chayaapachaya

koenjaaim edeenosaain traayafosfet ka sanrachana, urja metaabaulijm mein ek kendra madhyavarti

chayaapachaya (metabolism) jeevon mein jeevanayaapan ke liye hone waali rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko kehte hain. ye prakriyaaen jeevon ko badhne aur prajanan karne, apni rachana ko banaae rakhane aur unke paryaavaran ke prati sajag rahane mein madad karti hain. saadhaaranat: chayaapachaya ko do prakaaron mein baanta gaya hai. apachaya kaarbanik padaarthon ka vightan karta hai, uda. koshikeeya shvasan se oorja ka utpaadan. upachaya oorja ka prayog karke proteenon aur naabhikeeya amlon jaise koshikaaon ke anshon ka nirmaan karta hai.

chayaapachaya ki rasaayanik pratikriyaaen chayaapachayi maargon mein sanchaalit hoti hain, jinmein ek rasaayan ko enjaaimon ki shrankhala dvaara kuchh charanon mein doosare rasaayan mein badla jaata hai. enjaaim chayaapachaya ke liye mahatvapoorn hote hain, kyaunki ve jeevon ko aisi apekshit pratikriyaaen, jinmein oorja ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur jo svat: naheen ghat sakti hain, unhein un svat: hone waali pratikriyaaon ke saath yugal roop mein hone mein madad karte hain, jinse oorja utpann hoti hai. choonki enjaaim utprerak ka kaam karte hain, isaliye ve in pratikriyaaon ko teji se aur ythesht roop se hone dete hain. enjaaim koshika ke paryaavaran mein parivrtanon ya anya koshikaaon se praapt sanketon ke anusaar chayaapachayi maargon ke niyantran mein bhi sahaayata karte hain.

kisi jeev ka chayaapachaya yeh nishchit karta hai ki uske liye kaun sa padaarth paushtik hoga aur kaun sa vishaila. uda.kuchh prokairyosaait haaidrojan salfaaid ka prayog karte hain, jabki yeh gas pashuon ke liye jahareeli hoti hai.[1] chayaapachaya ki gati, ya chayaapachaya dar is baat ko bhi prabhaavit karti hai ki kisi jeev ko kitne bhojan ki jaroorat hogi.

chayaapachaya ki ek khaas baat yeh hai ki jaatiyon mein badi bhinnataaen hone par bhi unke mool chayaapachayi maarg aur ansh samaan prakaar ke hote hain.[2] uda. sitrik esid chakr mein maadhyamik bhoomika nibhaane vaale kaarbaaksilik esid, ekakoshikeeya baikteeriya eshcharishiya koli se lekar haathiyon jaise vishaal bahukoshikeeya jeevon tak, sabhi mein paae jaate hain.[3] chayaapachaya ki ye khaas samaanataaen sanbhavat: in maargon ki uchch kaaryakshamata aur vikaas ke itihaas mein unke jaldi prakat hone ke kaaran hoti hain.[4][5]

anukram

mukhya jaivarasaayan

traaisaayagliserol lipid ki sanrachana

jaanvaron, paudhon aur sookshmajeevon ko banaane waali adhikaansh rachanaaen anuon ke teen mool vargon se bani hoti hain-ameeno esid, carbohydrate aur lipid (jo vasa ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai). choonki ye anu jeevan ke liye mahatvapoorn hote hain, isaliye chayaapachayi pratikriyaaen koshikaaon aur ootakon ke nirmaan ke samay in anuoain ko banaane, ya bhojan ke paachan aur prayog mein unhein vightit karne va unhein oorja ke srot ke roop mein upayog mein laane mein juti hoti hain. kai mahatvapoorn jaivarasaayan milkar DNA aur proteenon jaise paulimron ka utpaadan karte hain. ye mahaaanu atyaavashyak hote hain.

anu ka prakaar monomar prakaaron ke naam paulimr prakaaron ke naam paulimr prakaaron ke udaaharan
ameeno esid ameeno esid proteen(paulipeptaaid) ऱaeshaayukt proteen aur glaubulaar proteen
carbohydrate monosaikraaid paulisaikraaid staarch, glaayakojan aur selooloj
nyooklik esid nyookliyotaaid paulinyookliyotaaid DNA aur aaraenae

ameeno esid aur proteen

proteen raikhik shrankhala mein vyavasthit aur peptaaid baandon dvaara jode gaye ameeno esidon se bane hote hain. kai proteen chayaapachaya mein rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko utprerit karne vaale enjaaim hote hain. anya proteenon ka kaarya rachanaatmak ya prakriyaatmak hota hai, jaise koshika panjar banaati hai - koshika ka aakaar banaae rakhane ke liye dhaancha - banaane vaale proteen.[6] koshika sanketan, roganirodhak kshamata, koshikaaon ke aapas mein chipkane, jhilliyon ke paar sakriya parivhan aur koshika-chakr mein bhi proteenon ka mahatva hota hai.[7]

vasaabh padaarth

vasa padaarth jaivarasaayanon ke sabse adhik vividhta vaale samooh hain. unka mukhya rachanaatmak upayog koshika jhilli jaisi jaivik jhilliyon ke bhaag ke roop mein, ya urja ke srot ke ऱaup mein hota hai.[7] vasaaon ko saamaanyat: haaidrofobik ya emfeepaithik jaivik anuon ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai, jo benjeen ya klorofaarm jaise vilaayakon mein ghulanasheel hote hain.[8] vasa ek vishaal yaugik samooh hain jinmein vasa aml aur glisraul shaamil hain– teen vasa aml estaron se jude ek glisraul anu ko tyaasilglisraaid kehte hain.[9] is mool rachana ke kai vibhinn prakaar paae jaate hain, jinmein sfingolipidon mein sfingoseen aur haaidrofileek samooh jaise faasfolipidon mein faasfet shaamil hain. kaulestraal jaise steeraayad, koshikaaon mein banane vaale vasaaon ka ek aur mukhya varg hain.[10]

carbohydrate

The straight chain form consists of four C H O H groups linked in a row, capped at the ends by an aldehyde group C O H and a methanol group C H 2 O H. To form the ring, the aldehyde group combines with the O H group of the next-to-last carbon at the other end, just before the methanol group.
glookoj donon seedha chen aur angoothi ke roop vaale chen mein maujood hota hain.

carbohydrate anek haaidraaksil samoohon vaale seedhi shrankhala ke eldeehaaid ya keeton hote hain, jo seedhi shrankhala ya chhallon ke roop mein rah sakte hain. carbohydrate sabse adhik maatra mein paae jaane vaale jaivik anu hain aur anekon bhoomikaaen nibhaate hain, jaise oorja ka sanchayan aur parivhan (staarch, glaayakojan) aur rachanaatmak bhaagon ke roop mein (podhon mein selooloj, pashuon mein kaaitin).[7] mool carbohydrate ikaaiyon ko monosaikraaid kaha jaata hai, jinmein gailektoj, fraktoj aur sabse mahatvapoorn, glukoj shaamil hain. monosaikraaid aapas mein judkar lagbhag aseemit roop se paulisaikraaidon ka nirmaan kar sakte hain.[11]

nyookliyotaaid

DNA aur aaraenae paulimr nyookliyotaaidon ki lambi shrankhalaaen hote hain. ye anu pratilipeekaran aur proteen jaivasanshleshan ki prakriyaaon ke jariye jeen-sambandhi jaankaari ke sanchayan aur prayog ke liye aavashyak hote hain.[7] is jaankaari ki raksha DNA ki marammat prakriyaaon dvaara ki jaati hai aur DNA pratiroopan dvaara sancharit ki jaati hai. kuchh vaairason jaise echaaaivi mein aaraenae jeenom hota hai, jo ulte pratilipeekaran ka prayog karke apne vaairal aaraenae jeenom se DNA saanche ka nirmaan karta hai.[12] splaaisiyosomon aur ribosomon jaise ribojaaimon ka aaraenae enjaaimon ke samaan hota hai kyaunki yeh rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko utprerit kar sakta hai. nyookliyosaaid raaiboj shugar se naabhikeeya aadhaaron ke judne se bante hain. ye aadhaar naaitrojan yukt heterosaaiklik chhalle hote hain, jinhein pyooreenon ya paairimideenon mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. nyookliyotaaid chayaapachayi samooh antaran pratikriyaaon mein sahaenjaaimon ka kaam bhi karte hain.[13]

koenjaaim

koenjaaim esitaail ka sanrachana.The antaraneeya esitaail samooh salfar parmaanu se ekdam daaen or se jooda hua hai.

chayaapachaya mein badi sankhya mein rasaayanik pratikriyaaen hoti hain, lekin unamein se adhikaansh kaaryasheel samoohon ke antaran ke liye hone waali chand mool prakaar ki pratikriyaaen hoti hain.[14] is aam rasaayanakriya ke kaaran koshikaaeain vibhinn pratikriyaaon ke beech rasaayanik samoohon ka vahan karne ke liye chayaapachayi madhyasthon ke chhote se samooh ka istemaal karti hain.[13] in samooh-antaran madhyasthon ko sahaenjaaim kaha jaata hai. samooh-antaran ki pratyek kaksha ek vishesh sahaenjaaim dvaara ki jaati hai, jo use utpann karne vaale aur usaka upayog karne vaale enjaaimon ke set ka sabastret hota hai. isaliye ye sahaenjaaim lagaataar bante, upayog mein liye jaate aur fir se punaraavrutt hote rahate hain.[15]

ek kendreeya sahaenjaaim hai, edeenoseen traaifaasfet, jo koshikaaon ki sarvavyaapi oorja mudra hai. is nyookliyotaaid ka prayog vibhinn rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ke beech rasaayanik oorja ke antaran ke liye kiya jaata hai. koshikaaon mein ATP chhoti si maatra mein hota hai, lekin choonki yeh lagaataar banta rahata hai, isaliye maanav shareer din bhar mein lagbhag apne bhaar ke baraabar ATP ka prayog kar sakta hai.[15] ATP apachaya aur upachaya ke beech setu ka kaam karta hai, jismein apachaya pratikriyaaen ATP utpann karti hain aur upachaya pratikriyaaen usaka upayog karti hain. yeh faasforileekaran pratikriyaaon mein faasfet samoohon ke vaahak ke roop mein bhi kaarya karta hai.

vitaamin chhoti maatraaon mein aavashyak ek kaarbanik yaugik hota hai, jo koshikaaon dvaara naheen banaaya ja sakta. maanav ke poshan mein, adhiktar vitaamin sanshodhan ke baad sahaenjaaimon ka kaarya karte hain, uda.sabhi jal mein ghulanasheel vitaamin koshikaaon mein prayog ke samay faasforileekrut hote hain ya nyookliyotaaidon se yugmit ho jaate hain.[16] vitaamin bi3 (niyaasin) ka ek yaugik, nikotinmaaid edeenaain daainyookliyotaaid (enaedeeech), ek mahatvapoorn sahaenjaaim hai, jo haaidrojan graahak ka kaam karta hai. saikadon bhinn prakaar ke deehaaidrojanej unke sabastreton se ilektraanon ko nikaal kar NAD+ ko enaedeeech mein apaghatit kar dete hain, sahaenjaaim ka yeh apaghatit prakaar koshikaaon ke kisi bhi ridktejon ke liye sabastret ka kaam karta hai, jinhein unke sabastreton ka apaghatan karna hota hai.[17] nikotinaamaaid adeenaain daainyookliyotaaid koshikaaoain mein do sambandhit prakaaron mein paaya jaata hai, enaedeeech aur enaedeepeeech. NADP+/NADPH prakaar apachayi pratikriyaaon ke liye adhik aavashyak hota hai, jabki NAD+/NADH ka prayog upachayi pratikriyaaon ke liye kiya jaata hai.

