cheen ka itihaas

cheen ke raajavanshon ki raajyaseemaaeain

puraataatvik saakshyon ke aadhaar par cheen mein maanav basaav lagbhag saadhe baais lakh (22.5 lakh) saal puraana hai. cheen ki sabhyata vishv ki puraatanatam sabhyataaon mein se ek hai. yeh un gine-chune sabhyataaon mein ek hai jinhonein praacheen kaal mein apna svatantr lekhan paddhati ka vikaas kiya. anya sabhyataaon ke naam hain - praacheen Bhaarat (sindhu ghaati sabhyata), mesopotaamiya ki sabhyata, misr sabhyata aur maaya sabhyata. cheeni lipi ab bhi cheen, Japan ke saath-saath aanshik roop se Korea tatha viytanaam mein prayukt hoti hai.

anukram

vihangam drushya

  • 221 isaapoorv - jhaaoo vansh ka shaasan, saamantavaadi pratha ka praarambh,
  • isaapoorv 220 se 206 isaapoorv - kin vansh ne sangathit cheen ki sthaapana ki. cheen ki vishaal deevaar ka nirmaan poorn hua.
  • 1851 isvi - cheen ke antim raajavansh King ne Europeeya prabhaav ko samaapt karke desh ko niyantran mein liya.
  • 1911 isvi - taaiping vidroh hua. King raajavansh aur kraantikaariyon ke beech hue sangharsh mein 2 karod log maare gaye. yeh cheeni itihaas ka sabse hinsak gruhayuddh tha.
  • 1937 isvi- san yaat-sen ne King vansh ke khilaaf vidroh ka netrutv kiya, cheen ganatantr raajya ghoshit.
  • 1939 isvi - Japan ne cheen par aakraman kiya. 1945 mein is yuddh ke samaapt hone tak 1 karod cheeni naagrik laapata ho chuke the.
  • 1958 isvi - maaotse tung dvaara people's ripblik of China ki sthaapana hui, cheen ganataantrik samaajavaadi desh bana.
  • 1966 isvi - maaotse tung ne cheen ke teevr audyogeekaran ke liye yojana banaai. yeh teen varsh mein hi dharaashaayi ho gayi.
  • 1978 isvi - maaotse tung dvaara pratidvandiyon ka safaaya karne ke liye chalaayi gayi 'saanskrutik kraanti' mein 50,000 log maare gaye.
  • 1989 isvi - deing jiyaaoping ne cheen mein sudhaar aur aadhunikeekaran ko prerit kiya.
  • 2001 isvi - thyen aan man chauk par chhaatron dvaara kiye ja rahe virodh pradarshanon ko kroorata se kuchala gaya.

praagaitihaasik kaal

puraatatv pramaanon se hamein ye gyaat hota hai ki praarambhik munashya 22.4 lakh se 2,50,000 varsh poorv cheen mein raha karte the. jhooo kooo diyn gufa se mile avashesh 3 se 5.5 lakh varsh puraane hain aur ye us peking maanav ke hain jo homo irektas tha aur aag ka upayog kiya karta tha.

guaangaji ke lioojiaang kshetr mein cheen ke aadhunik maanavon ke hone ke avashesh mile hain, jinmein khopadi ka ek bhaag bhi hai jo 67,000 varsh puraana hai. yadyapi lioojiaang se mile avasheshon ko lekar kuchh vivaad hai lekin Japan ke okinaava ke minaatogaava se mile ek kankaal ki aayu 18,250 ± 650 se 16,600 ± 300 varsh hai. yaani ki aadhunik maanav us samay se poorv cheen pahuainch chuke the.

vanshagat shaashan

cheeni paramparaaon mein jiya (Xia) vansh ko pratham maana jaata hai aur ise mithkeeya hi samjha jaata raha jab tak ki henaan praant ke erleetou mein puraataatvik khudaaiyon mein kaansya yugeen sthalon ke pramaan naheen mile. puraatatvavidon ko ab tak ki khudaaiyon mein nagareeya sthalon ke avashesh, kaanse ke aujaar aur un sthaanon par samaadhi sthal mile hai jinhein praacheen lekhon mein jiya vansh se sambandhit maana jaata hai, lekin in avasheshon ki pramaanikta tab tak naheen ho sakti jab tak ki jiya kaal se koi likhit avashesh naheen milte.

kin vansh ke mitti ke bane hajaaron maanavaakaar yoddhaaon mein se kuchh, 210 isaapoorv

doosra vansh shaang jo ki kuchh kalahakaari tha, 18veen se 12veen shataabdi isaapoorv poorvi cheen ki peeli nadi kinaare basa. pashchim mein base jhooo saamraajya ne aakraman ke baad 12veen se 5veen shataabdi isaapoorv tak un par shaashan kiya jab tak ki unka ekeekrut niyantran pados ke saamraajyon ke hamlon se ksheen naheen ho gaya. kai shaktishaali aur svatantr raajya aapas mein lagaataar ek-doosare par basant aur patajhad ke maheeno mein yuddh karte jisse jhooo ke raajaaon ko kuchh samay mil jaata.gyan

praacheen cheen

pratham ekeekrut cheeni raajya ki sthaapana kin vansh dvaara 221 isa poorv mein ki gayi, jab cheeni samraat ka darbaar sthaapit kiya gaya aur cheeni bhaasha ka balapoorvak maanakeekaran kiya gaya. yeh saamraajya adhik samay tak nahi tik paaya kyonki kaanooni neetiyon ke chalte inka vyaapak virodh hua.

