cheed

cheed
Pine
समुद्री चीड़ (पाइनस पिनास्टर)
samudri cheed (paainas pinaastar)
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
vibhaag: konadhaari (Pinophyta)
varg: pinopsida (Pinopsida)
gan: paayanaalej (Pinales)
kul: paayaneseee (Pinaceae)
prajaati: paainas (Pinus)
L.
upavansh
  • upavansh strobas
  • upavansh dukaampopaainas
  • upavansh paainas

paainas vargeekaran ko poorn vargiki ke liye dekhein. kshetraanusaar cheedon ka vitran ko vibhinn cheed prajaatiyon ke bhaugolik vitran ke liye dekhein.

cheed (angreji:Pine), ek sapushpak kintu anaavrutabeeji paudha hai. yeh paudha seedha pruthvi par khada rahata hai. ismein shaakhaaeain tatha prashaakhaaeain nikalkar shankvaakaar shareer ki rachana karti hain. iski 115 prajaatiyaaain hain. ye 3 se 80 meter tak lambe ho sakte hain. cheed ke vruksh pruthvi ke uttari golaardh mein paae jaate hain. inki 90 jaatiyaaain uttar mein vruksh rekha se lekar dakshin mein sheetoshn katibandh tatha ushn katibandh ke thande pahaadon par faili hui hain. inke vistaar ke mukhya sthaan uttari Europe, uttari America, uttari Africa ke sheetoshn bhaag tatha Asia mein Bhaarat, barma, jaava, sumaatra, borniyo aur fileepeens dveepasamooh hain.

anukram

parichay

kam umr ke chhote paudhon mein nichli shaakhaaon ke adhik door tak failane tatha oopari shaakhaaon ke kam door tak failane ke karan inka saamaanya aakaar piraamid jaisa ho jaata hai. puraane hone ke kaaran inka saamaanya aakaar piraamid jaisa ho jaata hai. puraane hone par vrukshon ka aakaar dheere dheere golaakaar ho jaata hai. jagalon mein uganevaale vrukshon ki nichli shaakhaaeain sheegra gir jaati hain aur inka tana kaafi seedha, ooaincha, stambh jaisa ho jaata hai. inki kuchh jaatiyon mein ek se adhki mukhya tane paae jaate hain. chhaal saadhaaranataya moti aur khuradari hoti hai, parantu kuchh jaatiyon mein patali bhi hoti hai.

inmein do prakaar ki tahaniyaaain pai jaati hain, ek lambi, jinpar shalkapatr lage hote hein, tatha doosari chhoti tahaniyaaain, jinpar sui ke aakaar ki lambi, nukeeli pattiyaaain guchhon mein lagi hoti hain. nae paudhon mein pattiyaaain ek ya do saptaah mein hi peeli hokar gir jaati hain. vrukshon ke bade ho jaane par pattiyaaain varshon naheen girteen. sada hari rahanevaali pattiyon ki anuprasth kaat (transverse section) tikoni, ardhavruttaakaar tatha kabhi kabhi vruttaakaar bhi hoti hai. pattiyaaain do, teen, paaainch ya aath ke guchhon mein ya akeli hi tahaniyon se niklati hain. inki lanbaai do se lekar 14 inch tak hoti hai aur inke donon taru randhr (stomata) kai panktiyon mein paae jaate hain. patti ke andar ek ya do vaahini bandal (vascular bundle) aur do ya adhik rejin nalikaaeain hoti hain. vasant ritu mein ek hi ped par nar aur maada kon ya shanku nikalte hain. nar shanku katthai athva peelein rang ka saadhaaranataya ek inch se kuchh chhota hota hai. pratyek nar shanku mein bahut se dvikosheeya laghu beejaanudhaaniyaaain (Microsporangia) hoti hain. ye laghubeejaanudhaaniyaaain chhote chhote sahastron paraagakanon se bhari hoti hain. paraagakanon ke donon siron ka bhaag foola hone se ye hava mein aasaani se udkar door door tak pahuainch jaate hain. maada shanku chaar inch se lekar 20 inch tak lambi hoti hai. ismein bahut se beejaandi shalk (ovuliferous scales) chaaron taraf se nikle hote hain. pratyek shalk par do beejaand (ovules) lage hote hain. adhiktar jaatiyon mein beej pak jaane par shanku ki shalkein khulkar alag ho jaati hain aur beej hav mein udkar fail jaate hain. kuchh jaatiyon mein shakun naheen bhi khulate aur bhoomi par gir jaate hain. beej ka oopari bhaag kai jaatiyon mein kaagaj ki tarah patala aur chauda ho jaata hai, jo beej ko hava dvaara ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tak pahuainchane mein sahaayata karta hai. beej ke chaaron or majaboot chhilka hota hai. iske andar teen se lekar 18 tak beejapatr paae jaate hain.

