cheeni bhaasha aur saahitya

cheeni saahitya apni praacheenata, vividhta aur aitihaasik ulalekhon ke liye prakhyaat hai. cheen ka praacheen saahitya "paaainch klaasikl" ke roop mein upalabdh hota hai jiske praacheenatam bhaag ka isa ke poorv lagbhag 15veen shataabdi maana jaata hai. ismein itihaas (shoo ching), prashastigeet (shih chhing), parivartan (E ching), vidhi vidhaan (li chi) tatha kanafyooshiys (552-479 E.poo.) dvaara sangrahit vasant aur sharad-vivran (chhun chhiu) naamak tatkaaleen itihaas shaamil hain jo chhin raajavanshon ke poorv ka ekamaatr aitihaasik sangrah hai. poorvakaal mein shaasanavyavastha chalaane ke liye raajya ke padaadhikaariyon ko kanafyooshias dharm mein paarangat hona aavashyak tha, isse sarkaari pareekshaaon ke liye in granthon ka adhyayan anivaarya kar diya gaya tha.

kanafyooshias ke atirikt cheen mein laaots, chuaangats aur menshiys aadi anek daarshanik ho gaye hain jinke saahitya ne cheeni janajeevan ko prabhaavit kiya hai.

anukram

janakavi choo yvaan

choo yvaan (340-278 E.poo.) cheen ke sarvapratham janakavi maane jaate hain. ve choo raajya ke nivaasi deshbhakt mantri the. raajyakarmachaariyon ke shadyantr ke kaaran dushcharitrata ka doshaaropan kar unhein raajya se nirvaasit kar diya gaya. kavi ka nirvaasit jeevan atyant kasht mein beeta. is samay apni aantarik vedana ko vyakt karne ke liye unhonne upama aur roopakon se alankrut "shok" (li saav) naam ke geetaatmak kaavya ki rachana ki. aakhir jab unke komal hrudaya ko duniya ki kroorata sahan na hui to ek bade patthar ko chhaati se baaaindh ve mili (hoonaan praant mein) nadi mein kood pade. apne is mahaan kavi ki smruti mein cheen mein naagaraaj-naav naam ka tyauhaar har saal manaaya jaata hai. iska arth hai ki naavein aaj bhi kavi ke shareer ki khoj mein nadiyon ke chakkar laga rahi hain.

thaang kaaleen kavita

thaang raajaaon ka kaal (600-900 E.) cheen ka svarnayug kaha jaata hai. is yug mein kaavya, katha, naatak aur chitrakala aadi mein unnati hui. vaastav mein cheeni kaavyakala "prashasti geet" se aarambh hui, choo yuvaan ki kavitaaon se use bal mila aur thaangayug mein usane poornata praapt ki. is yug ki 48,900 kavitaaon ka sangrah san 1907 mein 30 bhaagon mein prakaashit hua hai. is kavitaaon mein praakrutik saundarya, prem, virh, raajapranshasa tatha bauddh aur taao dharm ke varnanon ki mukhyata hai. sankshiptata cheeni kaavya ka gun maana jaata hai, isaliye lambe aitihaasik kaavya cheen mein praaya: naheen likhe gaye. chitrakala ki bhaaainti saanketikta is kavita ka doosra gun raha hai. cheeni vaakyaavali mein vibhkti, pratyaya, kaal aur vachanabhed, aadi ke abhaav mein poorvopar prasang aadi se hi kaavyagat bhaavon ko samajhna padta hai, isaliye cheeni kavita ko hrudayangam karne mein kuchh abhyaas ki aavashyakta hai.

li po (705-762 E.) is kaal ke ek mahaan kavi ho gaye hain. bahut dinon tak ve bhraman karte rahe, fir kuchh kaviyon ke saath himaalaya prasthaan kar gaye. vahaaain se lautakar raajadarabaar mein rahane lage, lekin kisi shadyantr ke kaaran unhein sheegra hi apna pad chhodna pada. apni aantarik vyatha vyakt karte hue kavi ne kaha hai :

mere safed hote hue vaalon se ek lamba, bahut lamba rassa banega,
fir bhi usase mere du:kh ki gaharaai ki thaah naheen maapi ja sakti.