isa poorv 220 se 206 E. tak haan raajavansh ke shaasakon ne cheen par raaj kiya aur cheen ki sanskruti par apni amit chhaap chhodi. yh prabhaav ab tak vidyamaan hai. haan vansh ne apne saamraajya ki seemaaon ko sainya abhiyaanon dvaara aage tak failaaya jo vartamaan samay ke Korea, viytanaam, mongoliya aur madhya Asia tak faila tha aur jo madhya Asia mein resham maarg ki sthaapana mein sahaayak hua.

haanon ke patan ke baad cheen mein fir se araajakata ka maahaul chha gaya aur anekeekaran ke ek aur yug ka aarambh hua. svatantr cheeni raajyon dvaara is kaal mein Japan se raajanayik sambandh sthaapit kiye gaye jo cheeni lekhan kala ko vahaan le gaye.

580 isaveen mein sui vansh ke shaashan mein cheen ka ek baar fir ekeekaran hua lekin sui vansh kuchh varshon tak hi raha (598 se 614 isaveen) aur goguryeo-sui yuddhon mein haar ke baad sui vansh ka patan ho gaya. iske baad ke teing aur song vanshon ke shaashan mein cheeni sanskruti aur prodyogiki apne charam par pahunche. song vansh vishv itihaas ki pehli aisi sarkaar thi jisne kaagaji mudra jaari ki aur pehli aisi cheeni naagrik vyavastha thi jisne sthaayi nausena ki sthaapana ki. 10veen aur 11veen shataabdi mein cheen ki janasainkhya duguni ho gayi. is vruddhi ka mukhya kaaran tha chaaval ki kheti ka madhya aur dakshini cheen tak failaav aur khaadya saamagri ka bahutaayat mein utpaadan. uttari song vansh ki seemaaon mein hi 10 karod log rahate the. song vansh cheen ka saanskrutik roop se svarnim kaal tha jab cheen mein kala, saahitya aur saamaajik jeevan mein bahut unnati hui. saataveen se baarahaveen sadi tak cheen vishv ka sabse susanskrut desh ban gaya.

madhyakaaleen cheen

1271 mein mangol sardaar kubalaya Khan ne yuaan raadavansh ki sthaapana ki jisne 1279 tak song vansh ko satta se hataakar apna adhiptya kaayam kiya. ek kisaan ne 1368 mein mangolon ko bhaga diya aur ming raajavansh ki sthaapana ki jo 1664 tak chala. manchoo logon ke dvaara sthaapit kving raajavansh ne cheen par 1911 tak raaj kiya jo cheen ka antim vansh tha.

yuaan shaasan (1279-1368 E.)

terahaveen sadi se pashchimi deshon ne cheen se sambandh kaayam karne ka prayaas kiya. is samay cheen mein yuaanon ka shaasan tha. mangolon ne isi kaal mein cheen par aakraman kiya. Europe ka prasiddh yaatri tatha vyaapaari maarkopolo apne pita tatha chaacha ke saath venis se isi samay cheen pahuaincha. alp kaal ke liye usane kubalaai khaaain ke darbaar mein naukri bhi ki. par usaki yeh seva vrutti utani mahattvapoorn naheen hai jitni usaki yaatra sambandhi daayari. is daayari mein usane cheen ke sambandh mein charcha ki jiske falasvaroop pashchimi deshon ka dhyaan cheen ki or gaya. isi samay Italy shaharon se anek yaatri nikat poorv ki yaatra karne ke silsile mein cheen bhi aaye. iske atirikt roman kaitholikon ne bhi cheen se sambandh kaayam karne ka prayaas kiya. lekin terahaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh se lekar chaudahaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh tak (1279 se 1368 E.) cheen se sampark kaayam ke liye in deshon ne jo kuchh bhi prayaas kiya vah kisi bhi drushtikon se vishesh mahattv ka naheen hai. is samay cheen mein pravisht yaatriyon ki sankhya bhi alp hi thi. par itna sahi hai ki isi samay se yooropiyn deshon ka dhyaan Asia ke sampann deshon ki or gaya aur ve agaami sadiyon mein in par chha jaane ka prayaas karne lage.

ming-shaasan (1368-1644 E.)