cheed ke paudhe ko ugaane ke liye kaafi achhi bhoomi taiyaar karni padti hai. chhoti chhoti kyaariyon mein March-April ke maheenon mein beej mitti mein ek ya do inch neeche bo diya jaata hai. choohon, chidiyon aur anya jantuon se inki raksha ki vishesh aavashyakta padti hai. ankur nikal aane par inhein kadi dhoop se bachaana chaahiye. ek ya do varsh pashchaat inhein khodakar uchit sthaan par laga dete hain. khodate samay saavadhaani rakhani chaahiye, jismein jadon ko kisi prakaar ki haani na pahuainche, anyatha cheed, jo svabhaavat: jad ki haani naheen sahan kar sakta, mar jaayaga.

prakaar

cheed se rejin nikaalna

vanaspati shaastr mein cheed ko koneefareleej (Coniferales) aardar mein rakha gaya hai. cheed do prakaar ke hote hain :

  • (1) komal ya safed, jise haiplojaailaun (Haploxylon) aur
  • (2) kathor ya peela cheed, jise diplojaailaun (Diploxylon) kehte hain.

komal cheed ki pattiyon mein ek vaahini bandal hota hai aur ek guchhe mein paaainch, ya kabhi kabhi se kam, pattiyaaain hoti hain. vasant aur sookhe mausam ki bani lakadiyon mein vishesh antar naheen hota. kathor ya peele cheed mein ek guchhe mein do athva teen pattiyaaain hoti hain. vasant aur sookhe mausam ki bani lakadiyon mein vishesh antar naheen hota. kathor ya peele cheed mein ek guchhe mein do athav teen pattiyaaain hoti hain. inki vasant aur sookhe ritu ki lakadiyon mein kaafi antar hota hai.

cheed ki lakdi kaafi aarthik mahatva ki haati hai. vishv ki sab upayogi lakadiyon ka lagbhag aadha bhaag cheed dvaara poora hota hai. anekaane kaaryon mein, jaise pul nirmaan mein, badi badi imaaraton mein, relagaadi ki patariyon ke liye, kursi, mej, sandook aur khilaune ityaadi banaane mein iska upayog hota hai.

kathor cheed ki lakadiyaaain adhik majaboot hoti hain. achhaai ke aadhaar par inhein paaainch vargon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. in vargon ke kuchh udaaharan nimnalikhit hain :

(k) paainas paalustris (Pinus palustris), pa. kereebiya (P. caribaea).
(kh) pa. silvestris (P. sylvestris), pa. rejinosa (P. resinosa).
(g) pa. paanderosa (P. ponderosa).
(gh) pa. piniya (P. pinea), pa. launjifoliya (P. longifolia) tatha pa. rediyeta (P. radiata).
(ङ) pa. bainksiyaana (P. banksiana).

upayogi lakdi pradaan karanevaale komal cheed ke kuchh udaaharan vargaanusaar nimnalikhit hain:

(k) paainas strobas (P. strobus), pa. montikola (P. monticola)
(kh) pa. ekselsa (P. excelsa).
(g) pa. paarveeflora (P. parveffora), pa. fleksilis (P. flexilis).

kai jaatiyon ke vrukshon se chuaa (tap) karke taarapeen ka tel aur gandharaal (rosin) nikaala jaata hai. inki lakdi kaatkar aasavan dvaara taar tel (tar oil), taarapeen, paain aayal, alakatara (tar) aur koyala praapt karte hain. kuchh jaatiyon ki pattiyon se cheed ki patti ka tel (pine leaf oil) banaate hain, jiska yathesht aushadheeya mahatva hai. pattiyon ke reshon se chataai aadi banti hain.

taarapeen aur gandharaal utpann karanevaale cheed ke kuchh udaaharan nimnalikhit hain :

Bhaarat mein - pa. launyajifoliya (P. longifolia), pa. ekselsa (p. excelsa) tatha pan॰ khaasya (P. khasya).
Europe mein - pa. pinaastar (P. pinaster) tatha pa. silvestris (P. sylvestris)
uttari amareeka mein - pa. paalustris (P. palustris), pa. kereebiya (P. cariboea) tatha pa. paunderosa (P. ponderosa).

cheed ki bahut si jaatiyon ke beej khaane ke kaam aate hain, jinmein pashchimottar himaalaya ka chilgoja cheed apne sookhe fal ke liye prasiddh aur moolyavaan hai. jin cheedon ke beej khaae jaate hain, unke kuchh udaaharan nimnalikhit hain :

Bhaarat aur Pakistan mein - pa. jiraardiyaana (P. gerardiana) arthaat chilgoja.
Europe mein - pa. piniya (P. pinea) tatha pa. seinbra (P. cembra)
uttari amareeka mein - pa. seinbraayadis (P. cembroides) ki kai kismein, pa. saabaaikiaina (P. sabikiana)

amareeka ke pa. leinbarartina (P. lambertina) ki chhaal se kharonchakar rejin ki tarah ek padaarth nikaalate hain, jo cheeni ki tarah meetha hota hai. ise cheed ki cheeni kehte hain.

kai deshon mein cheed ki kuchh jaatiyaaain sajaavat ke liya bageechon mein lagaai jaati hain.

kaharuva (aimbar, amber) naamak patthaaraaya hua samkh (fausil rejin, fossil resin) paainas saksinifera (P. succinifera) dvaara bana hoga, aisa anumaan hai.

cheed ki beemaariyaaain

cheed ke mukhya rog is prakaar hain :

1. safed cheed blistar ratuaa - (White pine blister rust) - yeh rog kronaaratiym ribikola (Cronartium ribicola) naamak fafooaind ke aakraman ke falasvaroop hota hai. cheed ki chhaal is rog ke kaaran vishesh roop se prabhaavit hoti hain.[1]

2. aaramileriya jad sadn (Armillaria root rot) - yeh rog aaramileriya meeliya (Armillaria melia) naamak "gil fafooaindi" dvaara hoti hai. yeh jad par jamane lagti hai aur use sada deti hai. kabhi-kabhi to saikadon vruksh is rog ke kaaran nasht ho jaate hain.[2]

jeevaashm cheed (Fossil pine)

cheed ki lakdi loar kriteshas (Lower cretaceous) yug se milne lagti hai aur truteeya yugeen nikshep (Tertiary deposits) mein adhikta se milti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Whitebark Pine Communities: Ecology And Restoration, pp. 193, Island Press, 2001, ISBN 9781597263207, ... White pine blister rust is a disease of five-needled pines (commonly called "white pines") caused by the fungus, Cronartium rihicola ...
  2. Prune Production Manual, Rich Buchner, pp. 190, University of California - Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, UCANR Publications, ISBN 9781601077028, ... Armillaria root rot is caused by the Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea, and is also known as the oak root rot fungus ... Foliar symptoms of Armillaria root rot include poor shoot growth, small leaves, premature yellowing, defoliation ...