ek baar raatri ke samay naukaavihaar karte hue, khumaari ki haalat mein, kavi ne jal mein pratibinbit chandrama ko pakadna chaaha, lekin ve nadi mein gir pade or doob kar mar gaye.

too foo (712-770 E.) is kaal ke doosare ullekhaneeya mahaan kavi hain. apni kavita par unhein bada garv tha. yuddh, maarakaat, sainik shiksha aadi ka chitran too foo ne badi sashakt shaili mein kiya hai. unke samay mein cheen patan ki or ja raha tha jisse saamaajik jeevan astavyast ho gaya tha. videshi aakraman ke kaaran raajakaron mein vruddhi ho gayi thi aur sainik shiksha anivaarya kar di gayi thi. tatkaaleen shaasakon ki dasha ka chitran karte hue kavi ne likha hai :

main apne samraat ko yaaaa aur shun ke samaan mahaan banaana chaahata hooain aur apne desh ke reetirivaaj pun: sthaapit karna chaahata hooain.

apne antim dinon mein bhayankar baadh aane par too foo das din tak vrukshon ki jadein khaakar nirvaah karte rahe. uske baad maans madira ka atyadhik sevan karne ke kaaran unhein apne praanon se haath dhona pada.

po chhoo yi (772-486 E.) is yug ke doosare shreshth kavi hain. svabhaav se ve bahut rasik the. laaots ke "taao te ching" par vyangya karte hue kavi ne kaha hai : "jo jaanta hai vah kehta naheen aur jo kehta hai vah jaanta naheen."

ye laao ts ke vaakya hain. lekin is haalat mein swayam laaots ke "paaainch hajaar se adhik shabdon ka" kya hoga?

po chhoo yi ki maaain foolon ka saundarya nireekshan karte karte kueain mein gir padi thi, ispar sahrudaya kavi ki lekhani dvaara foolon ki prashansa mein aur "naya koop" naam ki kavitaaeain likhi gain. "chirsthaayi dosh" naam ki kavita mein kavi ne samraat ming hvaang (685-762 E.) ke adh:patan ka maarmik chitr upasthit kiya hai. "koyala bechanevaala", "raajaneetijnya", "tooti baaainhavaala boodha" aadi vyangyapradhaan kavitaaeain bhi kavi ki lekhani se udbhoot hui hain. bhaasha ki saralata ke kaaran unki kavitaaon ne janasaadhaaran mein prasiddh pai hai.

aadhunik kaavya

vishay, bhaav aur aakaar prakaar ki drushti se praacheen kavita ka kshetr bahut seemit tha. ek kavita mein praaya: 4 ya 8 panktiyaaain rahati thi jo alag alag naheen likhi jaati thi, viraamachihn bhi ismein naheen rahate the jisse kavita samajhne mein kathinaai hoti thi. pratham vishvayuddh ke baad Bhaarat ki bhaaainti cheen mein bhi aarthik aur raajaneetik parivartan hue jisse saahityik kshetr mein jaagruti dikhaai dene lagi. 4 May 1919 ke kraantikaari aandolan ke uparaant cheeni kavita mein janasaadhaaran ke sanghashon ke chitran ka sootrapaat hua.

cheeni kavita ko naveen roop denevaalon mein ko mo-ro ka naam sabse pehle aata hai. unhonne prakruti, dharati, samudra, soorya aadi ki prashansa mein ek se ek sundar kavitaaon ki rachana kar cheeni saahitya ko aage badhaaya hai. san 1921 mein prakaashit "deviyaaain" naam ke inke kavitaasangrah mein vidroh ke saath saath aashaavaad spasht dikhaai deta hai. isi samay chyaang kvaang-ts ne roos ki October kraanti par preranaadaayak kavitaaon ki rachana ki. in kavitaaon mein haath mein bandook lekar shatru se ladne ke liye kavi ne apne desh ke naunihaalon ko lalkaara hai.

