charakas log

kuchh charakas log

charakas ya adigeya kaukas kshetr ki ek jaati aur samudaaya hai, jo bahut praacheenakaal se kaukas ke ilaake ke nivaasi hain.[1][2][3] charakas logon ki apni boli hai - charakasi bhaasha. yeh log sunni islaam ke anuyaayi hain. duniya ke lagbhag aadhe charakas log Turkey mein rahate hain.

anukram

samudaaya ka naam

charakas logon ka naam Turkey-bhaashiyon ne daala. Turkey bhaasha mein charakas ka matlab "yuddh mein chatur" ya "dushman ko kaat daalne wala" bataaya jaata hai. yahi shabd puraani hindi mein bhi kisi chaaloo lekin jaanbaaj vyakti ke liye bhi prayog hota tha ("charakas aadmi"). charakas log apni bhaasha mein apne-aap ko "attegeya" ya "adigeya" bulaate hain. charakasi bhaasha mein "atte" ka matlab "oonchaai" hota hai (jaise pahaad ki oonchaai) aur "geya" ka matlab "samudra" bataaya jaata hai. yaani "adigeya" ka arth hai "samudra ke paas ke pahaadi ilaake ke log" jis se taatparya ye hai ke ye log Krishna saagar ke paas ke kaukas parvaton mein basate hain.

anya bhaashaaoain mein

22 March 1840 par charakasi vidrohiyon ka ek charakassiya mein bane roosi sainik kile par hamle ka drushya

angreji mein charakason ko sarakesseeyan (Circassian) kaha jaata hai.

anuvaanshiki

2008 mein "jeenom vivdhataaon se vishvavyaapi manushya sambandhon ka khulaasa" sheershak ke saath chhaape gaye vaigyaanik adhyayan mein visheshagyon nein 650,000 se adhik dee॰aena॰ae॰ khandon ki jaanch se pata lagaaya hai ke hajaaron varshon ke daur mein charakas logon ke poorvaj Europe, madhya Asia aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke logon se milte julate the.[4]

itihaas

charakas log kabhi bhi sangathit naheen hue hain, jis se aakraman karne waali mangol, avar, pecheneg, hoon aur khjr senaaon ko khaded paana unke liye mushkil raha. paanchavi shataabdi isavi mein charakas log adhiktar isaai ban chuke the, lekin pandrahavi shataabdi isavi tak ve kraaimiya ke taataaron aur usmaani saamraajya ke prabhaav se muslim ban gaye.

roosi aakraman

athaaravi shataabdi ke ant se lekar madhya unneesavi shataabdi tak roos ne bahut se kaukas ke ilaakon par dhaave jaari rakhe. unka dhyeya tha ke in kshetron ko roosi saamraajya mein shaamil kar liya jaae. shuroo mein roosi faujon ka jor poorvi kaukas ke chechanya aur daagistaan kshetron ko kaaboo karne par tha, lekin 1859 mein unhonne yahaaain ke sabse bade vidrohi neta imaam shameel ko paraajit kar liya aur apna dhyaan pashchim ki or charakassiya par lagaana aarambh kiya. jab in charakas-roosi muthabhedon ki khabar inglaind aur pashchimi Europe mein pahunchi to vahaan charakason ke liye bahut sahaanubhooti jatalaai gayi aur unhein madad ka aashvaasan diya gaya, lekin jameen par charakason ko kabhi madad naheen mili. roosi general yevadokimov ko aadesh diye gaye ke vah charakason ko unke gaaainvon-bastiyon se nikaal kar Turkey ki taraf dhakel de. kaha jaata hai ke roosi bandookdhaariyon aur unke ghudsavaar sahaayakon ne kai ilaakon se saare muslim charakason ko nikaalkar gaaainv ke gaaainv khaali kar diye aur charakason ko Turkey ki aur jaane ke liye majaboor kiya. pashchimi itihaasakaaron ne roos par in upadravon mein laakhon charakason ko maarane ka ilajaam lagaaya hai. dheere-dheere roosi senaaen vijayi hoti gayi aur 2 June 1864 ko adhiktar charakasi mukhiyaaon nein roos se vafaadaari karne ki sandhi par hastaakshar kar diye aur roosi saamraajya ko kbool kar liya. jo charakas Turkey pahuainch gaye unhein usmaani saamraajya ne vaheeain basa liya. aadhunik yug mein duniya ke lagbhag aadhe charakas Turkey mein rahate hain.

sanskruti

roosi aakraman se pehle charakason ka samaaj bhinn varnon mein bata hua tha aur varn-bhed sakhti se laaghoo kiye jaate the. sab se upari sthaan par "raajaaon aur raajakumaaron" ka varn tha, uske neeche "raajaparivaar se sambandh rakhane vaalon" ka varn tha, fir "saadhaaran logon" ka varn tha, uske neeche "kisaanon" ka varn tha aur sab se neeche "daason" ka varn tha. roosi aakraman se kuchh hi dashak pehle, do kbeelon mein nichle vargon ne vidroh karke ek nayi ganatantreeya vyavastha chalaane ki koshish to ki, lekin aakraman ke baad ki uthal-puthal mein yeh sab bisr gaya.

dharm

isaai aur musalmaan banane se pehle, charakason ka apna kai devi-devataaon wala dharm tha.[5][6][7][8] doosari se chauthi shataabdi isavi mein isaai mat poore kaukas ke kshetr mein failane laga.[9][10] baaijntaain saamraajya aur apne padausi jaurjiya se prabhaavit hokar charakason ne 10vi se 13vi shataabdi mein isaai mat apanaana shuroo to kar diya, lekin poori tarah naheen.[11][12] unhonne isaai dharm ke saath-saath hi apne pooraane reeti-rivaaj aur vishvaason ko mishrit kar ke kaayam rakha. islaam kaukas ke kshetr mein daagistaan ke raste se saatavi shataabdi mein hi daakhil hona shuroo ho gaya tha, lekin taataaron aur usmaani saamraajya ke jriye yeh charakason tak 16vi sadi mein hi pahuncha. saare charakason nein islaam tak tak poora naheen apnaaya jab tak ke roosi aakraman ke baad unhein apne gharon se bedakhl hokar Turkey ka rukh naheen karna pada. uske baad jaldi hi islaam charakason ka raashtriya dharm ban gaya. 18vi sadi mein unapar chechanya ke do netaaon - shekh mansoor aur imaam shameel - ka prabhaav pada jinhonne kaukas mein soofiyaana islaam ke nakshabandi tareeke ki dhaara chalaai. vartamaan mein adhiktar charakas log sunni islaam ki hanaafi vichaaradhaara se sambandhit hain.

bhaasha

aajkal charakas log roosi, angreji, Turkey, arabi, fraansisi, jarman aur apni charakassi bhaasha bolte hain. kaukas ka kabaradei samudaaya charakassi ki ek upabhaasha bolata hai, jiska naam kabaradeen hai. alag-alag kbeelon aur sthaanon ke charakasi log apne alag-alag lahajon mein charakassi bolte hain. roos mein lagbhag sava lakh (1,25,000) charakassi bolne vaale rahate hain aur roos ke adigeya ganatantr naam ke raajya mein charakassi ko sarkaari raajabhaasha hone ki maanyata praapt hai. duniya ka sab se bada charakassi bolne wala samudaaya Turkey mein rahata hai jahaaain usaki sankhya lagbhag dedh lakh (1,50,000) hai.

adigeya khbje (reetiyaaain)

charakasi log apni viraasat mein mili sanskruti aur reeti-rivaaj ko "adigeya khbje" (charakasi mein Аaaдaaыaaгaaэ Хaaаaaбaaзaaэ) kehte hain. yeh "khbje" kaheen likhit naheen hai lekin inse mile niyamon ko charakasi samaaj mein sajjan logon ke liye zaroori kaha gaya hai -

  • har charakas ko veer, vafaadaar aur bade dil wala hona chaahiye
  • laalach aur dhanavaan hone ka dikhaava kisi bhi vyakti ke gire hue hone ki nishaani hai aur aisa samjha jaana us vyakti ke liye ek kalank hai (jise charakasi mein "yemikoo" kehte hain)
  • atithi ka satkaar karna param dharm hai - kisi ek charakas ke ghar ka atithi uske poore gaaainv ya kbeele ka atithi maana jaaega; mehmaan ko pareshaani ho ya use kaam karna pade to yeh gharavaale ke liye bahut sharm ki baat hai
  • yadi shatru bhi atithi bankar aaye, to usaka satkaar hona chaahiye
  • agar kaheen baatcheet chal rahi ho aur naya vyakti us kamre mein daakhil ho, to sabhi uthakar uske baithane ke liye jagah banaaeainge aur baatcheet jaari rakhane se pehle sab se pehle usi ko bolne ka mauka diya jaaega
  • vruddhon aur striyon se sammaan se baatein ki jaaeaingi; agar purushon mein koi jhagada-bahas chal rahi ho to striyon ki maujoodagi mein use rok diya jaaega
  • baahar vaalo ki maujoodagi mein ghar ki koi bhi samasya ya aapasi jhagada kabhi saamane naheen dikhaaya jaaega

inhein bhi dekhiye

sandarbh

  1. Gammer, Mos%u030Ce (2004), The Caspian Region: a Re-emerging Region, London: Routledge, pa॰ 67 .
  2. Hogeweg, Lotte (2009), Cross-linguistic Semantics of Tense, Aspect and Modality, Amsterdam: J Benjamins, pa॰ 55 .
  3. Lamb, Sydney M; E Douglas, Mitchell (1991), Sprung from Some Common Source: Investigations into the Prehistory of Languages, Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, pa॰ 237 .
  4. Li,, Jun; Devin M. Absher, Hua Tang, Audrey M. Southwick, Amanda M. Casto, Sohini Ramachandran, Howard M. Cann, Gregory S. Barsh, Marcus Feldman, Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza, Richard M. Myers (2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342.
  5. Meri, Josef W., and Jere L. Bacharach. Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2006. p. 156
  6. Loewe, Louis. A Dictionary of the Circassian Language. London: George Bell, 1854. p. 6
  7. The Nautical Magazine :. Vol. 23. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1854. p. 154
  8. Richmond, Walter. The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, Future. London: Routledge, 2008. p. 28
  9. Scott, Walter, and David Hewitt. The Antiquary. Vol. 13. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1995. pp. 274
  10. Smith, Sebastian. Allah's Mountains: the Battle for Chechnya. London: TPP, 2006. p. 32
  11. Taitbout, De Marigny. Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia. London, 1837. p. 74
  12. The Penny Magazine. London: Charles Knight, 1838. p. 138