cheeni bhaavachitr

cheeni lipi mein 'aaainkh' ke liye bhaavachitr
'aaainkh' ke bhaavachitr ka hast-likhit roop
shaang raajavansh kaal mein haddiyon par kharonche gaye svar-arth sanyukt bhaavachitr - inse bhavishyavaaniyaaain ki jaati theen
san 1436 mein bani cheeni bhaavachitr sikhaane ke liye ek pustak ka prushth
gaaya ke chitr se kaise usaka aadhunik bhaavachitr badlaavon ke saath utpann hua
cheeni bhaavachitron mein har disha mein kheechi jaane waali har prakaar ki lakeer ka ek bhinn naam hai - har bhaavachitr mein yeh lakeerein alag tarah se sammilit hoti hain - yahaaain dikhaae gaye bhaavachitr 永 ka matlab 'hamesha' ya 'sanaatan' hai

cheeni bhaavachitr (angreji: Chinese characters, chaaineej kairaiktarj) cheeni bhaasha aur (kuchh had tak) Japani bhaasha likhne ke liye istemaal hone vaale bhaavachitr hote hain. inhein cheeni ke liye jab prayog kiya jaae to yeh haanji (汉aa字/漢aa字, hanzi) kahalaate hain aur jab Japani ke liye prayog kiya jaae to kaanji (漢aa字, kanji) kahalaate hain. puraane jmaane mein inka prayog Koreai bhaasha aur viytanaami bhaasha ke liye bhi hota tha. cheeni bhaavachitr duniya ki sab se puraani chalti aa rahi likhne ki vidhi hai.[1]

vaise to cheeni mein dasiyon hajaar bhaavachitr hain, lekin in mein se adhiktar keval aitihaasik likhaaiyon mein dekhne ko milte hain. adhyayan se pata chala hai ki saadhaaran cheeni mein saakshar hone ke liye teen se chaar hajaar bhaavachitron ka jaanana kaafi hai. har cheeni bhaavachitr ke saath ek uchchaaran aur ek arth juda hota hai aur jyaadaatar cheeni shabd do bhaavachitron ke saath likhe jaate hain (haalaanki kuchh saral shabd ek se bhi likhe jaate hain). yeh dhyaan rahe ki uchchaaran upabhaasha aur bhaasha ke saath badalta hai. yeh devanaagari lipi ki tarah naheen hai ki kisi akshar ka har jagah vahi uchchaaran ho. ise samajhne ke liye sochiye ki agar koi pahaad ka chitr dekhe to vah sabko samajh aa jaaega, lekin hindi bolne wala us shabd ko 'parvat' kahega, faarasi bolne wala 'koh' kahega aur angreji bolne wala 'maaoonten' kahega.

anukram

roop aur saraleekaran

cheeni bhaavachitron ke aksar do ya teen roop hote hain:

  • ek roop chhaapane ke liye istemaal hota hai, jismein aasaani ke liye har bhaavachitr ek chakor akaar ke baraabar banaaya jaata hai. inhein 'chakor dabbe ke chinh' (cheeni mein 方aa塊aa字 'faangakuaaiji' aur angreji mein Square-Block Characters 'skveyar block kairaiktarj') kaha jaata hai.[2]
  • ek roop haath se jaldi likhne ki aasaani ke liye hota hai. iski lakeerein bahti hui aur kabhi-kabhi thodi aspasht hoti hain.
  • anya roop inhein chitron aur mantron mein likhne ke liye hote hain. inhein saundarya aur tasveeron mein hil-mil jaane ke liye banaaya jaata hai. yeh cheeni aur Japani sabhyata mein ek kala maani jaati hai, jise angreji mein 'kaileegrafi' (calligraphy), cheeni mein 'shoofa' (書aa法) aur Japani mein 'shodo' (書aa道) kehte hain. bhaarateeya upamahaadveep is se milti-julati kala ko praacheen imaaraton aur granthon par dekha ja sakta hai. ise Bhaarat mein 'khushakhti' ya 'aksharaankan' kaha jaata hai.[3]

samay ke saath-saath bahut saare bhaavachitr prachalit ho chuke the aur unamein se bahut likhne mein bade pecheede the, isliye Japan aur cheen ki sarkaaron ne inmein kuchh maanakeekaran aur saraleekaran kiye hain. is se cheeni bhaasha ke bahut se shabdon ke do roop hote hain - paaramparik cheeni roop aur saraleekrut cheeni roop. bahut se shabdon ke Japani aur cheeni roop bhi milte-julate lekin jra bhinn hote hain.

bhaavachitron ki kismein

cheeni bhaavachitron ki kai shreniyaaain hoti hain:[4][5]

chitrachihn

yeh kabhi chitr hua karte the lekin likhaai mein aasaani laane ke liye aur maanakeekaran karne ke baad inki shaklein thodi badal gayi hain. udaaharan svaroop, 人 (run) yaani 'vyakti', 日 (ri) yaani 'sooraj', 月 (yue) yaani 'chaaaind' aur 木 (moo) yaani 'vruksh'. lagbhag 4% cheeni bhaavachitr is shreni ke hain. angreji mein is shreni ke shabdon ko 'piktograim' (pictogram) kehte hain.