san 1930 mein cheeni mein vaamapaksheeya lekhakasangh ki sthaapana hui. is samay komingataang sarkaar ne anek tarun saahityikon ko giraftaar karke maut ke ghaat utaar diya. inmein h ye-fing (suprasiddh lekhika tiङ liङ ke pati) aur yin foo naamak kaviyon ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. san 1931 mein cheeni lekhakon ka ek sangh bana jisse prerana praapt kar you feing, tsaang ke-chhiya, vaang ya-fing aur tyen chhooyen aadi kaviyon ne akaal, bhukhamari, kisaanon aur jameendaaron ka sangharsh, vidroh, hadtaal aadi anek saamayik vishyon par rachanaaeain prastut keen.

aay chhing vartamaan yug ke lokapriya kavi maane jaate hain. unhonne "vah soya hai", "kaali ladki gaati hai", "jahaaain kaale aadmi rahate hain" aadi bhaavapoorn kavitaaeain likheen. "vah doosari baar praanon ki tilaanjali deta hai" naamak kavita mein kavi ne ek ghaayal kisaan sipaahi ka maarmik chitr upasthit kiya hai jo nagar ki sadak par bade garv se kadam uthaakar chalta hai. yuddhottarakaaleen kaviyon mein yvaan shui-po, li chi, ho chhi-faang aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. yvaan shui-po, li chi, ho chhi-faang aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. yvaan shui po ne lokageet ki shaili mein "billiyaaain" naamaki vyangyaatmak kavita ki rachana ki. lichi ki "ang kvei aur li shyaang shyaang" naamak kavita cheen mein atyant prasiddh hai, yeh bhi geet shaili mein likhi gayi hai. san 1954 ki bhayankar baadh ka saamana karne ke liye voo haan ki janta ko josh dilaate hue ho chhi-faang ne ek bhaavapoorn kavita likhi. isi tarah aay chhing, shih faang-you aur li tyen-thin aadi pragatisheel kaviyon ne shaantirksha par sundar rachanaaeain prastut ki hain.

praacheen kathaasaahitya

sabhyata ke aadim kaal mein hvaangaho nadi ki upatyaka mein jeevanayaapan karte hue cheen ke logon ko praakrutik shaktiyon ke viruddh jordaar sangharsh karna pada jisse is desh ke nivaasiyon ka yathaarthavaadi vishvaason ki or jhukaav hua; bhaaratavarsh ki bhaaainti aadhyaatmik tatvon aur pauraanikkathaakahaaniyon ka vikaas yahaaain naheen ho saka. praakrutik devi devataaaan ke prati bhaya athva aadar ki bhaavana se prerit hokar aadim maanav ke mukh se jo svaabhaavik sangeet prasfutit hua vahi aadim kavita kahalaai. shanai: shanai: manushya ne praakrutik shaktiyon par vijay pai, usaka sangharsh kam hota gaya aur avakaash milne par katha kahaaniyon ki aar usaki ruchi badhti gayi.

praacheen cheen mein klaasikl saahitya ka itna adhik mahatva tha ki upanyaason aur naatakon ko saahitya ka ang hi naheen maana jaata tha. cheeni ka "shyaao shvo" shabd upanyaas aur kahaani donon artho mein prayukt hota hai. isse maaloom hota hai ki aadhunik katha saahitya ka vikaas baad mein hua.