jab cheen mein ming-shaasan praarambh hua, tab in yaatriyon ne pun: cheen ki yaatra karni praarambh ki. is samay bhi pehle ki tarah yaatra sambandhi anek asuvidhaaeain theen. unheen ke kaaran videshi is kaal mein bhi cheen se ghanishth sampark kaayam naheen kar sake. in asuvidhaaon mein sabse badi aavaagaman sambandhi asuvidha thi. cheen aur Europeeya deshon ke madhya abhi bhi vyaapaarik sambandh kaayam tha, lekin aavaagaman ki in asuvidhaaon ke chalte abhi bhi anek vyaapaarik kathinaaiyaaain uth jaati theen. Europe aur Asia ke saare vyaapaari apne vyaapaarik jahaajon ke saath pehle laalasaagar mein utarakar use paar karte the aur iske baad mistr ka paribhraman karte hue ve aakar bhoomadhyasaagar mein utarate the. vyaapaar karne ka anya maarg bhi tha. ve iraan ki khaadi se apni vyaapaarik yaatra praarambh karte the. yaatra ke silsile mein iraan ki khaadi se prasthaan kar basara, Baghdad, makka aadi deshon ki yaatra karte hue Asia maainar pahuainchate the. is tarah is aavaagaman ki asuvidha, ke chalte jahaaain ek or in vyaapaariyon ka aarthik sambandh katipya deshon se kaayam naheen ho sakta tha, vahaaain doosari or unhein kaafi samay vyarth hi gainvaane padte the. vaastav mein, yahi kaaran tha jiske chalte in dinon poorvi deshon ke saath pashchimi desh sambandh kaayam naheen kar sake. itna hi naheen, aage chalakar pandrahaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein unke bache-khuche vyaapaari maarg bhi avaruddh ho gaye. iska kaaran yeh tha ki 1453 E. mein turk jaati ka ek mahaan vijeta muhamd dviteeya ne kustunatuniya par adhikaar kar liya aur unke vyaapaarik maarg ko band kar diya. fir bhi in asuvidhaaon se bhi pashchimi deshon ke yaatriyon tatha vyaapaariyon ne sangharsh kiya aur kuchh had tak cheen se sambandh kaayam kiya. mangol shaasak yuaan jab tak jeevit raha tab tak cheen se videshiyon ka kuchh-na-kuchh sampark avashya kaayam raha. lekin jaise hi iski mrutyu hui vaise hi aisa prateet hone laga ki ab unke paarasparik sambandh samaapt ho jaaeainge. lekin ming samraaton ne is sambandh ko purnajeevit kiya aur pashchimi deshon ki or unmukh hue. samay beetate rahane par pashchimi deshon ke vyaapaari poorvi deshon ki aarthik sampannata (visheshakar cheen ki) vismaran naheen kar paae the. maarkopolo ki daayari unke liye prerana-srot hi ban gayi thi falat: pandrahaveen sadi ke ant aur solahaveen sadi ke aarambh ke beech in yaatriyon ki yaatra pun: hone lagi aur unka vistaar bhi hone laga. is samay Spanish, dach aur rusi jaatiyon ne Asia ke poorvi tatha uttari kshetron ki or sambandh aage badhaane mein sahayog diya. (in jaatiyon ke aagaman ki charcha aage ki jaaegi) Spain aur Portugal ne prerana paakar Colombo naamak prasiddh yaatri ne bhi yaatra ki aur sudoor poorv ke deshon mein pahuainchane ka prayaas kiya. 1511 E. mein purtagaali makaao (cheen) pahuainche 1514 E. mein pratyaksh roop se cheen ki dharati par aa gaye. cheeniyon ne in purtagaaliyon ko asabhya tatha dukhadaayak maana. ve sthaayi roop se makaao mein nivaas karne lage. cheen ke prasiddh bandaragaah kaintan ke nikat hi yeh makaao avasthit hai jahaaain aajkal bhi achhi sankhya mein purtagaali nivaas karte hain. is samay aaingrej bhi cheen aae. jab mig vansh ka shaasan samaapt ho raha tha aur manchoo samraat shaasan praarambh hone wala tha, Britain ke aaingrej cheen aa dhamake. cheen mein aage chalakar ve hi sarvaadhik prabhaavashaali hue aur cheen ke dwaar ko pashchimi deshon mein vyaapaar ke hetu kholne ka shreya praapt kiye.

in vibhinn jaatiyon ke aagaman ka kramik adhyayan karna aavashyak prateet hota hai. poorvi Asia mein ming vansh ke shaasan-kaal mein jis, jaati ka sarvapratham aagaman hua vah portugeej thi. 1498 E. mein vaaskodigaama ne Africa ke samudra tateeya kshetron ki yaatra karte hue Bhaarat-bhoomi par apne pairon ko rakha portugaal yaatri vaaskodigaama ko is yaatra se laabh hua ki pashchimi deshon ke logon, ko pradhaanat: tatkaal mein portugeejon ko, poorvi deshon tak pahuainchaane ke maarg ka pata lag gaya. isliye unka prasthaan tatha vistaar ab anya deshon mein bhi hone laga. 16 veen sadi ke praarambh mein hi malakka par adhikaar karne ke samay ve cheen pahuainch gaye. cheen mein unki pahuainch 1514 E. mein hui. cheen aate hi ve vyaapaarik kaaryon mein sanlagn ho gaye. yahaaain ke vyaapaari cheen se vilaasapriya cheejon ko khareedne lage aur pashchimi deshon mein unka vikraya kiya jaane laga jahaaain prasaadhanon ki maaaing thi.