heemoglobin ki sanrachana. proteen sabayoonits laal aur neele rang mein hain aur lohe se sammalit heme (heme) samooh hare rang mein hai.[42] se.

khanij aur sahakaarak

akaarbanik tatv chayaapachaya mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain. inmein se kuchh (uda.sodiym aur potaishiym) to bahutaayat mein paae jaate hain, jabki anya maheen maatraaon mein kaam karte hain. stanapaayiyon ke pind ka kareeb 99% bhaag kaarban, naaitrojan, kailshiym, sodiym, kloreen, potaishiym, haaidrojan, faasforas, aakseejan aur salfar tatvon se bana hota hai.[18] kaarbanik yogikon (proteen, vasa aur carbohydrate) mein adhikaanshat: kaarban aur naaitrojan hota hai aur adhikaansh aakseejan va haaidrojan paani mein maujood rahate hain.[18]

bahutaayat mein maujood akaarbanik tatv aayaneekrut ilektrolaaiyon ke roop mein kaam karte hain. sabse mahatvapoorn aayan hain, sodiym, potaishiym, kailshiym, maigneeshiym, kloraaid, faasfet aur kaarbanik aayan, baaikaarbonet. koshikaaon ki jhilliyon ke paar grediyeinton ke bane rahane par aasaran dabaav aur pH bana rahata hai.[19] aayan naadiyon aur maansapeshiyon ke liye bhi mahatvapoorn hote hain, kyaunki in ootakon mein action poteinshiylein bahirkoshika drav aur koshika drav ke beech ilektrolaaiyon ke vinimay dvaara utpann hoti hain.[20] ilektrolaait koshika jhilli ke aayan channel naamak proteenon ke jariye koshikaaon ke bheetar ghusate aur baahar nikalte hain. uda.maans peshi ka sankuchan koshika jhilli ke channelon aur ti-nalikaaon ke jariye kailshiym, sodiym aur potaishiym ke aavaagaman par nirbhar hota hai.[21]

sankraman dhaatuen jeevon mein saadhaaranat: tres tatvon ke roop mein maujood rahati hain, jinmein jasta aur loha sabse prachur maatra mein hote hain.[22][23] in dhaatuon ka prayog kuchh proteenon mein sahakaarakon ki tarah hota hai aur ye kaitaalej jaise enjaaimon aur heemoglobin jaise aakseejan-vaahakaproteenon ki gatividhi ke liye aavashyak hote hain.[24] ye sahakaarak kisi vishisht proteen se majabooti se bandhe rahate hain. haalaanki utpreran ke samay enjaaim sahakaarak sanshodhit ho sakte hain, utpreran ke baad ve apni mool sthiti mein laut jaate hain.[25][26]

apachaya

apachaya bade anuon ka vightan karne waali chayaapachayi prakriyaaon ka ek samooh hai. inmein bhojan kanon ka vightan aur aakseekaran shaamil hai. apachayi pratikriyaaoain ka uddeshya upachayi pratikriyaaon ke liye aavashyak oorja aur padaarth upalabdh karna hai. in apachayi pratikriyaaon ki sahi prakruti har jeev mein bhinn hoti hai aur jeevon ko unke oorja va kaarban (unke mukhya poshan samooh) ke sroton ke aadhaar par, neeche di gayi saarani ke anusaar, vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. kaarbanik anu aarganotraafon mein oorja ke srot ke roop mein prayog mein laae jaate hain, jabki lithotraaf akaarbanik padaarthon ka aur fototraaf sooryaprakaash ko rasaayanik oorja ke roop mein prayog mein laate hain. lekin, chayaapachaya ke ye sabhi prakaar ridaaks pratikriyaaon par nirbhar hote hain, jinmein apaghatit daani anuon jaise kaarbanik anuon, paani, amoniya, haaidrojan salfaaid ya feras aayanon se ilektraanon ka antaran graahak anuon jaise aakseejan, naaitret ya salfet mein hota hai.[27] pashuon mein in pratikriyaaon mein jatil kaarbanik anu vightit hokar saralatar anuon jaise kaarban daai aaksaaid aur paani ka utpaadan karte hain. prakaash-sanshleshak jeevon, jaise paudhon aur saayanobaikteeriya mein, ye ilektraan-antaran pratikriyaaen oorja mukt naheen karti hain, lekin hamesha sooryaprakaash se avashoshit oorja ke sanchayan ke kaam mein prayog ki jaati hain.[7]

jeevon ka vargeekaran unke chayaapachaya ke aadhaar par
oorja srot soorya ka prakaash photo- -trof
poorv nirmit anu kemo-
ilektraun daata kaarbanik yaugik orgaano-
akaarbanik yaugik litho-
kaarban srot kaarbanik yaugik hetero-
akaarbanik yaugik auto-

pashuon mein hone waali sabse aam apachaya pratikriyaaen teen mukhya padaavon mein baanti ja sakti hain. pehle padaav mein, bade kaarbanik anu jaise, proteen, paulisaikraaid ya vasa padaarth paachan dvaara koshikaaon ke baahar unke chhote anshon mein badal diye jaate hain. fir, ye chhote anu koshikaaon mein avashoshit hokar aur chhote anuon, saamaanyat: esitaail sahaenjaaim-A (esitaail-koe) mein parinit hote hain, jo thodi oorja mukt karta hai. antat:, koe ka esitaail samooh sitrik esid chakr aur ilektraan parivhan shrankhala mein aakseekrut hokar paani aur kaarban daai aaksaaid utpann karta hai, jisse oorja mukt hoti hai, jise sahaenjaaim nikotinaamaaid edeenaain daainyookliyotaaid (NAD+) ke apaghatan dvaara enaedeeech mein sanchit kiya jaata hai.

paachan

mahaaanu jaise staarch, selooloj ya proteen koshikaaon dvaara teji se avashoshit naheen kiye ja sakte hain aur koshika chayaapachaya mein unka prayog karne ke pehle unhein chhoti ikaaiyon mein vightit hona padta hai. kai prakaar ke enjaaim in paulimron ko pachaate hain. in paachak enjaaimon mein proteenon ko ameeno esidon mein pachaane vaale protiyej, paulisaikraaidon ko monosaikraaidon mein pachaane vaale glaaikosaaid haaidrolej shaamil hain.

jeevaanu keval apne aas-paas paachak enjaaimon ka sraav karte hain,[28][29] jabki pashu in enjaaimon ka sirf vishesh koshikaaon dvaara apni aanton mein sraav karte hain.[30] in paraakoshikeeya enjaaimon dvaara mukt kiye gaye ameeno esid ya sharkaraaen fir vishisht sakriya parivhan proteenon dvaara koshikaaon mein pahuncha di jaati hain.[31][32]

proteen, carbohydrate aur charbi ki apachaya ka ek saraleekrut rooparekha.

kaarbanik yaugikon se oorja

carbohydrate apachaya mein kaarbohaaidreton ko chhoti ikaaiyon mein vightit kiya jaata hai. carbohydrate monosaikraaidon mein paachan ke baad saamaanyat: koshikaaon mein avashoshit ho jaate hain.[33] ek baar bheetar pahunchane ke baad vightan ka mukhya maarg glaaikolaaisis hai, jismein glukoj aur fraktoj jaisi sharkaraaen paayaroovet mein parinit ki jaati hain aur kuchh ATP mukt hote hain.[34] paayaroovet kai chayaapachayi maargon mein madhyasth hota hai, lekin adhikaansh esitaail-koe mein parivrtit ho jaata hai aur sitrik esid chakr mein pravisht kar diya jaata hai. haalaanki sitrik esid chakr mein kuchh aur ATP utpann hota hai, usaka sabse mahatvapoorn utpaadan enaedeeech hota hai, jo esitaail-koe ke aakseekrut hone par NAD+ se banta hai. is aakseekaran se vyarth utpaad ke roop mein kaarban daai aaksaaid mukt hoti hai. enaerobik dashaaon mein, glaaikaalisis se laiktet deehaaidrojanej dvaara glaaikaalisis mein pun: prayog ke liye enaedeeech ke pun: enaedi+ mein aakseekaran se laiktet ki utpatti hoti hai. glukoj ke vighchan ka ek vaikalpik maarg peintoj faasfet maarg hai, jismein koenjaaim enaedeepeeech ka apaghatan hota hai aur naabhikeeya amlon ke shugar bhaag, raaiboj jaisi peintoj sharkaraaon ka utpaadan hota hai.

vasa padaarth jalavichhedan dvaara mukt vasa amlon aur glisraul mein apachit hote hain. glisraul glaaikaalisis mein pravesh karta hai aur vasa aml beeta aakseekaran dvaara vightit hokar esitaail-koe ko mukt karte hain, jo sitrik esid chakr mein kaam aata hai. vasa aml aakseekrut hone par kaarbohaaidreton ki apeksha adhik oorja dete hain kyaunki kaarbohaaidreton ki rachanaaon mein adhik aakseejan hoti hai.