thaangakaaleen katha saahitya

thaangakaaleen raajavanshon ke poorv kahaani saahitya keval pariyon aur bhoot pret ki kahaaniyon tak seemit tha uske baad "adbhut kahaaniyaaain" (cheeni mein chhvaan chhi) likhi jaane lageen, lekin tatkaaleen vidvaanon ke nibandhon ki tulana mein ye nimn koti ki hi samajhi jaati theen. kramash: kahaani saahitya mein pragati hui aur thaangakaal mein charitrapradhaan kahaaniyon ki rachana hone lagi. kuchh kahaaniyaaain klaasikl likhi gayi tatha kuchh vyang, prem aur shauryapradhaan. chhen shvaan-yu ne "bhatakati hui aatma", li chhaao-vei ne "naagaraaj ki kanya" aur yvaan chheing ne "ying ying ki kahaani" naamak bhaavapoorn prem kahaaniyon ki rachana ki. in dinon padhe likhe log sarkaari pareekshaaeain paas karke uchch pad paane ke svapn dekha karte the aur ant mein asafal hone se jeevan se niraash ho baithate the- iska maarmik chitran pai shing-chhyen ki "veshya ki kahaani", li kung-tso ki "dakshin ke uparaajya ki raajyapaal", sheing ya chhih ki "chhin ka svapn" aur sheing chhein-tsi ki "takiye ke neeche" kahaaniyon mein badi kushalataapoorvak kiya gaya hai.

ming aur manchoo kaal mein bhi kahaani saahitya likha gaya. lyaao chhaai chhih i (adbhut kahaaniyaaain) manchoo kaal ki prasiddh kahaaniyaaain hain, lekhak ka naam hai foo sung-ling.

upanyaas

cheeni upanyaason ka aarambh mangol raajavanshon ke kaal se hota hai. is samay yuddh, shadyantr, prem, andhavishvaas aur yaatra aadi vishyon par upanyaason ki rachana hui. le kvaan ching ka likh hua saan ka chih yen i (teen raajadhaaniyon ki premaakhyaayika) yuddh pradhaan aitihaasik upanyaas hai jismein yuddh ke drushya, chatur senaapatiyon ke shadyantr or ranakaushal aadi ka aakarshak shaili mein varnan kiya gaya hai. isi lekhak ka doosra upanyaas shui hoo (jal ka tat) hai. ismein sungachyaang aur uske saathiyon ke krutyon ka varnan hai. us kaal mein prachalit katha kahaaniyon ke aadhaar par lekhak ne bade parishramapoorvak yeh rachana prastut ki hai. "anisht ki paraajaya" is lekhak ki teesari rachana hai jismein peichaau ke naagrik vaang ts ke krutyon ka varnan hai. vaang ts ne kisi jaadoo ke bal se vidroh kiya tha lekin vah safal na ho saka.

ming kaal mein anek nae upanyaason ki rachana hui. chhin fing mei (suvarn kamal) ming kaal ka sarvashreshth upanyaas hai jismein sungakaaleen bhrasht jeevan ka prabhaavashaali chitran hai. iske lekhak vaang shih-chheing hain jinki mrutyu 1593 mein hui. lekhak ki mrutyu ke lagbhag 100 varsh pashchaat upanyaas ka prakaashan hua. manovaigyaanik aur saanskrutik saamagri ka adhyayan karne ke liye yeh upanyaas bahut mahatva ka hai. suprasiddh cheeni yaatri yuvaan chvaang ki Bhaarat yaatra par aadhaarit shi you chi (pashchim ki yaatra) is kaal ki doosari rachana hai. iske lekhak voo chheing-yen maane jaate hain; inhonne lokaprachalit kathaaon ko batorkar 100 adhyaayon mein yeh sundar upanyaas likha. saral aur lokapriya shaili mein likhi gayi is rachana mein sun voo-kung naam ka buddhabhakt vaanararaaj, pashchim ki or prayaan karte hue cheeni yaatri ki pad pad par raksha karta hai. you chhya O li is kaal ki ek doosari bruhatkaaya rachana hai; anek sthalon par ismein punaraavrutti bhi hui hai. yeh upanyaas apne mool roop mein upalabdh naheen. ismein ek shikshit yuvak ki premakahaani hai jo sundariyon se prem karta hai. punarjanm aur karmafal ko yahaaain mukhya kaha gaya hai. liyeh ko chvaan upanyaas ke lekhak ka naam bhi agyaat hai. lekhak ka daava hai ki usaki is asaadhaaran kruti ki pratyek ghatna yathaarthata par aadhaarit hai aur ise upanyaas ki apeksha itihaas kehna hi adhik upayukt hai. is kaal ka doosra prasiddh upanyaas chhing hva yvaan hai. samraajnyai voo ke raajya ki ghatnaaon ka ismein varnan hai. yeh samraajnyai san 684 mein raajasinhaasan par baithi aur 20 varsh tak raajya karti rahi. fing shaan leing yen uchch koti ki saahityik shaili mein likha hua upanyaas hai. ismein fing aur yen naamak do tarun vidyaarthiyon ki prem kahaani hai jo shaan aur leing naam ki kavayitriyon ki saahityik pratibha se aakrusht hokar unase prem karne lagte hain. ar tou mei upanyaas mein pitrubhakti, mitrata or padosiyon ke prati kartavya ko mukhya bataaya hai.