lekin portugeej apne vyavahaar se cheeniyon ko prasann naheen kar sake. inke vyavahaar tatha aadatein achhi naheen thi keval portageej hi bure naheen the, anya jaatiyon ki bhi aisi hi aadatein theen. Spain ke log jab America pahuainche tab vahaaain ki maulik jaatiyon ka jeevan bhi unke chalte atyant kashtaprad ho gaya. Spain ke logon ke virodh kiye jaane par bhi America naheen chhoda aur vahaaain bastiyon ka nirmaan kar niyamit roop se bas gaye. niyamit roop se basate hi ve American logon ke dharm, sanskruti rahan-sahan vagairah mein hastakshep karne lage. itna hi naheen, bastiyon ke nirmaan ke saath-saath shanai:shanai: ve upanivesh nirmaan ki or bhi unmukh hue isi silsile mein spenavaasi cheen bhi pahuainche. portugeejon ke baad Spanish hi cheen aaye. America mein is jaati ne jis prakaar ki harkat ki thi, usase cheen ke log parichit hi the. isliye cheen ki dharati par upanivesh-nirmaan ka beej liye jaise hi is jaati ka aagaman hua, vaise hi cheeniyon ne inka virodh karna praarambh kiya. ming sarkaar ne to is jaati ke viruddh ek jordaar aandolan bhi praarambh kar diya. yahi kaaran hua ki America ki tarah cheen mein Spain vaalon ki daal naheen gal saki. ve cheen mein na to apna astitv hi kaayam kar sake aur na aakaankshit bastiyon ka hi nirmaan kar sake. portugeejon se bhi vyaapaarik sambandh kaayam ho gaye the. inse yeh sambandh bhi kaayam naheen ho saka. fir bhi Spanish jidd ke pakke the. America mein jis prakaar ve balapoorvak rahane lage the usi prakaar ve cheen mein bhi rahane ka prayaas kiye. inka ek jattha cheen ke prasiddh bandaragaah kaintan mein thahar gaya aur cheen se vyaapaarik sambandh kaayam karne ka prayaas karne laga. ant mein, athaarahaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh (1557 E.) mein apne kaarya mein unhein safalta mili aur makaao mein apni basti ka nirmaan kar ve rahane lage.

isi samay pashchim ki anek dhaarmik mishnariyaaain bhi cheen aayeen. cheen mein in mishnariyon ne dharm ka prachaar karna praarambh kiya. praarambh mein in mishnariyon ke vyavahaar achhe the, lekin baad mein unki svaarthapoorn neeti se cheen ke log parichit hue. isi samay aaingrejon tatha dachon ka bhi aagaman cheen mein hua. lekin yahaaain yeh baat yaad rakhani chaahiye ki mingavansh ke shaasan mein cheen ka pashchimi deshon se do prakaar ke sambandh kaayam hue-ek vyaapaarik sambandh aur doosra dhaarmik sambandh. pashchim ke desh dakshin ke bhookhandon ka makaao tatha kaintan se vyaapaar karte the. pashchim ke vyaapaari cheen mein apne deshon se anaaj sambandhi anek paudhe tatha tambaakoo laae. tambaakoo ka prachaar in logon ne kaafi kiya. inheen ke chalte cheen ke adhikaansh log tambaakoo ka sevan karne lage. isi prakaar cheen se unka dhaarmik sambandh bhi kaayam tha. cheen ke bheetari ilaakon mein pashchimi deshon ki mishnariyaaain dharm-prachaar ka kaarya karti thi. mangolon ke shaasan ke baad cheen mein isaaiyon ka ant ho chala tha aur unka prabhaav ghatne laga tha. lekin mingavansh ke shaasan ke antim varshon mein roman kaithaalikon ne in isaaiyon tatha unki mishnariyon ko punarujjeevit kiya. isi samay Britain, France vagairah se fraansiskan, aagasteeniyn, juseit, dominiyn aadi anek dhaarmik sampradaaya ke log cheen pahuainch gaye. solahaveen sadi ke praarambhik varshon mein hi jesuit sampradaaya ki pradhaanata cheen mein kaayam hone lagi. is sampradaaya ka lokapriya prachaar fraansis jeviyrs tha jisse dakshini tatha poorvi Asia mein is sampradaaya ko lokapriya banaane ka athak aur athak prayaas kiya. isi prachaarak ne na is sampradaaya ka prachaar cheen mein bhi kiya. vastut: jeviyrs ke chalte hi cheen mein yeh sampradaaya jeevit ho saka. abhi jevisrya ko apne kaarya mein poori safalta bhi naheen mili thi ki 1556 E. mein vah sansaar se chal basa. usaki mrutyu ke pashchaat uske kaarya ka bhaar maithahar rikki ne apne kandhon par liya. rikki Italy ka nivaasi tha. jesuit sampradaaya ki lok priyta badhaane ke liye usane ji jaan laga di rikki ki pratibha bahumukhi thi. vah jyotish tatha ganit ka prakaand vidvaan tha. itihaasakaaron ka anumaan hai ki samprati cheen mein jyotish tatha ganit ka koi bhi aisa vidvaan naheen tha jo rikki ki samata kar sake. apne pratibha ke chalte hi usane cheen saahitya ka bhi adhyayan kiya. yeh cheeni saahitya rikki ke liye poornat: naya vishay tha, fir bhi apne adhyavasaaya tatha pratibha ke chalte usane cheeni saahityakaaron ke beech kaafi pratishtha paayi. apne dharm ka adhyayan to use tha hi, usane kanafyoosiys ke dharm tatha isaai dharm ka kaafi gahra adhyayan kiya aur donon dharmon ki samaanata tatha asamaanata ko ek vidvaan ke roop mein rakhane ka prayaas kiya. cheen ki rajdhani peking mein usane apna nivaas sthal banaaya. isi samay Philippine se speniyaai bhi cheen aaya.