ameeno esid ya to proteenon aur anya jaivaanuon ke sanshleshan mein prayukt hote hain, ya yooriya aur kaarban daai aaksaaid mein oorja ke ek srot ke roop mein aakseekrut ho jaate hain.[35] aakseekaran maarg ka praarambh kisi traansaamaainej dvaara ek ameeno samooh ko hata dene ke saath hota hai. ameeno samooh yooriya chakr mein chala jaata hai aur apne peechhe keeto esid ke roop mein ek viaminikrut kaarban panjar chhod deta hai. is tarah ke kai keeto esid sitrik esid chakr mein madhyasth hote hain, uda. glutaamet ke viamineekaran se α-keetoglutaaret banta hai.[36] glukojenik ameeno esid bhi glukoniyojenesis dvaara glukoj mein badle ja sakte hain. (neeche charchit).[37]

oorja parivartan

aakseekarit faasfaarileekaran

aakseekaarak faasfaarileekaran mein sitrik esid chakr jaise pathon mein bhojan anuon se nikaale gaye ilektraan aakseejan ko antarit kar diye jaate hain aur mukt hui oorja ka prayog ATP banaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh kaam yookairyosaaiton mein ilektraan parivhan shrankhala naamak proteenon dvaara maaitokaandriya ki jhilliyon mein kiya jaata hai. prokairyosaaiton mein ye proteen koshika ki bheetari jhilli mein paae jaate hain.[38] ye proteen apaghatit anuon jaise enaedeeech (NADH) se praapt ilektraanon ko aakseejan par pravaahit karne se utpann oorja ka prayog jhilli ke paar protaanon ko pahunchaane ke liye karte hain.[39]

maaitokaandriya se protaanon ko baahar bhejane par jhilli ke paar ke protaan maatra mein bhinnata utpann ho jaati hai aur ek vidyut-rasaayanik grediyeint utpann ho jaata hai.[40] yeh bal protaanon ko vaapas maaitokaandriya mein ATP (ATP) sinthej naamak enjaaim ke aadhaar ke jariye dhakel deta hai. protaanon ka pravaah upaikaai ko ghuma deta hai, jisse sinthej ka sakriya bhaag apna aakaar badal leta hai aur edeenoseen daaifaasfet ka faasfaarileekaran karke use ATP mein badal deta hai.[15]

akaarbanik yaugikon se oorja

keemolithotripsi prokairyosaaiton mein paaya jaane wala ek prakaar ka chayaapachaya hai, jismein akaarbanik yaugikon ke aakseekaran se oorja praapt ki jaati hai. ye jeev haaidrojan,[41] apaghatit salfar yaugikon (jaise salfaaid, haaidrajan salfaaid aur thaayosalfet)[1], fairas lohe (fail)[42] ya amoniya[43] ko apaghatan shakti ke roop mein prayog mein la sakte hain aur in yaugikon ke aakseejan ya naaitraait jaise ilektraan graahakon dvaara aakseekaran se oorja praapt karte hain.[44] ye jeevaanu prakriyaaen sarvavyaapi jaivabhoorasaayanik chakron jaise esitojenesis, naaitreekaran aur vinaaitreekaran mein mahatva rakhati hain aur mitti ke upajaaoopan ke liye aavashyak hoti hain.[45][46]

prakaash se oorja

soorya ke prakaash ki oorja paudhon, saayanobaikteeriya, baingani baikteeriya, hare gandhak baikteeriya aur kuchh protiston dvaara grahan ki jaati hai. yeh prakriya, jaisa ki neeche kaha gaya hai, aksar prakaash-sanshleshan ke ek bhaag ke roop mein kaarban daai aaksaaid ke kaarbanik yaugikon mein parivrtit hone ke saath ghatati hai. oorja ke grahan karne aur kaarban ka sthireekaran prokairyoton mein alag roop se bhi ho sakta hai, kyaunki baingani baikteeriya aur hare gandhak baikteeriya, kaarban ke sthireekaran aur kaarbanik yaugikon ke kinvan ko baari-baari se karke soorya-prakaash ko oorja ke srot ke roop mein upayog mein la sakte hain.[47][48]

kai jeevon mein soorya ki oorja ko grahan karne ki kriya saiddhaantik roop se aakseekaarak faasfaarileekaran ke samaan hoti hai, kyaunki ismein oorja protaan saandrata grediyent mein sanchit hoti hai aur yeh protaan ATP sanshleshan ko protsaahit karta hai.[15] is ilektraan parivhan shrankhala ko aage badhaane ke liye ilektraan prakaash-sanshleshan pratikriya keindron ya rodaapsin naamak prakaash-sanchayi proteenon se aate hain. pratikriya keindron ko prakaash-sanshleshak ranjakon ke prakaar ke anusaar do prakaaron mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. kai prakaash-sanshleshak baikteeriya mein keval ek hi prakaar hota hai, jabki paudhon aur sayaanobaikteeriya mein do prakaar hote hain.[49]

paudhon, shaivaal aur sayaanobaikteeriya mein prakaashatantr II prakaash oorja ka prayog paani se ilektraanon ko alag karne ke liye karta hai, jisse aakseejan ek vyarth utpaad ke roop mein mukt hoti hai. iske baad ilektraan saaitokrom b6f kaampleks ki or bahate hain, jo unki oorja ka prayog kloroplaast ki thaayalakaayad jhilli ke paar protaanon ko pamp karne ke liye karte hain.[7] ye protaan pehle ki tarah, ATP sinthej ko chalaate hue jhilli se vaapas baahar nikal jaate hain. ye ilektraan fir prakaashatantr I me se pravaahit hote hain aur kailvin chakr mein upayog ke liye sahaenjaaim enaedeepi + ke apaghatan ke liye ya aur ATP utpaadan ke liye fir se kaam mein liye jaate hain.[50]

upachaya

upachaya rachanaatmak chayaapachayi pratikriyaaon ke us samooh ko kehte hain, jismein apachaya se utpann oorja ko jatil anuon ke sanshleshan ke liye prayog mein laaya jaata hai. mote taur par, koshikeeya rachana ko banaane vaale jatil anuon ka nirmaan chhote aur saade anuon se vidhivt kiya jaata hai. upachaya ki teen mukhya avasthaaen hoti hai. pehli, ameeno esid, monosaikraaid, aaisoprenaayad aur nyookliyotaaidon jaise praathamik anuon ka utpaadan, doosari, ATP se urja ka prayog karke unhein pratikriyaatmak roop mein sakriya karna aur teesari, in praathamik anuon ko jod kar jatil anu jaise, proteen, paulisaikraaid, vasa padaarth aur naabhikeeya aml banaana.

jeevon mein is baat mein bhinnata hoti hai, ki unki koshikaaon ke kitne anuon ka nirmaan ve swayam kar sakte hain. aatotraaf jaise paudhe koshikaaon mein saral anuon jause kaarban daai aaksaaid aur paani se jatil anuon jaise paulisaikraaidon aur proteenon ka nirmaan kar sakte hain. doosari or, heterotraafon ko in jatil anuon ke utpaadan ke liye adhik jatil padaarthon jaise, monosaikraaidon aur ameeno esidon ki jaroorat hoti hai. jeevon ko unke oorja ke antim srot ke aadhaar par aage vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai – fotoaatotraaf aur fotoheterotraaf prakaash se oorja praapt karte hain, jabki keemoaatotraaf aur keemoheterotraaf akaarbanik aakseekaran pratikriyaaon se oorja praapt karte hain.

kaarban ka sthireekaran

sooryaprakaash aur kaarban daaiaaksaaid (CO2) se kaarbohaaidreton ke sanshleshan ko prakaash-sanshleshan kehte hain. paudhon, sayaanobaikteeriya aur shaivaal mein, aakseejaneeya prakaash-sanshleshan paani ka vichhed karta hai, jisse aakseejan vyarth utpaad ke roop mein utpann hoti hai. is prakriya mein, uparlikhit vivran ke anusaar, prakaash-sanshleshak pratikriya keindron dvaara utpann ATP aur enaedeepeeech ka prayog CO2 ko glisret 3-faasfet mein badalne ke liye kiya jaata hai, jisko fir glukoj mein badla ja sakta hai. yeh kaarban-sthireekaran pratikriya kailvin-bensan chakr ke hisse ke roop mein enjaaim roobisko dvaara faleebhoot ki jaati hai.[51] paudhon mein teen prakaar ka prakaash-sanshleshan ho sakta hai, see3 kaarban sthireekaran, see4 kaarabn sthireekaran aur seeeaim prakaash-sanshleshan. inmein kailvin chakr tak pahunchane ke liye CO2 dvaara apanaae gaye maarg ke anusaar bhinnata hoti hai, see3 paudhe seedhe CO2 ka sthireekaran karte hain, jabki see4 aur seeeaim prakaash-sanshleshan mein teevr sooryaprakaash aur shushk paristhitiyon se nipatne ke liye, seeo2 ko pehle anya yaugikon mein samaavisht kiya jaata hai.[52]

prakaash-sanshleshak prokairyosaaiton mein kaarban sthireekaran ki paddhatiyon mein adhik vividhta hoti hai. ismein kaarban daaiaaksaaid ka sthireekaran kailvin-bensan chakr, ulte sitrik esid chakr,[53] ya esitaail-koe ke kaarbaaksileekaran dvaara kiya ja sakta hai.[54][55] prokairyotik keemoaatotraaf CO2 ko kailvin-bensan chakr dvaara bhi sthir kar sakte hain, lekin is pratikriya ke liye aavashyak oorja akaarbanik yaugikon se praapt hoti hai.[56]

carbohydrate aur glaaikaan

carbohydrate upachaya mein, saral kaarbanik amlon ko glukoj jaise monosaikraaidon mein badla ja sakta hai aur fir staarch jaise palisaikraaidon ke nirmaan ke liye prayog mein laaya ja sakta hai. paayaroovet, laiktet, glisraul, glisret 3-faasfet aur ameeno esidon jaise yaugikon se glukoj ke utpaadan ko glukoniyojenesis kaha jaata hai. glukoliyojenesis mein paayaroovet ko glukoj-6-faasfet mein madhyasthon ki ek shrankhala ke jariye parivrtit kiya jaata hai, jinmein se kai glaayakaalisis mein bhi paae jaate hain.[34] lekin yeh path keval ulti glaayakaalisis naheen hai, kyaunki iske anek charan gair-glaayakaalitik enjaaimon dvaara utprerit kiye jaate hain. aisa hona mahatvapoorn hai kyaunki isse glukoj ke utpaadan aur vichhedan ke path ke niyman mein sahaayata milti hai aur donon pathon ko kisi chakr mein ek saath ghatne se roka ja sakta hai.[57][58]

haalaanki, vasa oorja ke sanchaya ka saamaanya tareeka hai, prushthavanshiyon jaise maanav mein in bhandaaron ke vasa aml glukoniyojenesis dvaara glukoj mein naheen badle ja sakte hain, kyaunki in jeevon mein esitaail-koe ko paayaroovet mein badalne ki kshamata naheen hoti.[59] iske liye aavashyak enjaaim podhon mein hote hain par jaanvaron mein naheen hote. falat: lambe samay tak bina aahaar ke rahane ke baad prushthavanshiyon ko mastishk jaise ootakon, jo vasa amlon ka chayaapachaya naheen kar sakte hain, mein glukoj ke sthaan par vasa amlon se keeton kaayon ka utpaadan karna padta hai.[60] anya jeevon, jaise paudhon aur baikteeriya mein, is chayaapachayi samasya ka samaadhaan glayaaksilet chakr ka prayog karke kiya jaata hai, jo sitrik esid chakr ke vikaarbaakseeleekaran charan ko baaipaas karke esitaail-koe ko aakjeloeseetet mein badalne deti hai, jiska prayog glukoj ke utpaadan ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.[59][61]

paulisaikraaid aur glaaikaan vikaasasheel paulisaikraaid par sthit graahak haaidraaksil samooh par yoorideen daaifaasfet jaise pratikriyaatmak shugar-faasfet daata se glaayakosiltraansafarej dvaara monosaikraaidon ke shrankhalaatmak jod se banaae jaate hain. choonki sabastret ke chhalle par sthit koi bi haaidraaksil samooh graahak ho sakte hain, isaliye utpann hue paulisaikraaido ki rachana seedhi ya shaakhaayukt ho sakti hai.[62] utpann paulisaikraaidon ke apne rachanaatmak ya chayaapachayi kartavya ho sakte hain ya ve aaligosaikariltraansafarejon naamak enjaaimon dvaara vasaao aur proteenon ko antarit kiye ja sakte hain.[63][64]

vasa aml, aaisoprenaayad aur steeraayad

maadhyamik aaisopeintenaail paayarofaus‍aafet (IPP), dimethaailelaail paayarofaus‍aafet (DMAPP), jeraanaail paayarofaus‍aafet (GPP) aur skoalen ke saath steerauyad seinthesis paathave ka saraleekrut sanskaran. kuchh madhyavarti spashtata ke liye chhode gaye hain.