hung lau mang (laal bhavan ka svapn) cheen ka atyant lokapriya upanyaas hai jo manchoo kaal mein isavi san ki 17veen shataabdi mein likha gaya tha. iske lekhak ka naam hai tsaao shyave chhin (E. 1724-1764 E.) is upanyaas ka puraana naam "chattaan ki kahaani" tha. lekhak ne anek paandulipiyon ke aadhaar par bade parishram se ise lipibddh kiya. upanyaas ki premakatha bolachaal ki saral aur aakarshak shaili mein likhi gayi hai. saamanti samaaj ka sookshm chitran karte hue yahaaain shaasak varg ki buraaiyon ka pardaafaash kiya gaya hai. beech beech mein haasya aur karun ras ke aakhyaan hein jo uchch koti ki kavitaaon se gunfit hain. yeh kruti 24 bhaagon mein aur 4000 prushthon mein prakaashit hui hai; ismein 9 lakh shabd hain aur 448 paatr. manchoo raajaaon ne ise uchhrunkhalataapoorn aur anaitik bataakar ise nasht kar dene ki shoghana ki thi. is yug ka doosra suprasiddh upanyaas hai "vidvaanon ka jeevan". iske lekhak voo chhing-ts (E. 1701-1754) hain. ye donon hi upanyaas pichhlein 200 varsho se cheen mein bade chaav se padhe jaate rahe hain aur donon hi janataantrik vichaaradhaara ki pratishtha mein sahaayak hue hain. manchoo raajaaon ke kaal mein shaasakon ka bhrashtaachaar apni charam seema par pahuainch gaya tha aur unamein chhote chhote svaartho ke liye yuddh hua karte the. vidvaan praaya: shaasakon ke niyantran mein rahate aur sahaayata se shaasak praja par manamaana atyaachaar karte the. vidvaanon ka naitik adh:patan apni seema ko laaaingh gaya tha. sarkaari pareekshaaeain paas karke dhan aur maan praapt karna, bas yahi unke jeevan ka ekamaatr uddeshya rah gaya tha. inheen sab baaton ka chitran kushal lekhak ne vyangyapoorn shaili mein kiya hai.

aadhunik katha saahitya

aadhunik cheeni saahitya ka aarambh pratham vishvayuddh ke baad hua. yuddh ke kaaran aathrik or raajaneetik kshetron mein jo parivartan hue unase naitikta ke maapdand hi badal gaye, jeevan ki gati teevr ho gayi aur jeevan mein adhik pecheedagi aur jatilta aa gayi. isi samay se cheeni saahitya mein ek pragatisheel yathaarthavaadi dhaara ka janm hua jisse cheen ke tarun lekhakon ko naya saahitya surgeon karne ki prerana mili.