ching vansh (1644-1838 E.)

abatak cheen mein anek pashchimi jaatiyaaain aa gayi theen. 1516 E. mein portugeej aa gaye the, 1575 E. mein Spanish aa gaye the; dachon ka aagaman 1604 E. mein hua tha aur aaingrej 1637 E. mein aaye the. par is samay tak Amreeki tatha roosi naheen aa paaye the. ching shaasan-kaal mein inka aagaman bhi cheen mein ho gaya.

1644 E. mein ming vansh ka shaasan samaapt ho gaya. uttar mein manchoo naamak vijetaaon ne ming ko paraast kiya. manchoo manchooriya ke rahanevaale the. sohalaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh tatha satrahaveen sadi ke praarambhik varshon mein unhonne apne ko shaktishaali bana liya aur ming se mukaden apahrut kar liya jo unki rajdhani bhi thi. mukaden ko ve bhi apni rajdhani banaae. cheen mein rahanevaale mangolon ne bhi ichha ya anichha se manchooon ke shaasan ko sveekaar kar liya. manchooon ne cheen ki dakshini deevaar tak apni raajya-seema badhaane ka prayaas kiya. isi samay jab cheen mein ming ke viruddh asantosh ki bhaavana ka janm hua tab mauka paakar manchooo ne peking par apna adhikaar kar liya aur tabhi se ve cheen mein shaasan karne lage. kaaaingahasi (1661-1728 E.) aur cheen lung (1736-1796 E.) is vansh ke sarvaadhik prataapi raaja hue. deerghakaal tak manchooo ne cheen par shaasan kiya.

manchookaal mein bhi pashchimi logon ka aagaman cheen mein hua. agar sach poochha jaaya to yeh maanana padega ki isi kaal mein cheen mein paashchaatya deshon ke prabhaav ki jad jamani praarambh hui aur isi kaal mein videshon se cheen ka vaastavik sambandh kaayam hua. is kaal mein videshon se log sthal tatha donon maargon se aaye. samudra ke raaste se portugeej, Spanish, French tatha aaingrej aur kuchh itaaliyn tatha jarman aaye. isi samay 1784 E. mein Amreeki vyaapaari bhi cheen aaye. jameen ke maarg se keval roos ke log aaye jo cheen mein chaaaindi ka vyaapaar karne lage. videshi raajyon se (visheshakar roos se) cheen mein is samay ek sandhi (Treaty of nerchinsk) bhi ki. is sandhi ke dvaara roos ko peking mein ek mission bhejane ka adhikaar mila. peking mein roos ki mishnari bhi kaarya karne lagi. amareeka aur roos se yeh sambandh cheen ke liye mahattvapoorn siddh hua.

cheen mein is samay pun: videshi mishnariyon ka bhi aagaman hua. athaarahaveen sadi ke cheen mein is samay pun: videshi mishnariyon ka bhi aagaman hua. athaarahaveen sadi ke praarambh tak cheen mein isaaiyon ki sankhya 3,00,000 ho gayi thi. 1793 E. mein sarvapratham aaingrejon ka ek mission cheen aaya. yeh mission mekaartane ke netrutv mein cheen aaya tha. doosra mission 1816 E. mein peking aaya. iska netrutvakarta laard emaharst tha. isi samay raabart morishn ke adheen bhi ek mission cheen pahuaincha. is mauke se laabh uthaakar ab protestend mishnariyon ne cheen mein apna kaarya praarambh kiya. protestent log cheeniyon ko heya drushti se dekhte the aur unhein asabhya samajhte the. aaingrejon ki dekha-dekhi dach mishnariyaaain bhi cheen aayeen aur 1795 E. mein unka pehla mission cheen pahuaincha. isi prakaar 1806 E. mein roos ka ek doot aaya. lekin cheen ne uske prati kisi bhi prakaar ki sahaanubhooti ka pradarshan naheen kiya. peking mein France ke jemuit bhi pahuainche aur manchoo samraat ki gaurav-gaatha gaane lage.