bhaavachitr

yeh chitron mein thoda fer-badal kar ke unhein anya matlab dete hain. jaise ki jahaaain 木 (moo) ka arth 'vruksh', vahaaain do vrukshon ko jodkar 林 (lin) banta hai, jiska matlab '(vrukshon ka) jhuramut' hai. agar teen vruksh jodkar 森 (sen) likhe, to iska arth 'jungle' hota hai. usi tarah 刀 (daao) ka matlab to 'chaakoo' hai lekin iski dhaar par nishaan lagaane se 刃 (ren) banta hai, yaani '(chaakoo ki) dhaar'. jra-jra se nishaan banaane se nae arthon vaale shabd banaae gaye hain. angreji mein is shreni ke shabdon ko 'idiyograim' (ideogram) kehte hain.

sanyukt bhaavachitr

inmein ek se adhik chitron ya bhaavachitron ko jodkar nae arthon vaale shabd banaae jaate hain. jaise ki 日 (ri) yaani 'sooraj' aur 月 (yue) yaani 'chaaaind' ko jodkar 明 (ming) yaani 'roshan' banta hai. yadi vyakti (人, run) ko ped (木, moo) se joda jaae to 休 (shioo) banta hai, jiska matlab hai 'vishraam' (ise samajhne ke liye sochiye ki praacheenakaal mein log pedon ke neeche vishraam kiya karte the). isi tarah se 女 (nu, stri) aur 子 (ji, bachcha) jodne se 好 (how) banta hai, jiska arth 'achha' nirdhaarit hua hai. haalaanki ispar kuchh bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ka vivaad hai, iski ek anya misaal 'chhat' ke liye 宀 chinh ko 'stri' ke liye 女 chinh ke saath milaakar 安 banaana hai, jiska arth 'shaanti' hai (yaani ghar mein stri hai aur ghar par chhat hai, to sukh-shaanti hai).

aadhunik kaal mein bhi aise nae bhaavachitr jrurat ke anusaar gadhe gaye hain. plaitinm ek moolyavaan safed dhaatu hoti hai, jiske liye bhaavachitr 鉑 hai, jo 'safed' aur 'dhaatu' ko milaakar bana hai. usi tarah 'meter' (米) aur 'hajaar' (千) ko milaakar 粁 bana - yeh unneesavi sadi ke ant ke aaspaas prayog hone laga. angreji mein is shreni ke shabdon ko 'idiyograimik kampaaundj' (ideogrammic compounds) kehte hain.

reebas

kabhi-kabhi aisa hua hai ki kisi cheej ke liye chinh naheen tha lekin us shabd ka uchchaaran kisi aur shabd se milta tha jiske liye bhaavachitr tha, to vah chinh donon ke liye hi istemaal hone laga. masalan, bahut cheeni bhaashaaoain mein 'ji' shabd ka arth 'naak' bhi tha aur 'swayam' bhi tha. 'naak' ke liye chinh 自 tha aur vah 'swayam' ke liye bhi prayog hone laga. vakt ke saath is chinh ka 'naak' arth to bhula diya gaya aur aadhunik cheeni lipi mein iska arth sirf 'swayam' rah gaya hai. is shreni ka naam 'reebas' (rebus) angreji se liya gaya hai.

svar-arth sanyukt bhaavachitr

cheeni lipi ke sab se adhik shabd is shreni ke hote hain. inmein ek ya ek se adhik chinh aise hote hain jo shabd ka arth bataate hain aur ek bhaavachitr aisa hota hai jiska arth se koi lena-dena naheen lekin yeh kisi aisi cheej ka chinh hota hai jiska uchchaaran is shabd se milta-julata ho. is se shabd ka uchchaaran aur matlab donon pata chal jaate hain. udahaaran ke liye 'nadi' (河, he), 'jheel' (湖, hu), 'jharana' (流, lioo), 'bahut zabardast paani ki dhaar, ya flash kiya gaya paani' (沖, chong) aur 'fislan' (滑, hua). gaur keejiye ki har chinh ki baai taraf teen chhoti lakeerein hain, jo 'nadi' ke chitr ko saral karke bana hai. is se sanket milta hai ki shabd 'paani' se sambandhit hai. shabd ka daai taraf ka hissa sirf dhvani bataata hai. 沖 (chong, flash kiya gaya paani) ke daai taraf 中 hai, jiska arth cheeni mein 'beech' hota hai aur uchchaaran 'jhong' hota hai. dekha ja sakta hai ki 沖 kah raha hai 'paani se sambandhit shabd, jiska uchchaaran jhong se milta hai', yaani 'chong'. angreji mein aise bhaavachitron ke arth bataane vaale hisse ko 'raidikl' (radical) bolte hain aur is shreni ke shabdon ko 'fono-seemaintik kampaaundj' (phono-semantic compounds) kehte hain. is shreni ke bhaavachitr sabse pehle shaang raajavansh ke jmaane mein viksit hue the aur us samay ke khandaharon mein mili haddiyon par kharonche hue mile hain.[6]

