipi dhooaindh nikaali. isavi san ke 1700 varsh poorv se lagaakar aajatak upayog mein aanevaale cheeni shabdon ki aakrutiyon mein jo kramik vikaas hua hai usaka adhyayan is drushti se bahut rochak hai.

anukram

cheeni lipi ki vibhinn shailiyaaain

hunaan praant mein anayaang ki khudaai ke samay kachhuon ki asthiyon par shaangakaaleen (1766-1122 E.poo.) jo lekh mile hain unase pata lagta hai ki aaj se lagbhag 3000 varsh poorv cheen ke log likhne ki kala se parichit the. is praant ke nivaasiyon ka vishvaas tha ki in asthiyon mein jaadoo hai. inhein aag par tapaane se inapar jo daraarein pad jaati theen unhein dekhkar pandit log bhavishya ka bakhaan karte the. kachhuon ki asthiyon ke atirikt, pashuon ki taaaingon aur kandhon ki haddiyon par bhi lekh likhe jaate the. "choo" raajavanshon ke kaal mein (1122-221 E.poo.) cheen nivaasi kaaainse ke bartanon par likhne lage the. is kaal mein cheeni bhaasha mein bahut se nae varno ka samaavesh kiya gaya. ab baaains ya lakdi ki nukeeli kalam ki jagah baalon ke bane brush se log likhne lage the. kramash: uttar mein cheen ki badi deevaar se lekar dakshin ki or hvaai nadi ki ghaati tak cheeni lipi ka prachaar badha. iske pashchaat "chhin" raajyakaal (221-206 E.poo.) mein samraat shih hvaang ne cheeni lipi ko ek roop dene ke liya cheen bhar mein chhin lipi ka prachaar kiya. lekin is lipi ke kathin hone ke kaaran sarkaari farmaanon ke likhne padhne mein bahut dikkat hoti thi, isaliye is samay "li" lipi ka prachaar kiya gaya jismein mudi hui rekhaaon aur golaakaar konon ke sthaan par kon ki seedhi rekhaaeain banaai jaan lagi. is samay kaaainse ki jagah baaains ki pattiyon par likhne lage. is prakaar cheeni lipi ko suvyavasthit aur ekaroop banaane ke liye cheen ke log lagaataar parishram karte rahe. "haan" raajavanshon (206 E.poo. se 221 E.) aur chhin raajavanshon ke kaal (265-420 E.) mein ghaseet aur sheeghralipi shaili ka prachaar badha. isavi san ki chauthi shataabdi mein sulekhak vaang shih-chhi ne sundar aksharonvaali ek aadarsh shaili ko janm diya jisse adhik vyavasthit, sudaul aur chaukor akshar likhe jaane lage. aaj bhi likhne ki yahi shaili cheen mein prachalit hai.

ekaaksharapradhaan bhaasha

cheeni ekaaksharapradhaan bhaasha maani jaati hai, yadyapi dhyaan rakhane ki baat hai ki uske ek baar mein bole jaanevaale shabd mein ek ya ek se adhik varn ya akshar ho sakte hain. hindi ya angreji aadi bhaashaaon ki bhaaainti cheeni dhvanyaatmak bhaasha naheen hai, ataev ismein ek ek shabd ya bhaav ke liye alag alag sanketaatmak aakrutiyaaain banaai jaati hain.

varnamaala ke abhaav mein is bhaasha mein pratyek shabd ya bhaav ke liye likha jaanevaala varn ya akshar apne aap mein poorn hota hai aur vibhinn upasarg ya pratyaya na lagne se in varnon ke mool mein parivartan naheen hota. hindi, angreji aadi bhaashaaon ki bhaaainti yahaaain vibhinn pratyayon ya kaarakachihnon ki bharamaar naheen rahati jisse sanjnyaa sarvanaam or visheshanon me vibhkti pratyayon ke saath parivartan naheen hota. udaaharan ke liye ladka ladke aur ladkon- in vibhinn roopon ke liye cheeni mein ek hi varn likha jaata hai- haaya ts. kaal, vachan, purush aur streeling punlinlag ka bhed bhi yahaaain naheen hai, is drushti se cheeni bhaasha ka bolna apekshaakrut saral hain. kuchh shabdon ka uchchaaran karte hue ooainche neeche surabhed (cheeni mein ise shang kehte hain) ka dhyaan avashya rakhana padta hai. jaise, cheeni mein choo shabd se sooar, baaains, svaami aur rahana, in chaar artho ka bodh hota hai. lekin jab ham choo shabd ka iske vishisht surabhed ke saath uchchaaran karte hain tabhi hamein apekshit arth ka gyaan hota hai.

likhaavat ki kathinaaiyaaain

oopar ullekh ho chuka hai ki cheeni bhaasha mein pratyek shabd ya bhaav ke liye alag alag aakruti banaani padti hai. san 1716 mein prakaashit cheeni bhaasha ke sabse bade kosh mein is prakaar ke 40 hajaar varn ya shabdachihn diye gaye hain, yadyapi inmein se lagbhag 6-7 hajaar hi pichhle kai varsho se kaam mein aate rahe hain. jin varno ki aakruti banaate samay oopar neeche bahut se rekhaachihn lagaane padte hain, un varno ka likhna kathin hota hai. ek varn mein ek baar mein adhik se adhik lagbhag 33 rekhaachihn tak rahate hain aur yadi bhool se koi chinh idhar udhar ho gaya to arth ka anarth ho sakta hai. chitralipi ke saath cheeni lipi ka sambandh hone ke kaaran koi achha chitrakaar hi cheeni ke sundar akshar likh sakta hai. in aksharon ko seekhane ke liye usaka uchchaaran, likhaavat aur unke anrth ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai, ataev cheeni lipi ka seekhana kaafi kathin hai.