cheen ke gorki kahe jaanevaale lu shun (1881-1936) aadhunik cheeni saahitya mein maulik kahaaniyon ke janmadaata kahe jaate hain. apni lekhani dvaara unhonne saamanti samaaj par karaare prahaar kiye hain. kala aur jeevan ka ve ghanisht sambandh sveekaar karte hain. lu shun samaaj ke nagn aur veebhats chitran se hi santosh naheen kar lete balki samaajavaadi yathaarthata ke oopar aadhaarit jeevan ke vaastavik lekin aasthaapoorn chiddh bhi unhonne prastut kiye hain. "saabun ki tikiya" kahaani mein pitrubhakti ki paramparaagat bhaavana par teevr prahaar kiya gaya hai. "aah kyoo ki sachchi kahaani" lu shun ki doosari shreshth kruti hai jismein apni "laaj" ko bachaane ki heen manovrutti par karaara vyangya hai. "manushyadveshi" kahaani mein buddhijeeviyon ke svapnon par kathor aaghaat hai. "mera puraana ghar" aur "nae varsh ka balidaan" kahaaniyon mein graameen kisaanon ka hrudayadraavak chitran hai. anek mahatvapoorn aalochanaatmak nibandh bhi lu shun ne likhe hain.

aadhunik cheeni saahityik aandolan ke neta maao tun (janm 1896) anek yathaarthavaadi upanyaason aur kahaaniyon ke safal lekhak hain. san 1926 se lekar 1932 tak inhonne "indradhanush", "ek pankti mein teen" aur "sadak" aadi upanyaason ki rachana ki hai. inka "madhyaraatri" upanyaas cheeni saahitya ki shreshthatam kruti maani jaati hai. saamraajyavaadi shoshan ke kaaran udyog dhandhon ki kami se cheen kis sankataapann avastha se gujar raha tha, iska yahaaain maarmik chitran hai. "basant ke reshami keede" aur "lin parivaar ki dookaan" naamak kahaaniyon se maao tun ko khyaati mili hai. laao sh (janm 1897) cheen ke doosare suprasiddh lekhak hain. inke "rikshaavaala" upanyaas ne antaraashtreeya khyaati praapt ki hai. "laao li ke prem ki khoj" aur "khilaadiyon ka desh" aadi inki prasiddh rachanaaeain hain. abhi haal mein laao sh ne "naamarahit pahaadi jiska naakaran ab hua hai" naamak upanyaas likha hai. tiङ liङ cheen ki kraantikaari mahila hain. san 1927 se hi inhonne likhna shuroo kar diya tha. komingataang ki police dvaara apne pati hoo ye-fing ki nirmam hatya kar diye jaane par ye komingataang sarkaar ke viruddh jor se kama karne lageen. deshbhakti ke kaaran tiङ liङ ko jal ki yaatanaaeain bhi sahani padeen. inki "jal" naamak kahaani mein pralayakaari baadh ko rokane ke liye kisaanon ke sangharsh ka sashakt shaili mein chitran kiya gaya hai. "jab main laal aakaash gaaainv mein thi" naamak kahaani mein Japani sipaahiyon ke balaatkaar ka shikaar bani ek navayuvati ka sahaanubhootipoorn chitr prastut hai. san 1950 mein tiङ liङ ki uttar shaansi par "vaayu aur soorya" naam ki rachana prakaashit hui. "saangakaan nadi par soorya ka prakaash" naamak upanyaas par inhein staalin puraskaar diya gaya. is upanyaas ka vishay bhoomisudhaar hai jo lekhika ke anubhav ke aadhaar par likha gaya hai. pa chhin (janm 1904) ne "basant", "sharat" aur "durdaant nadi" aadi safal upanyaason ki rachana ki hai. in rachanaaon mein navayuvakon ke vichaaron mein antavinrodhon ke sundar chitran milte hain. yahaaain jagah jagah saamanti vyavastha ke prati ghruna aur kraantikaariyon ke prati aadar ka bhaav vyakt kiya gaya hai. pa chhin ki sarvashreshth rachana "parivaar" hai. yeh unki baalyavastha anubhavon par aadhaarit hai. chaao shu li (janm 1905) ki rachanaaon mein kisaanon ka sangharsh tatha nae samaaj mein prem ka chitran prastut hai. lekhak ne gaaainvon mein kisaanon ki sahakaari sansthaaon ko sangathit karne ka anubhav praapt kiya hai. cha O shu li ki "shyaao a hai ka vivaah" aur li you tsaay ki "tukaant kavitaaeain" naam ki kahaaniyaaain kaafi lokapriya hui hain. "li ke gaaainv mein parivartan" inka safal upanyaas hai. abhi haal mein chaao shu li ka "saanalivaan gaaainv" naam ka ek aur sundar upanyaas prakaashit hua hai jisse unhein saahityik jagat mein vishesh khyaati mili hai. cha O shu-li bhaasha ke dhani hain, inki bhaasha saral aur prabhaavotpaadak hai.