vasa aml vasa aml sinthejon dvaara bane jaate hain, jo esitaail-koe ikaaiyon ko paalimrit karke apaghatit kar dete hain. vasa amlon ki esaail shrankhalaaen pratikriyaaon ke ek chakr dvaara aur lambi ki jaati hain, jo esaail samooh jodti hain, use alkohal mein apaghatit karti hain, nirjaleekaran dvaara alkeen samooh mein parinit karti hain aur fir vaapas apaghatit karke alken samooh mein badal deti hain. vasa aml jaivasanshleshan ke enjaaim do samoohon mein vibhaajit kiye gaye hain, pashuon aur fafoondi mein ye sabhi vasa aml sinthej pratikriyaaen ek bahukaaryasheel type I proteen dvaara faleebhoot ki jaati hain,[65] jabki vanaspati plaastidon aur baikteeriya mein pruthak type II enjaaim pathamaarg mein har charan ko poora karte hain.[66][67]

tarpeen aur aaisoprenaayad vasaaon ki ek badi kaksha hain jinmein kairoteenaayad shaamil hain aur vanaspati praakrutik utpaadanon ke sabse bade varg ka nirmaan karte hain.[68] ye yaugik pratikriyaatmak anuon aaisopeintenaail paayarofaasfet aur daaimethaailaelil paayarofaasfet dvaara di gayi aaisopreen ikaaiyon ke jamaav aur sanshodhan se banaae jaate hain.[69] in yaugikon ko bhinn tareekon se banaaya ja sakta hai. pashuon aur aarkeiya mein, mevaalonet pathamaarg esitaail-koe se in yaugikon ka utpaadan karta hai,[70] jabki paudhon aur baikteeriya mein gair-mevaalonet pathamaarg paayaroovet aur glisraaldeehaaid 3-faasfet ka prayog karte hain.[69][71] steeraayad jaivasanshleshan in sakriya aaisopreen daataaon ka prayog karne waali ek mahatvapoorn pratikriya hai. ismein, aaisopreen ikaaiyaan aapas mein judkar skvaaleen banaati hain aur fir dohari hokar chhallon ka samooh bana kar lainaastraal utpann karti hain.[72] lainaastraal ko fir kaalestraal aur argostraal jaise anya steeraayadon mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai.[72][73]

proteen

20 saamaanya ameeno amlon ke sanshlesham ki kshamata har jeev mein bhinn hoti hai. adhikaansh baikteeriya aur paudhe sabhi bees ka sanshleshan kar sakte hain, lekin stanapaayi keval gyaarah anaavashyak ameeno amlon ka sanshleshan kar sakte hain.[7] is tarah, nau aavashyak ameeno aml bhojan se praapt karne hote hain. sabhi ameeno aml glaaikaalisis, sitrik esid chakr, ya peintoj faasfet pathamaarg ke madhyasthon se sanshleshit kiye jaate hain. naaitrojan glootaamet aur glootaameen dvaara upalabdh ki jaati hai. ameeno aml sanshleshan uchit alfa-keeto aml ke banane par nirbhar hota hai, jo fir traansaameeneekrut hokar ameeno aml ka nirmaan karta hai.[74]

ameeno esidon ko peptaaid baandon dvaara ek janjeer ke roop mein jod kar proteenon mein badla jaata hai. pratyek bhinn proteen mein ameeno esidon ki ek anoothi shrankhala hoti hai. varnamaala ke aksharon ko jis tarah jod kar lagbhag aseemit prakaar ke shabd banaae ja sakte hain, theek usi tarah ameeno esidon ko bhi bhinn prakaar ki shrankhalaaon mein jod kar bahut badi vividhta vaale proteen banaae ja sakte hain. proteen un ameeno esidon se banaae jaate hain, jo transfer aaraenae anu se ek estar baand ke jariye judkar sakriya kiye gaye hon. yeh ameenoesil-teeaaraenae preekarsar ek ameenoesil teeaaraenae sinthatej dvaara ki gayi ek ATP par nirbhar pratikriya mein utpann hota hai.[75] yeh ameenoesil-teeaaraenae tab ribosom ke liye sabastret hota hai, jo, meseinjar aaraenae mein maujood shrankhala jaankaari ka prayog karke lambi hoti proteen janjeer par ameeno esid se sanlagn ho jaata hai.[76]

nyookliyotaaid sanshleshan aur sangrah

nyookliyotaaid un pathamaargon mein ameeno esidon, kaarban daaiaaksaaid aur faarmik esid se banaae jaate hain jinhein chayaapachaya oorja ki badi maatra mein jaroorat padti hai.[77] falasvaroop, adhikaansh jeevon mein poorvanirmit nyookliyotaaidon ko sanchit karne ke liye yathochit vyavastha hoti hai.[77][78] pyooreenon ka nyookliyosaaidon (ribosomon se sanlagn kshaar) ke roop mein sanshleshan kiya jaata hai. edeenaain aur guaanaain donon agragaami nyookliyosaaid aainoseen monofaasfet se bante hain, jo ameeno esidon, glaaiseen, glutaameen aur espaartik esid se praapt paramaanuon aur sahaenjaaim tetraahaaidrofolet se antarit faarmet ka prayog karke sanshleshit kiya jaata hai. doosari or paayareemideen, glutaameen aur espaartet se bane kshaar orotet se sanshleshit hota hai.[79]

jeenobaayotik aur ridaaks chayaapachaya

sabhi jeevon ka saamana aise yaugikon se hota hai, jinhein bhojan ke roop mein prayog mein naheen laaya ja sakta hai aur jo yadi koshikaaon mein jama ho jaaen to haanikaarak ho sakte hain kyaunki unki koi chayaapachayi bhoomika naheen hoti. aise haanikaarak yaugikon ko yeenobaayotik kaha jaata hai.[80] sanshleshit aushadhiyon, praakrutik vishon aur enteebaayotikon jaise jeenobayotikon ko jeenobaayotik-chayaapachayi enjaaimon ke ek samooh dvaara nishkriya kiya jaata hai. manushyon mein, inmein saaitokrom pee450 aaksidej,[81] yoodeepi-glukurunosiltraansafarej,[82] aur glutaathayon S -traansafarej shaamil hain.[83] enjaaimon ka yeh tantr teen avasthaaon mein kaarya karta hai, pehle jeenobaayotik ko aakseekrut karna (pehli avastha) aur fir jal-ghulanasheel samoohon ko anu par kaanjuget (doosari avastha) karna. sanshodhit jal-ghulanasheel jeenobaayotik ko fir koshika ke baahar pamp kar diya jaata hai aur bahukoshikeeya jeevon mein baahar nikaalne ke pehle aur chayapachayit kiya jaata hai. ikaalaaji mein ye pratikriyaaen dooshak tatvon ke jeevaanuon dvaara jaivaapaghatan aur dooshit jameen va tel ke ris jaane par jaivaupachaar ke liye visheshakar mahatvapoorn hain.[84] inmein se kai jeevaanu pratikriyaaen bahukoshikeeya jeevon mein bhi hoti hain, lekin jeevaanuon ke avishvasaneeya vividh prakaaron ke kaaran ye jeev bahukoshikeeya jeevon ki apeksha kaheen adhik prakaar ke jeenobaayotikon ka saamana kar sakte hain aur aargainokloraaid yaugikon jaise hathi kaarbanik dooshakon se bhi nipat sakte hain.[85]

eyarobik jeevon se sambandhit ek samasya hai, aakseekaran dabaav.[86] ismein, aakseekaraneeya faasfaarileekaran aur proteenon ke doharepan ke samay daaisalfaaid baandon ke nirmaan sahit prakriyaaen haaidrojan paraaksaaid jaisi pratikriyaatmak jaatiyon ka utpaadan karti hain.[87] ye haanikaarak aakseedaint aakseekaranavirodhi chayaapachayakon jaise glootaathayon aur enjaaimon jaise kaitaalejon aur paraaksidejon dvaara nishkaasit kiye jaate hain.[88][89]

jeevit jantuon ki ooshmapragaitiki

jeevit jantuon ko ooshmapragaitiki ke niyamon ka paalan karna aavashyak hota hai, jo ooshma ke antaran aur kaarya ke baare mein batalaate hain. ooshmapragaitiki ke doosare niyam ke anusaar, kisi bhi band tantr mein entraapi (vikaar) mein vruddhi hoti hai. haalaanki jeevit jantuon ki aashcharypoorn jatilta is niyam ke virooddh jaati hai, jeevan sambhav hai kyaunki sabhi jeev khule tantr hain jo apne aas-paas ke vaataavaran se padaarth aur oorja ka vinimay karte hain. is tarah jeevit tantr santulan mein naheen hote, balki nasht hone vaale tantr hain jo apne paryaavaranon mein entraapi mein adhik vruddhi karke apni uchch jatilta ki sthiti bane rakhate hain.[90] koshika ka chayaapachaya ise apachaya ki svaabhaavik prakriyaaon ko upachaya ki asvaabhaavik prakriyaaon se yugmit karke sambhav karta hai. ooshmapragaitiki ki bhaasha mein, chayaapachaya asantulan utpann karke santulan banaae rakhata hai.[91]

niyman aur niyantran

choonki adhikaansh jeevon ke paryaavaran lagaataar badalate rahate hain, isaliye chayaapachayi pratikriyaaon ka koshikaaon mein ek sthir dasha banaae rakhane ke liye baareeki se niyamit hona aavashyak hai, jise homiyostaisis kehte hain.[92][93] chayaapachayi niyman jeevon ko sanketon ke prati javaab dene aur apne paryaavaranon se sakriya roop se antarkriya karne mein sahaayak hote hain.[94] chayaapachayi pathamaargon ke niyantran ki kriya ko samajhne ke liye do aapas mein majabooti se jude siddhaant mahatvapoorn hain. ek, kisi pathamaarg mein enjaaim ke niyman ke anusaar sanket ke prati usaki gatividhi badhti ya ghatati hai. doosare, is enjaaim dvaara kiya gaya niyantran hi pathamaarg ki kul dar par gatividhi mein hue parivrtanon ka prabhaav hai. (pathamaarg dvaara bahaav)[95] uda.enjaaim apni gatividhi mein bade parivartan dikhaata hai (arthaat bade taur par niyamit hota hai), lekin yadi in parivrtanon ka chayaapachayi pathamaarg ke bahaav par thoda sa prabhaav ho, to yeh enjaaim pathamaarg ke niyantran mein shaamil naheen hai.[96]

insulin ki tej aur glookoj chayaapachaya par prabhaav.insulin bainds too its riseptar (1) vich in turn staarts meni proteen ekiveshan kaaskeds (2).ye hain: traanslokeshan of galat-4 transporter too the plaajma membren end inflaks of glookoj (3), glaaikojan sinthesis (4), glaaikolisis (5) aur faitti esids sinthesis (6).