kabhi kabhi ek varn ke sthaan par do varno ke sanyog se bhi cheeni shabd banaae jaate hain. jaise, "prakaash" ke liye soorya aur chandrama, "achha" ke liye stri aur putr, "purush" ke liye khet aur taakat, "ghar" ke liye sooar aur chhat, "shaanti" ke liye ghar mein baithi hui stri, "mitrata" ke liye do haath, tatha "vansh" ke liye stri aur janm ka saanketik chinh banaaya jaata hai. kabhi vibhinn arthavaale do varno ke sanyog se bananevaale shabdon ka arth hi badal jaata hai, yatha-

shveu adhyayan, vanau likhna, shvevanau saahitya; chhingau hara, nyenau varsh, chhinganyenau yuvaavastha; mingau chamakeela, tyenau aakaash, mingatyenau kal; sheeu pashchim, hungau laal, shihu fal, shi hung shihu tamaatar; tsau apne aap, laayau aana, shveu paani, peeu kalam, ts laaya shve peeu faaunten pen;u chungau madhya, hvaau fool, renau aadmi, minu janta, kungau saadhaaran, hau ekta, kaau desh, chung hva ren min kung h kou cheeni lok jantantra.

cheeni bhaasha ko saral banaane ke prayatn

bhaavon ko vyakt karne ki saamathrya, pravaahasheelata, vyaakaranapaddhati aur shabdakosh ki drushti se cheeni bhaasha sansaar ki samruddh bhaashaaon mein gini jaati hai. lekin kanpojing, taaiping, taar bhejana, samaachaarapatron ko report bhejana, koshanirmaan aur praudh-shiksha-prachaar aadi ki drushti se yeh kaafi klisht hai, isaliye praacheen kaal se hi is bhaasha ke sambandh mein sanshodhan parivartan hote rahe hain.

isavi san ki doosari shataabdi ke baad cheen mein bhaarateeya bauddh saahitya ka pravesh hone par cheeni bhaasha ke varnochchaaran ke praamaanik gyaan ki aavashyakta prateet hui. lekin bauddh dharm sambandhi hajaaron paaribhaashik shabdon ka cheeni mein anuvaad karna sambhav na tha. ataev in shabdon ko cheeni cheeni mein aksharaantarit kiya jaane laga. jaise, bodhistv ko foosa, Amitabh ko ami to fo, shaakyamuni ko shih ja moni, stoop ko tha, ganga ko hanङ h aur jain ko cha N likha jaane laga.

cheeni ko roman lipi mein likhne ke prayaas ka itihaas bhi kaafi puraana hai. iske atirikt pichhle 60 varsho se is lipi ko dhvanyaatmak roop dene ke prayatn bhi hote rahe hain. san 1911 mein peeking boli ke uchcharan ki aadarsh maankar is prakaar ka prayatn kiya gaya. san 1919 mein 4 May ke saahityik aandolan ke pashchaat durooh klaasikl bhaasha (vanyen) ki jagah bolachaal ki bhaasha (paay hva) ko pradhaanata di jaane lagi.

san 1951 mein janamukti sena ke cheeni shikshak chhi chyen hva ne apadh majadooron, kisaanon aur sainikon ko alp samay mein cheeni sikhaane ke liye nai paddhati ka aavishkaar kiya. lekin likhne ki kathinaai isse hal na hui. is kathinaai ko door karne ke liye nae cheen ki keindreeya jan sarkaar ne cheeni ke 2000 upayogi shabd chune aur unki sahaayata se paathyapustakein taiyaar ki gayi. pehle kisi shabd ke uchchaaran se ek se adhik artho ka bodh hota tha, ya bahut se shabd ek se adhik prakaar se likhe jaate the, lekin ab yeh baat naheen hai. puraane shabdon ko saral banaane ke saath kuchh nae shabdon ka bhi aavishkaar kiya gaya hai. cheen ki sarkaar ne peeking boli ko aadarsh maankar 26 aksharon ki varnamaala taiyaar kar cheeni lipi ko dhvanyaatmak roop diya hai jisse cheeni ka seekhana saral ho gaya hai. pehle yadi 2000 shabd seekhane mein 400 ghante lagte th to ab keval 100 ghaton mein itne hi shabdon ka gyaan praapt kiya ja sakta hai.

paaramparik aur saraleekrut akshar

baanye taraf ke kaale akshar paaramparik hain. unke daayein taraf laal rang mein saraleekrut akshar hai.

1956 mein, cheen janavaadi ganaraajya ki sarkaar saraleekrut cheeni aksharon ke saarvajanik ek set karne ke liye seekhane, padhne aur cheeni bhaasha aasaan lekhan banaane ke liye banaaya hai. mukhyabhoomi cheen aur Singapore mein, logon ko in saral varnon ka upayog karein. Hongkong, taaivaan aur anya sthaanon par jahaan ve cheeni bolte hain, logon ko abhi bhi aur adhik paaramparik varn ka upayog karein. Koreai bhaasha mein bhi cheeni aksharon ka prayog karta hai kuchh shabdon ka pratinidhitv karte hain. Japani bhaasha unhein aur bhi adhik baar upayog karta hai. ye varn Koreai mein hanja ke roop mein aur kaanji ke roop mein Japani mein jaana jaata hai.

ek achhi shiksha ke saath ek cheeni vyakti aaj 6,000-7,000 akshar jaanta hai. ek mukhyabhoomi akhbaar padhne ke liye 3000 cheeni aksharon ki jaroorat hai. haalaanki, seekhane vaale log keval 400 akshar istemaal kar ek akhbaar padh sakte hain - lekin ve kuchh kam prayog kiya jaata shabd lagta hoga.

inhein bhi dekhein