charyaapad

charyaapad ka ek prushth

charyaapad (='charya' ke pad) 8veen se 12veen shataabdi ke beech sahajiya bauddh siddhon dvaara rachit geet (pad) hain jo sarvaadhik praacheen baangla saahitya ke udaaharan hain. in padon ki bhaasha asamiya aur odiya se bhi bahut milti hai. sahajiya bauddhadharm ki utpatti mahaayaan se hui, ataev yeh svaabhaavik hi hai ki mahaayaan bauddhadharm ki kuchh visheshataaeain ismein pai jaati hain.

'charya' ka arth aacharan ya vyavahaar hai. in padon mein batalaaya gaya hai ki saadhak ke liye kya aacharaneeya hai aur kya anaacharaneeya hai. in padon ke sangrah ko 'charyaapad' ke naam se abhihit kiya gaya hai. siddhon ki sankhya chauraasi kahi jaati hai jinmein kuchh pramukh siddh nimnalikhit hain : luipa, shabarapa, sarahapa, shaantipa, kaahnapa, jaalandharapa, bhusukapa aadi. in siddhon ke kaal ka nirnaya karna kathin hai, fir bhi saadhaaranat: inka kaal san‌ 800 E. se san‌ 1175 E. tak maana ja sakta hai.

parichay

'charyaapad' mein sangrahit padon ki rachana kuchh aise rahasyaatmak dhang se ki gayi hai aur kuchh aisi bhaasha ka sahaara liya gaya hai ki bina uske marm ko samajhe in padon ka arth samajhna kathin hai. is bhaasha ko 'sandha' ya 'sandhya bhaasha' kaha gaya hai. 'sandhya bhaasha' ka arth kai prakaar se kiya gaya hai. haraprasaad shaastri ne sandhya bhaasha ka arth 'prakaash-andhakaaramayi' bhaasha kiya hai. unka kehna hai ki usamein kuchh prakaash aur kuchh andhakaar mile jule rahate hain, kuchh samajh mein aata hai, kuchh samjha mein naheen aata. mahaamahopaadhyaaya pandit vidhushekhar shaastri ka mat hai ki vaastav mein yeh shabd 'sandhya bhaasha' naheen hai balki 'sandha bhaasha' hai aur iska arth yeh hai ki is bhaasha mein shabdon ka prayog saabhipraaya tatha vishesh roop se nirdisht arth mein kiya gaya hai (Indian histaurikl kvaartarli, 1928, pru. 289). in shabdon ka abhisht arth anudhaavanapoorvak hi samjha ja sakta hai. ataev kaha ja sakta hai ki sandhya ya sandha shabd ka prayog 'abhisandhi' ya keval 'sandhi' ke arth mein kiya gaya hai. 'abhisandhi' ka taatparya yahaaain abheesht arth hai athva do arthon ka milan hai arthaat‌ us shabd ka ek saadhaaran arth hai tatha doosra abhisht arth. isaliye sandhya ke dhuaindhalepan se is shabd ka sambandh batalaana uchit naheen.

charyaapad ki sanskrut teeka mein teekaakaar munidtt ne sandhya bhaasha shabd ka prayog isi arth mein kiya hai. 21 sankhyak bhusukapaad ki charya mein kaha gaya hai, 'nisi aaindhaari musa achaara'. iski teeka karte hue teekaakaar ne kaha hai, 'bhooshak: sandhyaavachane chittapavan: boddhavya:'. sarahapaad ke 'dohaakosh' ke panjikaakaar advayavajr (isavi san‌ ki 12veen shataabdi) ne kaha hai : 'taya shvetachhaaganiyaantanaya narakaadidu:khamanubhavanti. sandhya bhaashamajaanaanatatvaat‌ ch'. arthaat‌ yagya karanevaale braahmanagan vedamantr ki sandhya bhaasha ko jaanane ke kaaran pashubali kar narakaadi du:kh ka anubhav karte hain.

charyaapadon ke arth ko samajhne ke liya sahajiya bauddhon ke drushtikon ko samajh lena aavashyak hai. saadhana aur daarshanik tatv donon hi drushtiyon se in padon ka adhyayan apekshit hai. charyaakaar siddhon ke liye saadhana hi mukhya vastu thi, vaise ve daarshanik tatv ko bhi aaainkhon se ojhal naheen hone dete. sahajiya bauddhadharm ki utpatti mahaayaan se hui, ataev yeh svaabhaavik hi hai ki mahaayaan bauddhadharm ki kuchh visheshataaeain ismein pai jaati hain.

sahajiya saadhak ka charam lakshya shoonya ki praapti hai; lekin vah shoonya kya hai? paramaarth satya ke baare mein naagaarjun ne batalaaya hai ki uske sambandh mein yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki vah hai. fir yeh bhi naheen kaha ja sakta ki vah naheen hai. isi tarah yeh bhi kehna sahi naheen ki vah hai bhi aur naheen bhi hai, tatha yeh bhi kehne ka upaaya naheen hai ki hai aur naheen bhi hai in donon mein koi bhi satya naheen. is prakaar se chatushkoti vinirmukt jo tatv hai usi ko shoonya kaha gaya hai. vaise anya bauddh daarshanikon ne ispar aur tarah se bhi vichaar kiya hai. vijnyaaanavaadi vijnyaaptimaatrata (vishuddh gyaan) ko hi shoonya tatv kehte hain. shoonya hi gagan, rav athva aakaash hai.

kaalakram se mahaayaan ke svaroop mein parivartan hue. praacheen arhatagan nirvaan ki praapti ka charam lakshya maanate the, lekin mahaayaaniyon ne bodhistv ke aadarsh ko uchch maana. mahaayaaniyon ke anusaar du:kh se jarjarit is sansaar ke praaniyon ke liye deh dhaaran kar karuna ka avalanban karna nirvaan se shreyaskar hai. mahaayaani maanate hain ki karuna ka aadhaar advayabodh hai. samast praaniyon ke saath apne ko sampoorn roop se ek samajhna advayabodh hai. is karuna ko mahaayaaniyon ne apni saadhana, apni vichaaradhaara ka moolamantr sveekaar kiya. unka kehna hai ki advaya ki sthiti hi saadhakon ki kaamya hai. ismein sabhi sankalp vikalp vilupt ho jaate hain. is sthiti mein jnyaaatrutv jnyaeyatv tatha graakatv graahmatv ka gyaan naheen rah jaata. taantrik bauddhon ne nirvaan ka param sukh kaha. unke anusaar 'mahaasukh' hi nirvaan hai. ve maanate the ki vishesh saadhanaapaddhati dvaara chitt ko mahaasukh mein nimjjit kar dena hi saadhak ka charam lakshya hai. mahaasukh mein nimijjit chitt ki sthiti hi bodhichitt ki praapti hai. chitt ki yeh vah sthiti hai jistein chitt bodhilaabh ke upayukt hokar tatha use praapt kar sabhi praaniyon ki mangalasaadhana mein lag jaata hai.

saadhana ki drushti se advaya bodhichitt ki do dhaaraaeain hain : prajnyaa aur upaaya. shoonyataajnyaaan ko taantrik bauddh saadhakon ne 'prajnyaa' kaha hai. yeh nivruttimoolak hai aur ismein saadhak ka chitt sansaar ka kalyaan karne ki or anuprerit na hokar apni hi or laga rahata hai. karuna ko unhonne upaaya kaha hai. yeh pravruttimoolak hai aur vishvamangal ki saadhana mein niyojit rahata hai. in donon ke milan ka 'prajnyaopaaya' kaha gaya hai. in donon ke milan se hi bodhichitt ki praapti hoti hai. in donon ke milan ki nimnaga dhaara hi sukh du:khavaali trigunaatmika srushti hai aur usaki oordhvadhaara ka anusaran kar chalne mein mahaasukh ki praapti hoti hai. ise 'saamarasya' kaha gaya hai. shoonyata aur karuna paraspar virodhi dharmavaali hain aur svaabhaavik roop se nimnaga hain. in donon ka madhyamaarg mein ek hokar pravaahit haana hi 'samaras' hain. jab ye oordhvagaamini hoti hain, 'samaras' ki vishuddhi hoti hai aur inki oordhvatam avasthiti hi vishuddh saamarasya hain. is saamarasya ka poornatam roop hi sahajaanand hai. yahi advayabodhichitt hai. isi ko praapt karne ki saadhana sahajiya bauddhadharm ka charam lakshya hai.

is aanand ko maadhyamikon ne tatv maana hai lekin bauddh sahajiya saadhakon ne ise roop tatha naam pradaan kiya hai aur iska vaasasthaan bhi batalaaya hai. unhonne ise nairaatma devi tatha parishuddhaavadhootika kaha hai. ise shoonyata ki sahachaarini kaha gaya hai. saadhak jab paarthiv maaya moh se shoonya ho jaata hai aur dharmakaaya (tathata arthaat‌ shoonyata) mein leen ho jaata hai, vah maano nairaatma ka aalingan kiye hue mahaashoonya mein gota lagaata hai. nairaatma indriygraahya nahi, iseeliye ek pad mein use asprushya donbi kaha gaya hai aur kaha gaya hai ki nagar ke baahar arthaat‌ dehasumeru ke shikhrapradesh arthaat‌ ushneeshakamal mein usaka vaasasthaan hai:

nagar baahiri re donbi tohaari kudiaa.
chhoi chhoi jaai so baahya naadiaa..

yahaaain is baat ki or dhyaan dila dena aavashyak hai ki hindu tantr ki tarah bauddhatantr mein bhi shareer ke bheetar hi saadhak us ashareeri ko paane ki saadhana karte hain. ida, pingala aur sushumna ko bauddhatantr mein kramash: lalana, rasana aur avadhooti ya avadhootika kaha gaya hai. avadhooto hi madhya maarg hain jisse hokar advayabodhichitt ya sahaajanand ki praapti hoti hai. moolaadhaar bauddhatantr ka vajraagaar hai aur sahasraar ke jaisa 64 dalon ka ushneesh kamal hai, jismein aanand ka aasvaadan hota hai.

charyaapadon mein ida, pingala aur sushumna ke liye aur bhi naam prayukt hue hain, jaise ida ke liye prajnyaa, lalana, vaamaga, shoonyata, vindu, nivrutti, graahak, vajr, kulish, aali (akaaraadi svaravarn), ganga, chandra, raatri, pran, chaman, A, bhav aadi; pingala ke liye upaaya, rasana, dakshinga karuna, naad, pravrutti, graahya, padm, kamal, kaali (kaakaaraadi vyanjanavarn), yamuna, soorya diva, apaan, dhaman, van, nirvaan, aadi. charyaapad ke adhyayan ke liye inki jaankaari aavashyak hai.

sangrah granth

  • Rahul saankrutyaayan : dohaakosh, praka. Bihar raashtrabhaasha parishd;
  • Rahul saanskrutyaayan : puraatatv nibandhaavali;
  • haraprasaad shaastri : bauddhagaan O doha;
  • prabodhachandr baagachi tatha shaantibhikshu : charyaageetikosh, praka. vishvabhaarati, shaantiniketan

baahari kadiyaaain