chayaapachaya niyman ke kai star hote hain. aantarik niyman mein chayaapachayi pathamaarg svat:niyman karke sabastreton ya utpaadanon ke staron mein parivrtanon ke prati pratikriya karta hai. uda.utpaadan ki maatra mein kami hone par pathamaarg se bahaav mein vruddhi ho jaati hai.[95] is tarah ke niyman mein aksar pathamaarg ke anek enjaaimon ki gatividhiyon ka elosterik niyman hota hai.[97] baahya niyantran mein bahukoshikeeya jeev ki ek koshika anya koshikaaon ke sanketon ke anusaar apne chayaapachaya mein parivartan laati hain. ye sanket saamaanyat: haaramonon aur vikaas kaarakon jaise ghulanasheel sandeshavaahakon ke roop mein hote hain aur koshika-satah par vishisht graahakon dvaara pahachaane jaate hain.[98] fir ye sanket koshika ke bheetar dviteeya sandeshavaahak tantron dvaara sancharit kiye jaate hain, jo aksar proteenon ke faasfaarileekaran mein lage hote hain.[99]

baahya niyantran ka ek bahut achhi tarah se samjha gaya udaaharan hai, insulin haaramon dvaara glukoj chayaapachaya ka niyman.[100] insulin ka utpaadan rakt glukoj staron ke badhne par hota hai. koshikaaon par sthit insulin graahakon se haaramon ke judne par proteen kaainejon ka prapaat sakriya ho jaata hai, jo koshikaaon dvaara glukoj lekar use vasa amlon aur glaayakojan jaise sanchaya anuon mein parivrtit karavaata hai.[101] glaayakojan ka chayaapachaya enjaaim faasfaarilej, jo glaayakojan ka vightan karta hai aur glaayakojan sinthej, jo use banaata hai, dvaara niyantrit hota hai. faasfaarileekaran glaayakojan sinthej ka avarodh karta hai, lekin faasfaarilej ko sakriya karta hai. insulin proteen faasfetejon ko sakriya karke aur in enjaaimon ke faasfaarileekaran mein kami laakar glaayakojan ka sanshleshan karavaata hai.[102]

vikaas

jeevan ke teenon domen se vikaasavaadi ped jeevon ke saamaanya vansh ko dikhaata hai. baikteeriya neele rang mein, yookeriyot laal mein aur aarkiya hare mein dikhaae gaye hain. faila mein se kuchh ke saapeksh padon ko ped ke chaaron or dikhaaen gaye hain.

uparlikhit chayaapachaya ke keindreeya pathamaarg, jaise glaayakaalisis auऱ sitrik esid chakr, jeevit vastuon ke teenon vargon mein hote hain aur pichhle vishv poorvaj mein maujood the.[3][103] yeh saarvabhaumik poorvaj koshika prokaaryotik aur shaayad methenojan thi jismein vyaapak ameeno esid, nyookliyotaaid, carbohydrate aur vasa chayaapachaya hota tha.[104][105] in praacheen pathamaargon ka aage ke vikaas mein rakha jaana unki vishisht chayaapachayi samasyaaon ke liye in pratikriyaaon ka uchit samaadhaan hona sambhav hai, kyaunki glaayakaalisis aur sitrik esid chakr jaise pathamaarg bade yathochit roop se aur kam se kam charanon mein unke ant-utpaadon ka utpaadan karte hain.[4][5] enjaaim par aadhaarit chayaapachaya ke pehle pathamaarg pyooreen nyookliyotaaid chayaapachaya ke hisse ho sakte hain, jismein pehle ke chayaapachayi pathamaarg praacheen aaraenae duniya ke bhaag the.[106]

nae chayaapachayi pathamaargon ke utpann hone ke tareekon ko samajhaane ke liye kai maadal prastut kiye gaye hain. inmein nae enjaaimon ka kisi chhote poorvaj pathamaarg se shrankhala mein judna, saare pathamaargon ke pratiroop banaakar fir unka hat jaana, pehle se maujood ejaaimon ka chayan aur naveen pratikriya pathamaarg mein unka jamaav shaamil hai.[107] in prakriyaaon ka apekshaatmak mahatva spasht naheen hai, lekin jeenomik adhyayanon ke anusaar pathamaarg ke enjaaimon ke saajha poorvaj hote hain, jisse aisa lagta hai ki kai pathamaarg baari-baari se utpann hue hain, jinmein pathamaarg mein pehle se maujood charanon mein nae kaarya-kalaap bante hain.[108] chayaapachayi network mein proteenon ki rachanaaon ke vikaas ke liye kiye gaye adhyayanon se praapt ek vaikalpik maadal ke anusaar enjaaimon ka chayan vyaapak roop se hota hai (mainet detaabes mein spasht hai),[109] jismein bhinn chayaapachayi pathamaargon mein samaan prakaar ke kaarya karne ke liye enjaaim udhaar liye jaate hain.[110] in chayan prakriyaaon ke kaaran ek vikaaseeya enjaaimetik mojaik banta hai. ek teesari sambhaavana hai, chayaapachaya ke kuchh bhaag maadyoolon ki tarah rah sakte hain, jinhein bhinn pathamaargon mein pun: kaam mein liya ja sakta hai aur jo bhinn anuon mein samaan tarah ke kaarya karte hain.[111]

nae chayaapachayi pathamaargon ke vikaas ki tarah, vikaas ke kaaran chayaapachayi kaaryasheelata mein kami aa sakti hai. uda. kuchh parajeeviyon mein jeevan ke liye anaavashyak chayaapachayi prakriyaaen naheen hoti hain aur pehle se bane hue ameeno esid, nyookliyotaaid aur carbohydrate mejabaan dvaara kha liye jaate hain.[112] aisi hi chayaapachayi kshamataaon mein kami endosimbayaatik jeevon mein dekhi jaati hai.[113]

jaanch aur parivartan

eraabidopsis thaaliana saaitrik esid chakr ka metaabaulik network.enjaaimon aur metaabolaaits laal vargon mein aur kaale laainon ke roop mein un donon ke beech paarasparik sampark dikhaae jaate hain.

chayaapachaya ka adhyayan maanya roop se apaghateeya tareeke se kiya jaata hai, jo ek chayaapachaya pathamaarg par keindrit hota hai. ismein sabse mahatvapoorn hai, sampoorn jeev, ootak aur koshikeeya star par rediyosakriya lesaron ka prayog, jo rediyosakriya roop se lebal kiye gaye madhyasthon aur utpaadanon ko pehchaan kar poorvajon se lekar antim utpaadan tak ke pathamaargon ko paribhaashit karte hain.[114] in rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ko utprerit karne vaale enjaaimon ka tab shuddheekaran kiya ja sakta hai aur unki gatiki va avarodhakon ke prati unki pratikriyaaon ki jaanch ki ja sakti hai. ek samaanaantar tareeka hai, koshika ya ootak mein chhote anuon ko pehchaanana. in anuon ke ek poorn samooh ko metaabolom kaha jaata hai. kul mila kar in adhyayanon se saral chayaapachayi pathamaargon ki rachana aur kaarya ke baare mein achhi jaankaari milti hai, lekin adhik jatil tantron jaise sampoorn koshika ke chayaapachaya par unhein laagoo karne par aparyaapt lagte hain.[115]

vibhinn prakaar ke hajaaron enjaaimon se yukt koshikaaon ke chayaapachayi jaal ki jatilta ka andaaja daanyi or diye gaye chitr se lagaaya ja sakta hai, jismein sirf 43 proteenon aur 40 chayaapachakon ke beech antarkruya ko darshaaya gaya hai – jeenomon ki shrankhalaaen 45000 jeenon tak ki feharist upalabdh karti hai.[116] lekin ab is jeenomik jaankaari ka prayog karke rasaayanik pratikriyaaon ke sampoorn jaalon ka punarnirmaan aur unke bartaav ko samajhne ke liye adhik poorn ganiteeya maadal banaana sambhav hai.[117] ye maadal vishesh roop se shaktishaali tab hote hain jab unka prayog proteeyomik aur DNA maaikroaire adhyayanon se praapt jeen eksapreshan vishyak jaankaari ko maanya tareekon se praapt pathamaarg aur chayaapachayi jaankaari se ekeekrut karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.[118] in takaneekon ka prayog karke, maanav chayaapachaya ka ek maadal banaaya gaya hai, jo bhavishya mein aushadhi ki khoj aur jaivarasaayanik shodh ka maargadarshan karega.[119] ye maadal abhi network vishleshan mein samaan proteenon ya chayaapachayakon vaale samoohon mein maanavi rogon ke vargeekaran ke liye prayog mein laae ja rahe hain.[120][121]

baikteeriya ke chayaapachayi network bo-taai[122][123][124] sanyojan ka achha udaaharan lagte hain, jo apekshaakrut kam madhyasth mudraaon ka prayog karke poshakon ki badi shrankhalaaon ki sahaayata se badi vividhta vaale utpaadon aur jatil mahaaanuon ko utpann kar sakte hain.

is jaankaari ka ek mukhya takaneeki upayog chayaapachayi engineering hai. ismein khameer, vanaspati ya baikteeriya jaise jeev jeenon mein sanshodhan dvaara unhein jaivatakaneeki mein adhik upayogi aur enteebaayotikon jaisi aushadhiyon ya 1,3-propenadayaal aur shikimik esid jaise audyaugik rasaayanon ke utpaadan mein madadgaar banaaya jaata hai.[125] in jeeneeya sanshodhanon ka uddeshya utpaadan mein lagne waali oorja ki maatra ko kam karne aur vyarth padaarthon ka utpaadan kam karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.[126]

itihaas

ars de sataatika medesina dvaara saintorio saintorio steelayaard santulan mein, 1614 mein sabse pehle prakaashit

metaabolijm (chayaapachaya) shabd ki utpatti greek shabd, metaabolismaus – parivartan ya ulat dena – se hui hai.[127] chayaapachaya ke vaigyaanik adhyayan ka itihaas kai shataabdiyon puraana hai aur praarambhik adhyayanon mein sampoorn pashuon ki pareeksha se lekar, aadhunik jaivarasaayanashaastr mein vyaktigat chayaapachayi pratikriyaaon ki jaanch tak faila hai. chayaapachaya ka siddhaant ibn al-nafees (1213-1288) ke samay se hai, jisne bataaya ki, 'shareer aur uske bhaag lagaataar vightan aur poshan ki sthiti mein rahate hain.[128] maanav ke chayaapachaya ke pehle prayogon ka prakaashan saintoriyo saintoriyo ne 1614 mein unki pustak aars di staitika medesina mein kiya.[129] usane bataaya ki kaise usane apne aapko bhojan karne, sone, kaam karne, maithun, upavaas, peene aur malatyaag karne ke pehle aur baad taula. usane paaya ki uske dvaara liye gaye aahaar ka adhikaansh bhaag 'asanvedi svedan' ke jariye gaayab ho gaya.