vibhinn mishnariyon mein sarvaadhik chatur tatha prabhaavashaalini aaingrejon ki mishnariyaaain saabit huin. cheen mein aayi vibhinn mishnariyon se agar aaingrej mishnari ki tulana ki jaaya to yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki athaarahaveen sadi ke ant aur unneesaveen sadi ke praarambh mein hi aaingreji mishnari sabhi se aage nikal gayi. iska kaaran yeh tha ki aaingrej atyant chatur tatha karmath the. apni vyaapaarik kushalata tatha raajaneeti chaturata ke chalte unhonne anya mishnariyon ko pratiyogita mein aage naheen badhne diya aur bhavishya mein cheen mein ve apna prabhaav kaayam karne mein samarth hue.

nayi shaktiyon ke viruddh cheen mein asantosh

uparyukt vivran se spasht ho jaata hai ki cheen tatha paashchaatya deshon ke beech sambandh kaayam ho chala tha aur unneesaveen sadi tak sampoorn cheen anek videshi tatha unki mishnariyaaain drushtigochar hone lagi theen. lekin vah sambandh shaantipoorvak aage na chal saka. cheen ki janta sarkaar in videshiyon tatha unki mishnariyon se dheere-dheere ghruna karne lagi. unka vichaar tha, ki paashchaatya deshon se sampark badhaane par cheen ki sabhyata tatha sanskruti nasht ho sakti hai, isliye cheen ne paashchaatya pravruttiyon ka anubhav kiya aur unase pruthak rahane ka prayaas kiya. paashchaatya deshon ke sampark mein aakar bhi usane apni vesh-bhoosha, dharm aur reeti-rivaajon ko angeekaar kiya. yahi kaaran tha ki manchoo sarkaar khule roop se in paashchaatya deshon se pruthak rahane ka prayaas karne lagi is baat ko drushti mein rakhakar samraat kaangahasi ne ek raajakeeya vigyapti nikaali aur cheen-pravesh se in jaatiyon tatha mishnariyon ko vanchit karne ka prayaas kiya. is vigyapti ke peechhe samraat ki apni bhaavana to thi hi, saath-hi-saath cheen ki janta ko bhi santusht karne ke liye use yeh vigyapti nikaalani padi. cheen ki janta in videshiyon se ghruna karne lagi thi aur yeh sambhaavana ki jaane lagi ki cheen mein khoon-kharaabi bhi ho sakti hai. visheshakar videshi mishnariyon se cheen mein kaafi asantosh tha. ''mishnari ke vibhinn aadeshon ke beech jhagade, poorvajon ka aadar karte hue kuchh dharm pravartit logon ka samraat ke hukm ki maanyata tatha saath hi naye dharm ki pravrutti ke prati unke afsaron ke pratinidhitv ke dvaara unki satta ki nyoonata ne dheere-dheere bhraamak vichaaron ke prachaarak ke vaastavik charitra ke prati unki aaainkhein khol Dean.