anya anek upanyaasakaar aur kahaani lekhak bhi cheen mein hue hain jinhonne janavaadi saahitya ka nirmaan kar maanavata ke utthaan mein yog diya hai. chaao ming san 1932 se hi vaamapaksheeya lekhakasangh ki sadasya rahi hain. lekhika ka "shakti ka strot" upanyaas unke kaarkhaanon mein kaam karne ke anubhavon par aadhaarit hai. khung chhvaye aur yvaan chhing pati patni hain, donon ne milkar "putriyaaain aur putr" naamak ek sashakt upanyaas likha hai jismein Japani sena ke khilaaf kisaan gorillon ke yuddh ka prabhaavashaali varnan hai. chau li-po (janm 1908) ne apni rachanaaon mein bhoomisudhaar ke chitr prastut kiye hain. "toofaan" naamak upanyaas par inhein staalin puraskaar se puraskrut kiya gaya hai. pighla hua ispaat chau li-po ka ek aur sundar upanyaas hai jo haal mein hi prakaashit hua hai. ka O you-paao ne sena mein bharti hone ke baad aksharajnyaaan praapt kiya tha. unki aatmakatha mein upanyaas jaisa aannad milta hai. yaang shyvo na "parvat aur nadiyon ke teen hajaar li" naamak upanyaas likha hai jismein rel majadooron ka chitran hai. lei chhya ne "yaaloo nadi par vasant" aur aayu boo ne "parvat aur khet" naamak upanyaason ki rachana ki hai.

upanyaason ke saath aadhunik kahaani saahitya ki bhi yathesht shreevruddhi hui. abhi haal mein cheeni kahaaniyon ke angreji anuvaadon ke kuchh sangrah prakaashit hue hain. "ghar ki yaatra tatha anya kahaaniyaaain" naamak sangrah mein aay boo, li hun, chhi shyave-pei, li u paai-you, ma fang, liu chhen, hun chhig, naan ting aadi lekhakon ki rachanaaeain sanmilit hain. "nadi par ushaakaal tatha anya kahaaniyaaain" aur "navajeevan ka nirmaan" naamak sangrahon mein bhi cheen ke tarun lekhakon ki rachanaaeain sangraheet hain.

cheeni naatak

cheeni naatakon ka itihaas kaafi puraana hai. bhaaratavarsh ki bhaaainti devi devata ya raajaaon mahaaraajaaon ke samaksh kiye jaanevaale praacheen nrutya hi in naatakon ke moolaaadhaar hai. thaang raajavanshon ke kaal mein ming hvaang naamak samraat ne raajadarabaariyon ke manoranjan ke liye ladke ladkiyon ki naatyasanstha kholi. aage chalakar vilaasapriya sung raajaaon ke kaal (960-1278 E.) mein naatyakala ki unnati hui, lekin is kala ka poorn vikaas hua mangol raajaaon ke samay (1200-1368 E.). is yug mein ek se ek sundar naatakon ki rachana hui. hvaan chhu shyavaan ts chhi ke 8 bhaagon mein 100 naatakon ka sangrah chhapa hai. vaang shi-foo ka likha hua shi shyaang chi (pashchim bhavan ki kahaani) is kaal ke sarvashreshth naatakon mein gina jaata hai. ismein vaayu, pushp, him aur jyotsna aadi sambandhi anek samvaad prastut hain jinse prem aur shadyantr ki soochana milti hai. naatak ki aakhyaayika atyant saadhaaran hone par bhi bade kalaatmak dhang se rangamanch par upasthit ki jaati hai. paatron ki bolachaal, unka uthana baithna aur chalana firna aadi kriyaaeain badi mand gati aur komalata ke saath sampann hoti hain. chhi hun shyaang (chaao parivaar ka anaath) is kaal ka doosra lokapriya naatak hai jismein isa ke poorv chhathi shataabdi ke ek mantri ki kahaani hai jo apne shatru ki hatya ka shadyantr rachata hai.

ming kaal (1368-1644 E.) mein shilp aadi ki drushti se naatya saahitya mein pragati hui. is yug ki saahityik bhaasha mein shabd bahul saikadon naatak prakaash mein aae, kuchh mein 48 ankon tak ka samaavesh kiya gaya. ka ots chheing ka likha hua fi ya chi (sitaar kahaani) is kaal ka shreshth naatak maana jaata hai. san 1704 mein yeh pehli baar khela gaya tha. iske vibhinn sanskaranon mein 24 se lekar 42 drushya tak prakaashit hue hain. ismein raajabhakti, pitrubhakti aur patiseva ka sundar chitran prastut hua hai.

manchoo raajavanshon ke kaal (1644-1900 E.) mein cheeni naatya saahitya ki lokapriyta mein vruddhi hui. is samay praaya: yuddhasanbandhi naatakon ki rachana hi adhik hui. "shaashvat yuvaavastha ka praasaad" is kaal ki ek shreshth kruti hai jise hung sheing ne san 1688 mein prastut kiya. is naatak mein samraat ming hvaang aur usaki premika yaang yuhvaan ki karun kahaani ka sundar chitran hai.

aadhunik naatya saahitya

nae cheen mein jananaatyon ki lokapriyta bahut badh gayi hai. vahaaain saikadon tarah ke naatak khele jaate hain aur naatakagharon mein darshakon ki bheed lagi rahati hai. saan chha khau (teen sadkon ka bada raasta) naamak naatya mein sungakaal ki ghatna par aadhaarit ek shadyantr ki kahaani hai. sung voo kung (jaadoogar vaanar) ek doosra lokapriya naatak hai. ismein rangamanch par bheeshan yuddh ke saahasapoorn drushya prastut kiye gaye hain. abhineet hone par is naatak mein prasiddh abhineta lin shaao hun ne vaanar ka abhinay kiya tha. peeking, uttar cheen, shechuaan, shaansi aadi bhinn bhinn praanton ke geetinaatya (aapera) bhi cheen mein atyant prasiddh hain. peeking ke geetinaatya mein cheen ke suprasiddh abhineta me la faang ne striyon ka abhinay kiya. ismein "machhuon ka pratishodh", "svarg mein toofaan" "gvaala aur gaanv ki ladki" aadi naatya prasiddh hain. chekiyaang geetinaatya shaanghaai mein bahut lokapriya hai. ismein striyaaain hi purush aur stri donaan ka abhinay karti hain. "lyaang shaan po aur choo ying thaaya" iska suprasiddh naatya hai. kaintan geetinaatya kaintan, Hongkong, malaaya aur Indonesia mein lokapriya hue hain.

jananaatyon ki maaaing badh jaane se aajkal cheen ke tarun lekhak naatak likhne mein jut gaye hain. ko mo-ro ne mahaan kavi chuyuvaan ke charit par aadhaarit sundar naatak ki rachana ki hai. laao sh ne "hamaara raashtra sarvapratham hai" aur maao tun ne "chhingaming tyohaar ke poorv aur pashchaat" naatak likhe hain. tsaao you ka "garjan, varsha aur sooryodaya" tatha chhen po chhen ka "ladkon ke liye kaam" naatak suprasiddh hain. li chhi hva ne "sangharsh aur pratisangharsh", too in ne "nai vastuon ke aamne saamane", aan po ne "nomin nadi mein basant ki bahaar", hoo ti ne "laal khufiya", sha k foo ne "hathiyaaron se", chhen chhi-tung ne "dariya aur pahaadon ke us paar" tatha shya yen ne "pareeksha" naamak sundar naatakon ki rachana kar cheeni saahitya ki samruddh banaaya hai.

baahari kadiyaaain