in praarambhik adhyayanon mein, in chayaapachayi prakriyaaon ke tareekon ko pahachaana naheen gaya hai aur yeh samjha jaata tha ki koi daivi shakti jeevit ootak ko niyantrit karti hai.[130] 19veen shataabdi mein khameer dvaara shakkar ke alkohal mein kinvan ka adhyayan karte samay, lui paaschar ne dekha ki kinvan ka utpreran khameer koshikaaon mein sthit padaarthon dvaara kiya jaata hai, jinhein usane 'kinvak' ka naam diya. usane likha ki, 'alkohali kinvan khameer koshikaaon ke jeevan aur sanyojan se sambandhit ek kaarya hai aur iska koshikaaon ki mrutyu ya sadne se koi sambandh naheen hai'.[131] is khoj aur fredrich vohlar dvaara 1828 mein yooriya ke rasaayanik sanshleshan ke prakaashan se yeh siddh hua ki koshikaaon mein paae jaane vaale kaarbanik yaugikon aur rasaayanik pratikriyaaon aur rasaayanashaastr ke anya kisi bhi bhaag mein saiddhaantik roop se koi bhinnata naheen hai.[132]

20veen shataabdi ke shuroo mein edvard bakanar dvaara enjaaimon ki khoj ke baad chayaapachaya ki rasaayanik pratikriyaaon aur koshikaaon ke jeevavaijnyaaanik adhyayan alag se kiye jaane lage aur jaivarasaayanashaastr ki shurooaat hui.[133] praarambhik 20veen shataabdi mein jaivarasaayanik jaankaari teji se badhi. in aadhunik jaivarasaayanajnyaon mein sabse sakriya the haans krebs, jinhonne chayaapachaya ke adhyayan mein bada yogadaan kiya.[134] unhonne yooriya chakr aur haans kaarnabarg ke saath kaam karte hue, sitrik esid chakr aur glayaaksilet chakr ka aavishkaar kiya.[135][61] aadhunik jaivarasaayanik shodh ko nai takaneekon jaise, krometograafi, eksare daaifraikshan, enaemaaar spektroskopi, rediyoaaisotopik lebaleekaran, ilektraan maaikroskopi aur aanvik gatiki simuleshan se bahut sahaayata mili hai. in takaneekon se koshikaaon mein anek anuon aur chayaapachayi pathamaargon ki khoj aur vistrut vishleshan sambhav hua hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/m' not found.

  • ainathropojenik chayaapachaya
  • aadhaarik chayaapachaya dar
  • kailoreemetri
  • chayaapachaya ki antarjaat truti
  • lohe-salfar duniya siddhaant, "chayaapachaya pehle" mool ke jeevan ka siddhaant.
  • respirometri
  • bhojan ki thermik prabhaav
  • paani chayaapachaya
  • salfar chayaapachaya
  • ainteemetaabolaait

sandarbh

  1. a aa Friedrich C (1998). "Physiology and genetics of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria". Adv Microb Physiol 39: 235–89. doi:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)60018-1. PMID 9328649.
  2. Pace NR (January 2001). "The universal nature of biochemistry". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (3): 805–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.3.805. PMC 33372. PMID 11158550.
  3. a aa Smith E, Morowitz H (2004). "Universality in intermediary metabolism". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (36): 13168–73. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404922101. PMC 516543. PMID 15340153. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15340153.
  4. a aa Ebenhöah O, Heinrich R (2001). "Evolutionary optimization of metabolic pathways. Theoretical reconstruction of the stoichiometry of ATP and NADH producing systems". Bull Math Biol 63 (1): 21–55. doi:10.1006/bulm.2000.0197. PMID 11146883.
  5. a aa Meléandez-Hevia E, Waddell T, Cascante M (1996). "The puzzle of the Krebs citric acid cycle: assembling the pieces of chemically feasible reactions, and opportunism in the design of metabolic pathways during evolution". J Mol Evol 43 (3): 293–303. doi:10.1007/BF02338838. PMID 8703096.
  6. Michie K, Löawe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annu Rev Biochem 75: 467–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142452. PMID 16756499.
  7. a aa i E u oo A Nelson, David L.; Michael M. Cox (2005). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: W. H. Freeman and company. pp. 841. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7167-4339-6. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Nelson" defined multiple times with different content
  8. Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Brown H, Glass C, Merrill A, Murphy R, Raetz C, Russell D, Seyama Y, Shaw W, Shimizu T, Spener F, van Meer G, VanNieuwenhze M, White S, Witztum J, Dennis E (2005). "A comprehensive classification system for lipids". J Lipid Res 46 (5): 839–61. doi:10.1194/jlr.E400004-JLR200. PMID 15722563. http://www.jlr.org/cgi/content/full/46/5/839.
  9. "Nomenclature of Lipids". IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (CBN). http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/lipid/. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-08.
  10. Hegardt F (1999). "Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: a control enzyme in ketogenesis". Biochem J 338 (Pt 3): 569–82. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3380569. PMC 1220089. PMID 10051425.
  11. Raman R, Raguram S, Venkataraman G, Paulson J, Sasisekharan R (2005). "Glycomics: an integrated systems approach to structure-function relationships of glycans". Nat Methods 2 (11): 817–24. doi:10.1038/nmeth807. PMID 16278650.
  12. Sierra S, Kupfer B, Kaiser R (2005). "Basics of the virology of HIV-1 and its replication". J Clin Virol 34 (4): 233–44. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2005.09.004. PMID 16198625.
  13. a aa Wimmer M, Rose I (1978). "Mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed group transfer reactions". Annu Rev Biochem 47: 1031–78. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.47.070178.005123. PMID 354490.
  14. Mitchell P (1979). "The Ninth Sir Hans Krebs Lecture. Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reaction systems". Eur J Biochem 95 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1979.tb12934.x. PMID 378655.
  15. a aa i E Dimroth P, von Ballmoos C, Meier T (March 2006). "Catalytic and mechanical cycles in F-ATP synthases. Fourth in the Cycles Review Series". EMBO Rep 7 (3): 276–82. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400646. PMC 1456893. PMID 16607397.
  16. Coulston, Ann; Kerner, John; Hattner, JoAnn; Srivastava, Ashini (2006). "Nutrition Principles and Clinical Nutrition". Stanford School of Medicine Nutrition Courses. SUMMIT.
  17. Pollak N, Döalle C, Ziegler M (2007). "The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides—aasmall molecules with a multitude of functions". Biochem J 402 (2): 205–18. doi:10.1042/BJ20061638. PMC 1798440. PMID 17295611.
  18. a aa Heymsfield S, Waki M, Kehayias J, Lichtman S, Dilmanian F, Kamen Y, Wang J, Pierson R (1991). "Chemical and elemental analysis of humans in vivo using improved body composition models". Am J Physiol 261 (2 Pt 1): E190–8. PMID 1872381.
  19. Sychrová H (2004). "Yeast as a model organism to study transport and homeostasis of alkali metal cations" (PDF). Physiol Res 53 Suppl 1: S91–8. PMID 15119939. http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/53%20Suppl%201/53_S91.pdf.
  20. Levitan I (1988). "Modulation of ion channels in neurons and other cells". Annu Rev Neurosci 11: 119–36. doi:10.1146/annurev.ne.11.030188.001003. PMID 2452594.
  21. Dulhunty A (2006). "Excitation-contraction coupling from the 1950s into the new millennium". Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33 (9): 763–72. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04441.x. PMID 16922804.
  22. Mahan D, Shields R (1998). "Macro- and micromineral composition of pigs from birth to 145 kilograms of body weight". J Anim Sci 76 (2): 506–12. PMID 9498359. http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/76/2/506.
  23. Husted S, Mikkelsen B, Jensen J, Nielsen N (2004). "Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistics". Anal Bioanal Chem 378 (1): 171–82. doi:10.1007/s00216-003-2219-0. PMID 14551660.
  24. Finney L, O'Halloran T (2003). "Transition metal speciation in the cell: insights from the chemistry of metal ion receptors". Science 300 (5621): 931–6. doi:10.1126/science.1085049. PMID 12738850.
  25. Cousins R, Liuzzi J, Lichten L (2006). "Mammalian zinc transport, trafficking, and signals". J Biol Chem 281 (34): 24085–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.R600011200. PMID 16793761. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/281/34/24085.
  26. Dunn L, Rahmanto Y, Richardson D (2007). "Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium". Trends Cell Biol 17 (2): 93–100. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2006.12.003. PMID 17194590.
  27. Nealson K, Conrad P (1999). "Life: past, present and future". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354 (1392): 1923–39. doi:10.1098/rstb.1999.0532. PMC 1692713. PMID 10670014. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10670014.
  28. Häase C, Finkelstein R (December 1993). "Bacterial extracellular zinc-containing metalloproteases". Microbiol Rev 57 (4): 823–37. PMC 372940. PMID 8302217. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8302217.
  29. Gupta R, Gupta N, Rathi P (2004). "Bacterial lipases: an overview of production, purification and biochemical properties". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64 (6): 763–81. doi:10.1007/s00253-004-1568-8. PMID 14966663.
  30. Hoyle T (1997). "The digestive system: linking theory and practice". Br J Nurs 6 (22): 1285–91. PMID 9470654.
  31. Souba W, Pacitti A (1992). "How amino acids get into cells: mechanisms, models, menus, and mediators". JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 16 (6): 569–78. doi:10.1177/0148607192016006569. PMID 1494216.
  32. Barrett M, Walmsley A, Gould G (1999). "Structure and function of facilitative sugar transporters". Curr Opin Cell Biol 11 (4): 496–502. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(99)80072-6. PMID 10449337.
  33. Bell G, Burant C, Takeda J, Gould G (1993). "Structure and function of mammalian facilitative sugar transporters". J Biol Chem 268 (26): 19161–4. PMID 8366068.
  34. a aa Bouché C, Serdy S, Kahn C, Goldfine A (2004). "The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes". Endocr Rev 25 (5): 807–30. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0026. PMID 15466941. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/25/5/807.
  35. Sakami W, Harrington H (1963). "Amino acid metabolism". Annu Rev Biochem 32: 355–98. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.32.070163.002035. PMID 14144484.
  36. Brosnan J (2000). "Glutamate, at the interface between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism". J Nutr 130 (4S Suppl): 988S–90S. PMID 10736367. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/130/4/988S.
  37. Young V, Ajami A (2001). "Glutamine: the emperor or his clothes?". J Nutr 131 (9 Suppl): 2449S–59S; discussion 2486S–7S. PMID 11533293. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/131/9/2449S.
  38. Hosler J, Ferguson-Miller S, Mills D (2006). "Energy transduction: proton transfer through the respiratory complexes". Annu Rev Biochem 75: 165–87. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.062003.101730. PMC 2659341. PMID 16756489.
  39. Schultz B, Chan S (2001). "Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes". Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 30: 23–65. doi:10.1146/annurev.biophys.30.1.23. PMID 11340051.
  40. Capaldi R, Aggeler R (2002). "Mechanism of the F(1)F(0)-type ATP synthase, a biological rotary motor". Trends Biochem Sci 27 (3): 154–60. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(01)02051-5. PMID 11893513.
  41. Friedrich B, Schwartz E (1993). "Molecular biology of hydrogen utilization in aerobic chemolithotrophs". Annu Rev Microbiol 47: 351–83. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.47.100193.002031. PMID 8257102.
  42. Weber K, Achenbach L, Coates J (2006). "Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction". Nat Rev Microbiol 4 (10): 752–64. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1490. PMID 16980937.
  43. Jetten M, Strous M, van de Pas-Schoonen K, Schalk J, van Dongen U, van de Graaf A, Logemann S, Muyzer G, van Loosdrecht M, Kuenen J (1998). "The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium". FEMS Microbiol Rev 22 (5): 421–37. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.1998.tb00379.x. PMID 9990725.
  44. Simon J (2002). "Enzymology and bioenergetics of respiratory nitrite ammonification". FEMS Microbiol Rev 26 (3): 285–309. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2002.tb00616.x. PMID 12165429.
  45. Conrad R (1996). "Soil microorganisms as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO)". Microbiol Rev 60 (4): 609–40. PMC 239458. PMID 8987358. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8987358.
  46. Barea J, Pozo M, Azcóan R, Azcóan-Aguilar C (2005). "Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere". J Exp Bot 56 (417): 1761–78. doi:10.1093/jxb/eri197. PMID 15911555. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/56/417/1761.
  47. van der Meer M, Schouten S, Bateson M, Nüabel U, Wieland A, Küahl M, de Leeuw J, Sinninghe Damsté J, Ward D (July 2005). "Diel variations in carbon metabolism by green nonsulfur-like bacteria in alkaline siliceous hot spring microbial mats from Yellowstone National Park". Appl Environ Microbiol 71 (7): 3978–86. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.7.3978-3986.2005. PMC 1168979. PMID 16000812. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16000812.
  48. Tichi M, Tabita F (2001). "Interactive control of Rhodobacter capsulatus redox-balancing systems during phototrophic metabolism". J Bacteriol 183 (21): 6344–54. doi:10.1128/JB.183.21.6344-6354.2001. PMC 100130. PMID 11591679. http://jb.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11591679.
  49. Allen J, Williams J (1998). "Photosynthetic reaction centers". FEBS Lett 438 (1–2): 5–9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01245-9. PMID 9821949.
  50. Munekage Y, Hashimoto M, Miyake C, Tomizawa K, Endo T, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (2004). "Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I is essential for photosynthesis". Nature 429 (6991): 579–82. doi:10.1038/nature02598. PMID 15175756.
  51. Miziorko H, Lorimer G (1983). "Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase". Annu Rev Biochem 52: 507–35. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.52.070183.002451. PMID 6351728.
  52. Dodd A, Borland A, Haslam R, Griffiths H, Maxwell K (2002). "Crassulacean acid metabolism: plastic, fantastic". J Exp Bot 53 (369): 569–80. doi:10.1093/jexbot/53.369.569. PMID 11886877. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/53/369/569.
  53. Hüagler M, Wirsen C, Fuchs G, Taylor C, Sievert S (May 2005). "Evidence for autotrophic CO2 fixation via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle by members of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria". J Bacteriol 187 (9): 3020–7. doi:10.1128/JB.187.9.3020-3027.2005. PMC 1082812. PMID 15838028. http://jb.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15838028.
  54. Strauss G, Fuchs G (1993). "Enzymes of a novel autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle". Eur J Biochem 215 (3): 633–43. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18074.x. PMID 8354269.
  55. Wood H (1991). "Life with CO or CO2 and H2 as a source of carbon and energy". FASEB J 5 (2): 156–63. PMID 1900793. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/reprint/5/2/156.
  56. Shively J, van Keulen G, Meijer W (1998). "Something from almost nothing: carbon dioxide fixation in chemoautotrophs". Annu Rev Microbiol 52: 191–230. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.52.1.191. PMID 9891798.
  57. Boiteux A, Hess B (1981). "Design of glycolysis". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 293 (1063): 5–22. doi:10.1098/rstb.1981.0056. PMID 6115423.
  58. Pilkis S, el-Maghrabi M, Claus T (1990). "Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in control of hepatic gluconeogenesis. From metabolites to molecular genetics". Diabetes Care 13 (6): 582–99. doi:10.2337/diacare.13.6.582. PMID 2162755.
  59. a aa Ensign S (2006). "Revisiting the glyoxylate cycle: alternate pathways for microbial acetate assimilation". Mol Microbiol 61 (2): 274–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05247.x. PMID 16856935.
  60. Finn P, Dice J (2006). "Proteolytic and lipolytic responses to starvation". Nutrition 22 (7–8): 830–44. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2006.04.008. PMID 16815497.
  61. a aa Kornberg H, Krebs H (1957). "Synthesis of cell constituents from C2-units by a modified tricarboxylic acid cycle". Nature 179 (4568): 988–91. doi:10.1038/179988a0. PMID 13430766.
  62. Rademacher T, Parekh R, Dwek R (1988). "Glycobiology". Annu Rev Biochem 57: 785–838. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.57.070188.004033. PMID 3052290.
  63. Opdenakker G, Rudd P, Ponting C, Dwek R (1993). "Concepts and principles of glycobiology". FASEB J 7 (14): 1330–7. PMID 8224606. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/reprint/7/14/1330.
  64. McConville M, Menon A (2000). "Recent developments in the cell biology and biochemistry of glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipids (review)". Mol Membr Biol 17 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1080/096876800294443. PMID 10824734.
  65. Chirala S, Wakil S (2004). "Structure and function of animal fatty acid synthase". Lipids 39 (11): 1045–53. doi:10.1007/s11745-004-1329-9. PMID 15726818.
  66. White S, Zheng J, Zhang Y (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". Annu Rev Biochem 74: 791–831. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.74.082803.133524. PMID 15952903.
  67. Ohlrogge J, Jaworski J (1997). "Regulation of fatty acid synthesis". Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48: 109–136. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.109. PMID 15012259.
  68. Dubey V, Bhalla R, Luthra R (2003). "An overview of the non-mevalonate pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis in plants" (PDF). J Biosci 28 (5): 637–46. doi:10.1007/BF02703339. PMID 14517367. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci/sep2003/637.pdf.
  69. a aa Kuzuyama T, Seto H (2003). "Diversity of the biosynthesis of the isoprene units". Nat Prod Rep 20 (2): 171–83. doi:10.1039/b109860h. PMID 12735695.
  70. Grochowski L, Xu H, White R (May 2006). "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii uses a modified mevalonate pathway for biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate". J Bacteriol 188 (9): 3192–8. doi:10.1128/JB.188.9.3192-3198.2006. PMC 1447442. PMID 16621811. http://jb.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16621811.
  71. Lichtenthaler H (1999). "The 1-Ddeoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants". Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50: 47–65. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.47. PMID 15012203.
  72. a aa Schroepfer G (1981). "Sterol biosynthesis". Annu Rev Biochem 50: 585–621. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181.003101. PMID 7023367.
  73. Lees N, Skaggs B, Kirsch D, Bard M (1995). "Cloning of the late genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae—aaa review". Lipids 30 (3): 221–6. doi:10.1007/BF02537824. PMID 7791529.
  74. Guyton, Arthur C.; John E. Hall (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier. pp. 855–6. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7216-0240-1.
  75. Ibba M, Söall D (2001). "The renaissance of aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis". EMBO Rep 2 (5): 382–7. PMID 11375928. http://www.molcells.org/home/journal/include/downloadPdf.asp?articleuid={A158E3B4-2423-4806-9A30-4B93CDA76DA0}.
  76. Lengyel P, Söall D (1969). "Mechanism of protein biosynthesis". Bacteriol Rev 33 (2): 264–301. PMC 378322. PMID 4896351.
  77. a aa Rudolph F (1994). "The biochemistry and physiology of nucleotides". J Nutr 124 (1 Suppl): 124S–127S. PMID 8283301. Zrenner R, Stitt M, Sonnewald U, Boldt R (2006). "Pyrimidine and purine biosynthesis and degradation in plants". Annu Rev Plant Biol 57: 805–36. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105421. PMID 16669783.
  78. Stasolla C, Katahira R, Thorpe T, Ashihara H (2003). "Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in higher plants". J Plant Physiol 160 (11): 1271–95. doi:10.1078/0176-1617-01169. PMID 14658380.
  79. Smith J (1995). "Enzymes of nucleotide synthesis". Curr Opin Struct Biol 5 (6): 752–7. doi:10.1016/0959-440X(95)80007-7. PMID 8749362.
  80. Testa B, Kräamer S (2006). "The biochemistry of drug metabolism—aaan introduction: part 1. Principles and overview". Chem Biodivers 3 (10): 1053–101. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200690111. PMID 17193224.
  81. Danielson P (2002). "The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans". Curr Drug Metab 3 (6): 561–97. doi:10.2174/1389200023337054. PMID 12369887.
  82. King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T (2000). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Curr Drug Metab 1 (2): 143–61. doi:10.2174/1389200003339171. PMID 11465080.
  83. Sheehan D, Meade G, Foley V, Dowd C (November 2001). "Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily". Biochem J 360 (Pt 1): 1–16. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3600001. PMC 1222196. PMID 11695986. http://www.biochemj.org/bj/360/0001/bj3600001.htm.
  84. Galvãao T, Mohn W, de Lorenzo V (2005). "Exploring the microbial biodegradation and biotransformation gene pool". Trends Biotechnol 23 (10): 497–506. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2005.08.002. PMID 16125262.
  85. Janssen D, Dinkla I, Poelarends G, Terpstra P (2005). "Bacterial degradation of xenobiotic compounds: evolution and distribution of novel enzyme activities". Environ Microbiol 7 (12): 1868–82. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00966.x. PMID 16309386.
  86. Davies K (1995). "Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life". Biochem Soc Symp 61: 1–31. PMID 8660387.
  87. Tu B, Weissman J (2004). "Oxidative protein folding in eukaryotes: mechanisms and consequences". J Cell Biol 164 (3): 341–6. doi:10.1083/jcb.200311055. PMC 2172237. PMID 14757749. http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/164/3/341.
  88. Sies H (1997). "Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants" (PDF). Exp Physiol 82 (2): 291–5. PMID 9129943. http://ep.physoc.org/cgi/reprint/82/2/291.pdf.
  89. Vertuani S, Angusti A, Manfredini S (2004). "The antioxidants and pro-antioxidants network: an overview". Curr Pharm Des 10 (14): 1677–94. doi:10.2174/1381612043384655. PMID 15134565.
  90. von Stockar U, Liu J (1999). "Does microbial life always feed on negative entropy? Thermodynamic analysis of microbial growth". Biochim Biophys Acta 1412 (3): 191–211. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(99)00065-1. PMID 10482783.
  91. Demirel Y, Sandler S (2002). "Thermodynamics and bioenergetics". Biophys Chem 97 (2–3): 87–111. doi:10.1016/S0301-4622(02)00069-8. PMID 12050002.
  92. Albert R (2005). "Scale-free networks in cell biology". J Cell Sci 118 (Pt 21): 4947–57. doi:10.1242/jcs.02714. PMID 16254242. http://jcs.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/118/21/4947.
  93. Brand M (1997). "Regulation analysis of energy metabolism". J Exp Biol 200 (Pt 2): 193–202. PMID 9050227. http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/200/2/193.
  94. Soyer O, Salathé M, Bonhoeffer S (2006). "Signal transduction networks: topology, response and biochemical processes". J Theor Biol 238 (2): 416–25. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.05.030. PMID 16045939.
  95. a aa Salter M, Knowles R, Pogson C (1994). "Metabolic control". Essays Biochem 28: 1–12. PMID 7925313.
  96. Westerhoff H, Groen A, Wanders R (1984). "Modern theories of metabolic control and their applications (review)". Biosci Rep 4 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1007/BF01120819. PMID 6365197.
  97. Fell D, Thomas S (1995). "Physiological control of metabolic flux: the requirement for multisite modulation". Biochem J 311 (Pt 1): 35–9. PMC 1136115. PMID 7575476.
  98. Hendrickson W (2005). "Transduction of biochemical signals across cell membranes". Q Rev Biophys 38 (4): 321–30. doi:10.1017/S0033583506004136. PMID 16600054.
  99. Cohen P (2000). "The regulation of protein function by multisite phosphorylation—aaa 25 year update". Trends Biochem Sci 25 (12): 596–601. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)01712-6. PMID 11116185.
  100. Lienhard G, Slot J, James D, Mueckler M (1992). "How cells absorb glucose". Sci Am 266 (1): 86–91. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0192-86. PMID 1734513.
  101. Roach P (2002). "Glycogen and its metabolism". Curr Mol Med 2 (2): 101–20. doi:10.2174/1566524024605761. PMID 11949930.
  102. Newgard C, Brady M, O'Doherty R, Saltiel A (2000). "Organizing glucose disposal: emerging roles of the glycogen targeting subunits of protein phosphatase-1" (PDF). Diabetes 49 (12): 1967–77. doi:10.2337/diabetes.49.12.1967. PMID 11117996. http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/reprint/49/12/1967.pdf.
  103. Romano A, Conway T (1996). "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol 147 (6–7): 448–55. doi:10.1016/0923-2508(96)83998-2. PMID 9084754.
  104. Koch A (1998). "How did bacteria come to be?". Adv Microb Physiol 40: 353–99. doi:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)60135-6. PMID 9889982.
  105. Ouzounis C, Kyrpides N (1996). "The emergence of major cellular processes in evolution". FEBS Lett 390 (2): 119–23. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96)00631-X. PMID 8706840.
  106. Caetano-Anolles G, Kim HS, Mittenthal JE (2007). "The origin of modern metabolic networks inferred from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104 (22): 9358–63. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701214104. PMC 1890499. PMID 17517598.
  107. Schmidt S, Sunyaev S, Bork P, Dandekar T (2003). "Metabolites: a helping hand for pathway evolution?". Trends Biochem Sci 28 (6): 336–41. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(03)00114-2. PMID 12826406.
  108. Light S, Kraulis P (2004). "Network analysis of metabolic enzyme evolution in Escherichia coli". BMC Bioinformatics 5: 15. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-5-15. PMC 394313. PMID 15113413. Alves R, Chaleil R, Sternberg M (2002). "Evolution of enzymes in metabolism: a network perspective". J Mol Biol 320 (4): 751–70. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00546-6. PMID 12095253.
  109. Kim HS, Mittenthal JE, Caetano-Anolles G (2006). "MANET: tracing evolution of protein architecture in metabolic networks". BMC Bioinformatics 19 (7): 351. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-351. PMC 1559654. PMID 16854231.
  110. Teichmann SA, Rison SC, Thornton JM, Riley M, Gough J, Chothia C (2001). "Small-molecule metabolsim: an enzyme mosaic". Trends Biotechnol 19 (12): 482–6. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(01)01813-3. PMID 11711174.
  111. Spirin V, Gelfand M, Mironov A, Mirny L (June 2006). "A metabolic network in the evolutionary context: multiscale structure and modularity". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (23): 8774–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510258103. PMC 1482654. PMID 16731630. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16731630.
  112. Lawrence J (2005). "Common themes in the genome strategies of pathogens". Curr Opin Genet Dev 15 (6): 584–8. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2005.09.007. PMID 16188434. Wernegreen J (2005). "For better or worse: genomic consequences of intracellular mutualism and parasitism". Curr Opin Genet Dev 15 (6): 572–83. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2005.09.013. PMID 16230003.
  113. Páal C, Papp B, Lercher M, Csermely P, Oliver S, Hurst L (2006). "Chance and necessity in the evolution of minimal metabolic networks". Nature 440 (7084): 667–70. doi:10.1038/nature04568. PMID 16572170.
  114. Rennie M (1999). "An introduction to the use of tracers in nutrition and metabolism". Proc Nutr Soc 58 (4): 935–44. doi:10.1017/S002966519900124X. PMID 10817161.
  115. Phair R (1997). "Development of kinetic models in the nonlinear world of molecular cell biology". Metabolism 46 (12): 1489–95. doi:10.1016/S0026-0495(97)90154-2. PMID 9439549.
  116. Sterck L, Rombauts S, Vandepoele K, Rouzé P, Van de Peer Y (2007). "How many genes are there in plants (... and why are they there)?". Curr Opin Plant Biol 10 (2): 199–203. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2007.01.004. PMID 17289424.
  117. Borodina I, Nielsen J (2005). "From genomes to in silico cells via metabolic networks". Curr Opin Biotechnol 16 (3): 350–5. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.04.008. PMID 15961036.
  118. Gianchandani E, Brautigan D, Papin J (2006). "Systems analyses characterize integrated functions of biochemical networks". Trends Biochem Sci 31 (5): 284–91. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.03.007. PMID 16616498.
  119. Duarte NC, Becker SA, Jamshidi N, et al. (February 2007). "Global reconstruction of the human metabolic network based on genomic and bibliomic data". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (6): 1777–82. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610772104. PMC 1794290. PMID 17267599. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17267599.
  120. Goh KI, Cusick ME, Valle D, Childs B, Vidal M, Barabáasi AL (May 2007). "The human disease network". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (21): 8685–90. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701361104. PMC 1885563. PMID 17502601.
  121. Lee DS, Park J, Kay KA, Christakis NA, Oltvai ZN, Barabáasi AL (July 2008). "The implications of human metabolic network topology for disease comorbidity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (29): 9880–9885. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802208105. PMC 2481357. PMID 18599447. http://www.pnas.org/lookup/pmid?view=long&pmid=18599447.
  122. Csete M, Doyle J (2004). "Bow ties, metabolism and disease". Trends Biotechnol. 22 (9): 446–50. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2004.07.007. PMC 225248. PMID 5249808.
  123. Ma HW, Zeng AP (2003). "The connectivity structure, giant strong component and centrality of metabolic networks". Bioinformatics 19 (11): 1423–30. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btg177. PMID 12874056.
  124. Zhao J, Yu H, Luo JH, Cao ZW, Li YX (2006). "Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks". BMC Bioinformatics 7: 386. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-386. PMC 1560398. PMID 16916470.
  125. Thykaer J, Nielsen J (2003). "Metabolic engineering of beta-lactam production". Metab Eng 5 (1): 56–69. doi:10.1016/S1096-7176(03)00003-X. PMID 12749845. Gonzáalez-Pajuelo M, Meynial-Salles I, Mendes F, Andrade J, Vasconcelos I, Soucaille P (2005). "Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol". Metab Eng 7 (5–6): 329–36. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2005.06.001. PMID 16095939. Kräamer M, Bongaerts J, Bovenberg R, Kremer S, Müaller U, Orf S, Wubbolts M, Raeven L (2003). "Metabolic engineering for microbial production of shikimic acid". Metab Eng 5 (4): 277–83. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2003.09.001. PMID 14642355.
  126. Koffas M, Roberge C, Lee K, Stephanopoulos G (1999). "Metabolic engineering". Annu Rev Biomed Eng 1: 535–57. doi:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.1.1.535. PMID 11701499.
  127. "Metabolism". The Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=metabolism. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-20.
  128. dau॰ Abu shaadi al-raubi (1982), "ibn al-nafees ej a feelaujofar", simpojiym on ibn al nafees, sekand international kaanfereins on islaamik medisin: islaamik medical orgaanaijeshan, kovait (seeef. ibnul-nafees S a filojfar, inasaiklopidiya of islaamik world [1]).
  129. Eknoyan G (1999). "Santorio Sanctorius (1561–1636) - founding father of metabolic balance studies". Am J Nephrol 19 (2): 226–33. doi:10.1159/000013455. PMID 10213823.
  130. Williams, H. S. (1904) a histari of science: in five volyums.volyoom IV: modern develapameint of the klinikl end biological saainses haarpar end brothers (new yaurk) 26-03-2007 mein pun:praapt
  131. Dubos J. (1951). "Louis Pasteur: Free Lance of Science, Gollancz. Quoted in Manchester K. L. (1995) Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)—achance and the prepared mind". Trends Biotechnol 13 (12): 511–515. doi:10.1016/S0167-7799(00)89014-9. PMID 8595136.
  132. Kinne-Saffran E, Kinne R (1999). "Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöahler to Hans A. Krebs". Am J Nephrol 19 (2): 290–4. doi:10.1159/000013463. PMID 10213830.
  133. eduard bakanars 1907 Nobel lekchar eight http://nobelprize.org 20-03-2007 se pun:praapt
  134. Kornberg H (2000). "Krebs and his trinity of cycles". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1 (3): 225–8. doi:10.1038/35043073. PMID 11252898.
  135. Krebs HA, Henseleit K (1932). "Untersuchungen üaber die Harnstoffbildung im tierkorper". Z. Physiol. Chem. 210: 33–66.
    Krebs H, Johnson W (April 1937). "Metabolism of ketonic acids in animal tissues". Biochem J 31 (4): 645–60. PMC 1266984. PMID 16746382.