lekin yeh yaad rakhani chaahiye ki is vigyapti ke anusaar cheen mein aae hue videshiyon ko cheen se baahar naheen nikaala gaya. keval un par ya vibhinn deshon se aaye hue vyaapaariyon par ek prakaar ka niyntran rakhane ki baat kahi gayi. cheen ki manchoo sarkaar ko yeh aashanka ho gayi thi ki agar in vyaapaariyon ko vyaapaar karne ki anumati naheen di jaaegi to ve sampoorn cheen mein failakar ashaanti failaane ka prayatn kareinge. isliye is vigyapti mein yeh spasht kar diya gaya ki ye videshi vyaapaari cheen ke sabhi tatavarti bandaragaahon se shaantipoorvak uchit vyaapaar kar sakte hain. vyaapaar karne ki anumati milte hi videshiyon ki prasannata ka paaraavaar naheen raha kyonki bade sahaj dhang se hi unhein yeh anumati mil gayi thi. isse unka utsaah aur hausala donon badha. falat: arth-lolupata ke chalte in logon ne naajaayaj vyaapaar bhi karna praarambh kiya. ve un vyaapaarik suvidhaaon ka bhi durupayog karne lage jo unhein praapt hue the. svaabhaavik roop se cheen ki sarkaar ka dhyaan pun: unki or aakarshit hua. iseeliye manchoo vansh ke doosare samraat chiyen lug ne 1757 E. mein ek doosari vigyapti nikaali jiske chalte vaideshik vyaapaar ko cheen mein seemit kar diya gaya aur vyaapaariyon par anek prakaar ke pratibndh lagaaye gaye. is vigyapti ke anusaar in videshi vyaapaariyon ko dakshini cheen ke keval ek bandaragaah kaintan se vyaapaar karne ki anumati mili. iske atirikt cheen mein ek vyaapaarik dal ka sangathan kiya gaya jise 'ko-hang' kaha gaya. is dal ke paraamarsh tatha dekh-rekh mein hi videshi vyaapaari cheen se vyaapaar kar sakte the. is tarah athaarahaveen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein un vyaapaariyon ki chaal par cheen ki sarkaar ne ek paini drushti rakhi aur yeh spasht kar diya ki ve vyaapaarik maamalon ke liye kisi anya bandaragaah ka daura naheen kar sakte hain. par is vigyapti ka koi vishesh asar videshi vyaapaariyon par naheen pada. vyaapaar ke saath-saath cheen ki raajaneeti par bhi inka hastakshep hona praarambh ho gaya aur isaai mishnariyon ke kartrutv to aur bhi adhik bure hone lage. kaintan se vyaapaar karte-karte ve cheen ke anya bandaragaahon se bhi vyaapaar karne lage. cheeniyon ko afeem ka sevan karaakar unki aadatein buri banaane lage. afeem khaane ki aadat pad jaane se vyaapaari afeem ki bikri dvaara aarthik laabh praapt karna chaahate the. jab afeem ke bure parinaamon ko cheen ki sarkaar dekhne lagi aur is vyaapaar par rok lagaayi, tab videshi vyaapaari cheen ke aafisron ko ghoos dekar apni or milaane lage aur chori chhipe yeh vyaapaar chalta raha. is kaarya mein ingalaind ke aaingrej atyant patu the. afeem ke chalte cheen ko do prakaar ke nuksaan hone praarambh ho gaye. ek to afeem ki bikri badh jaane se aaingrejon ko faayda hua, lekin cheen ko aarthik kshati uthaani padi. doosra yeh ki cheen ki janta ka naitik dharaatal neeche girne lage. falat: sarkaar ne poorn kathorata ke saath afeem ke vyaapaar par niyntran rakhane ka prayaas kiya jiske falasvaroop cheen tatha Britain mein afeem yuddh hua. is yuddh mein cheen safal naheen ho saka kyonki uske dushmanon ke paas shaktishaali aur kendrit sarkaar thi aur cheen ka shaasan kamjor tatha vikendrit tha. at: in shatruon ka saamana karne ke liye cheen shaasan kamjor tatha vikendrit tha. at: in shatruon ka saamana karne ke liye cheen katai taiyaar naheen tha.''

is tarah anek varshon ke baad unneesaveen sadi tak cheen ke saath videshiyon ka sambandh kaayam hua. is sambandh ke parinaam cheeniyon ke liye nitaant bure hi siddh hue. yeh sahi hai ki inheen videshiyon ke chalte cheen mein raashtreeyata ki bhaavana aayi, lekin jabatak videshiyon ki daal galati rahi ve cheen mein apne saamraajyavaad ke vikaas ka pratyan karte rahe. bhaarateeya itihaasakaar shri pannikr ka mat hai ki paashchaatya deshon ke sampark se cheen ko laabh se adhik kshati uthaani padi aur pratham vishv-yuddh ke paaainch-chh: varshon ke pashchaat tak cheen ka gaurav dhool-dhoosarit hota raha, raajaneetik akhandata tootati rahi aur prashaasanik drudhta laayi naheen ja saki.

aadhunik cheen

yuddh kala mein madhya Asiaee deshon se aage nikal jaane ke kaaran cheen ne madhya Asia par apna prabhutv jama liya, par saath hi saath vah Europeeya shaktiyon ke samaksh kamjor padne laga. cheen shesh vishv ke prati satark hua aur usane Europeeya desho ke saath vyaapaar ka raasta khol diya. british Bhaarat tatha Japan ke saath hue yuddhon tatha gruhayuddho ne kving raajavansh ko kamjor kar daala. antat: 1912 mein cheen mein ganatantr ki sthaapana hui.

cheeni ganaraajya (1912-1949)

1 January 1912 ke din cheeni ganaraajya ki sthaapana hui aur King vansh ke patan ka aarambh bhi. ke॰aema॰ati ya raashtravaadi dal ke sun yaat-sen ko anantim adhyaksh chuna gaya lekin baad mein adhyakshata yuaan shikaai ko saunpi gayi jisne ye sunishchit kiya ki kraanti ke liye poori beiyaang sena King saamraajya ka saath naheen degi. 1915 mein yuaan ne swayam ko cheen ka samraat ghoshit kar diya lekin baad mein use raajya ko tyaagane aur ganaraajya ko vaapas saunpane ke liye baadhit kiya gaya aur usane swayam bhi ye anubhav kiya ki ye alokapriya kadam hai, na keval logon ke liye balki swayam usaki beiyaang sena aur senaaadhyakshon ke liye bhi.