kabhi-kabhi do bhaavachitron se ek shabd banta hai jismein arthabhaag (raidikl) donon bhaavachitron par laagoo hota hai. masalan cheen ka ek sangeet vaadya hai, 'beeva' aur ek fal hai 'laukaat'. in donon ke aakaar dekhne mein milte hain. beeva ko 批aa把 likha jaata tha, jismein donon chihnon ki baai taraf ek oopar-neeche jaate haath ka arth sanket hai, yaani oopar-neeche haath chalaakar vaadya bajaana. ab ismein 'haath' ka arthabhaag (raidikl) badalkar 'ped' ka raidikl lagaane se 枇aa杷 ka chinh bana (gaur se dekhiye ki donon chihnon mein baai taraf ki ek chhoti lakeer ab ped ki tahaniyon ki tarah jhukati hai). is nae do chihnon vaale shabd ka matlab 'laukaat ka fal' tha. samay ke saath beeva vaadya ke chinh swayam hi badal gaye aur aadhunik cheeni mein 琵aa琶 hain (aap dekh sakte hain ki svar ke chinh jo pehle daai taraf the ab pichk kar neeche ho gaye hain).

parivrtit sajaateeya

bhaashaaoain mein sajaateeya shabd ve hote hain jo kabhi ek hi hua karte the lekin samay ke saath-saath inke svar alag ho gaye hain aur kabhi-kabhi arth bhi badal gaye hain. udaaharan ke liye sanskrut ka 'pati' shabd (arth: maalik) aur angreji ka 'poteint' (potent, arth: shaktishaali) shabd ek hi aadim hind-Europeeya bhaasha ke shabd se utpann hue hain, lekin samay ke saath inke uchchaaran aur arthon donon mein jra frk aa gaya hai. cheeni bhaasha mein bhi aisa hua hai. masalan 'kaao' (考, aajmaana) aur 'laao' (老, puraana) kabhi ek hi shabd hua karte the, lekin samay ke saath inke uchchaaran aur bhaavachitr donon ek-dusare se bhinn ho gaye hain. is shreni ke bhaavachitr cheeni lipi mein kam hain aur angreji mein is shreni ko 'traansafaurmd kauganets' (transformed cognates) bulaaya jaata hai.

kuchh saadhaaran shabdon ki bhaavachitr soochi

kuchh aam shabdon ke paaramparik cheeni, saraleekrut cheeni aur Japani roop
paaramparik cheeni saraleekrut cheeni Japani arth
janavaadi ganatantr cheen mein saraleekrut kiye gaye, lekin Japan mein naheen bijli
khreed
khula
poorv
gaadi, vaahan
laal (Japani mein gaadha laal ya surkh)
kuchh naheen
chidiya
garam
samay
bhaasha
Japan mein saraleekrut lekin cheen mein naheen mahaatma buddh
ehasaan
(achha) gun
pooja, stuti
kaala (rang)
barf
khragosh
irshya
Japan aur cheen donon mein saraleekrut,
magar alag dhang se
sunana
pramaan, saboot
ajhdaha (draigan)
bechana
kachhuaa
aayu, saal
kala, kalaaeain
ladaai, yuddh
band karna, rishtedaari
loha, dhaatu
chitr, chitran
gut, dal, giroh
mod, mudna
广 chauda
bura, dusht
bharpoor
mastishk
vagairaah, vividh
dabaav
murgi, murga
keemat, moolya
maja, aanand
hava
galiyaara, daftar
Japan aur cheen donon mein saraleekrut
ek hi dhang se
dhvani, aavaaj
seekhana
shareer
bindu
billi
keeda
puraana, boodha
kar sakana (kriya), milna
das hajaar
chor
khjaana
desh
davaai

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Sign, symbol, and script: an account of man's efforts to write, Hans Jensen, Allen & Unwin, 1969, ... The Chinese script can claim the distinction of being the oldest script in the world still in use today ; its age after all is to be estimated for certain at more than 4000 years ...
  2. Gateway to Chinese culture, Chunjiang Fu, Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 2003, ISBN 978-981-229-328-2, ... The Chinese script is one of the oldest in the world. Each character is written by itself in a square block, hence the name 'square block characters' ...
  3. A new English-Hindustani dictionary, S. W. Fallon, John Drew Bate, E.J. Lazarus, 1883, ... Calligraphy, n. khush-navisi; khush-khati ...
  4. Analysis of Chinese characters, George Durand Wilder, James Henry Ingram, Frederick William Baller, Courier Dover Publications, 1934, ISBN 978-0-486-23045-0
  5. Chinese Characters: Learn and Remember 2178 Characters and Their Meanings, Dr. Alan Hoenig, EZChinesey.com, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9822324-0-8
  6. A Cultural History of the Chinese Language, Sharron Gu, McFarland, 2011, ISBN 978-0-7864-6649-8, ... ...