aage padhein

parichyaatmak

  • Rose, S. aur Mileusnic, R., the kaimistri of life . (penguin press vigyaan, 1999), aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-14027-273-9
  • Schneider, E. D. aur Sagan, D., inatoo the kool: enerji flo, tharmodainaamiks, end life . (Chicago vishvavidyaalaya ka press, 2005), aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-22673-936-8
  • Lane, N., okseejan: the mauleekyool dait med the world . (Oxford university press, amareeka, 2004), ISBN 0-19-860783-0

pragatisheel

  • Price, N. aur Stevens, L., fandaameintals of enajaimolauji: sel end mauleekyular baiolauji of kataalitik proteen . (Oxford university press, 1999), ISBN 0-19-850229-X
  • Berg, J. Tymoczko, J. aur Stryer, L., jaiv rasaayan (dablyoo.H freemain aur company, 2002), aaiesabeeen (ISBN 0-7167-4955-6)
  • Cox, M. aur Nelson, D. L., lehaningar prinsipls of baayokemistri . (palagrev maikamiln, 2004), aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-71674-339-6
  • Brock, T. D. Madigan, M. T. Martinko, J. aur Parker J., broks baayolauji of maikroauragenism . (beinjaamin kammings, 2002), aaiesabeeen {ISBN} 0-13066-271-2
  • Da Silva, J.J.R.F. aur Williams, R. J. P., the biological kemistri of the elimeints: the inaorgaanik kemistri of life . (klaareindan press, 1991), aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-19855-598-9
  • Nicholls, D. G. aur Ferguson, S. J., baayoenerjetiks . (ekaademik press ink, 2002), aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-12518-121-3

baahari links