1916 mein yuaan shikaai ki mrutyu ke baad cheen raajanetik roop se khandit ho gaya, yadyapi antaraashtreeya samudaaya dvaara maanyataapraapt lekin vaastavik roop se shaktiheen sarkaar Beijing mein sthaapit thi. siphasaalaaron ka unke dvaara niyantrit kshetron par vaastavik adhikaar tha. 1920 ke antim varshon mein chiyaang kaai-shek dvaara kuomintaang (raajanetik dal) ki sthaapana ki gayi jisne cheen ko pun: ekeekrut kiya aur raashtra ki rajdhani naanaking (vartamaan naanajing) ghoshit ki aur ek "raajaneetik sanrakshan" ka kaaryaanvayan kiya jo sun yaat-sen dbaara cheen ke raajanetik vikaas ke liye nidhaarit kiye gaye kaaryakram ka madhyavarti star tha jiska uddeshya cheen ko aadhunik aur lokataantrik raashtra banaana tha. prabhaavi roop se, "raajaneetik sanrakshan" ka arth kuomintaang dvaara ek-daleeya shaashan tha.

1937-1945 ke cheen-Japan yuddh ke kaaran raashtravaadiyon aur saamyavaadiyon ke beech ek asahaj gathabandhan hua aur saath hi 1 karod cheeni naagrik bhi maare gaye. 1945 mein Japan ke samarpan ke saath, cheen vijayi raashtra ke roop mein to ubhara lekin vitteeya roop se usaki stithi bigad gayi. raashtravaadiyon aur saamyavaadiyon ke beech jaari avishvaas ke kaaran cheeni gruh yuddh ki neenv padi. 1947 mein, samvaidhaanik shaasan sthaapit kiya gaya tha, lekin aara॰aao॰aasi samvidhaan ke bahut se praavadhaanon ko chal rahe gruh yuddh ke kaaran mukhya bhoomi par kabhi bhi laagoo naheen kiya gaya.

cheeni janavaadi ganaraajya aur cheeni ganatantr (1949-vartamaan)

cheen ke saamyavaadi dal (seeseepi) ne cheeni gruh yuddh mein apni jeet ke baad maao tung ke netrutv mein cheeni mukhyabhoomi ke adhikaansh bhaag par niyantran kar liya. 1 October, 1949 ko unhonne ek samaajavaadi raajya ke roop mein "lokataantrik taanaashaahi" ki sthaapana ki jisme keval seeseepi hi vaidh raajaneetik dal tha. chiaang kai-shek ke netrutv waali cheeni sarkaar ki keindreeya sarkaar ko taaivaan mein aashray lene ke liye vivsh kiya gaya jispar unhonne dviteeya vishv yuddh mein adhikaar kiya tha aur ve cheeni ganaraajya (taaivaan) ki sarkaar ko vaheeain le gaye. sainya sangharsh 1950 mein samaapt ho gaye lekin kisi bhi shaanti sandhi par hastaakshar naheen kiya gaye.

1970 ke antim varshon ke baad se, cheen ganaraajya ne apne niyantran ke kshetron mein poorn, bahu-daleeya, pratinidhiyaatmak lokatantr laagoo kiya jaise taaivaan, bahut se chhote dveepon jaise kuimoya aur maatsu mein. samaaj ke sabhi kshetron dvaara aaj, cheeni ganaraajya (taaivaan) mein sakriya raajaneetik bhaageedaari hai| cheeni ganaraajya (taaivaan) ki raajaneeti mein mukhya vipaatan taaivaan ki aupachaarik svatantrata banaam cheen ki mukhya bhoomi ke saath antim raajaneetik ekeekaran pramukh mudda hai.

cheeni gruh yuddh ke baad, mukhya bhoomi cheen vightanakaari saamaajik aandolanon ke daur se gujara jiska aarambh 1950 mein "great leep forward" se hui aur jo 1950 ke dashak ki "saanskrutik kraanti" ke saath jaari rahi jisne cheen ki shiksha vyavastha aur arthavyavastha ka bikhraav kar diya. maao jedong aur jhou enalaai jaise apni pehli peedhi ke saamyavaadi dal ke netaaon ki mrutyu ke saath hi, cheeni janavaadi ganaraajya ne deing jiyaaoping ki vakaalat mein raajaneetik aur aarthik sudhaaron ki ek shrrunkhala aarambh ki jisne antat: 1990 ke dashak mein cheeni mukhya bhoomi ke teevr aarthik vikaas ki neenv rakhi.

1978 ke baad ke sudhaaron ke kaaran samaaj ke kai kshetron par niyantran mein kuchh dheel di gayi hai. baharahaal, chi j g (parak) sarkaar ka abhi bhi raajaneeti par lagbhag poorn niyantran hai aur yeh lagaataar un kaaranon ke unmoolan prayaason mein lagi rahati hai jise ye desh ke saamaajik, raajaneetik aur aarthik sthirta ke liye khatre ke roop dekhti hai. udaaharan ke liye aatankvaad ke viruddh ladaai, raajaneetik virodhiyon aur patrakaaron ko kaaraavaas, press viniyman ki nigraani, dharm ka viniyman aur svatantrata/pruthakataavaadi aandolanon ko kuchalana. 1989 mein tyaanaaanamen chauk mein chhaatr virodh samaapt karne ke liye cheen ki sena ne maarshal law ke 15 din ke baad hinsak roop se kuchal diya. 1997 mein Britain dvaara Hongkong ke cheen ko vaapas de diya gaya aur 1999 mein Portugal dvaara makaau.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain