charak sanhita

charak sanhita aayurved ka ek prasiddh granth hai. yeh sanskrut bhaasha mein hai. iske upadeshak atriputr punarvasu, granthakarta agnivesh aur pratisanskaarak charak hain.

praacheen vaaङamaya ke parisheelan se gyaat hota hai ki un dinon granth ya tantr ki rachana shaakha ke naam se hoti thi. jaise kath shaakha mein kathopanishd bani. shaakhaaeain ya charan un dinon ke vidyaapeeth the, jahaaain anek vishyon ka adhyayan hota tha. at: sambhav hai, charakasanhita ka pratisanskaar charak shaakha mein hua ho.

bhaarateeya chikitsaavijnyaaan ke teen bade naam hain - charak, sushrut aur vaagbhat. charak sanhita, sushrutasanhita tatha vaagbhat ka ashtaangasangrah aaj bhi bhaarateeya chikitsa vigyaan (aayurved) ke maanak granth hain.

chikitsa vigyaan jab shaishavaavastha mein hi tha us samay charakasanhita mein pratipaadit aayurvedeeya siddhaant atyant shreshth tatha gambhir the. iske darshan se atyant prabhaavit aadhunik chikitsaavijnyaaan ke aachaarya praadhyaapak aasalar ne charak ke naam se America ke New York nagar mein 1898 mein 'charak-klab' sansthaapit kiya jahaaain charak ka ek chitr bhi laga hai.

anukram

rachanaakaal

charakasanhita mein paali saahitya ke kuchh shabd milte hain, jaise avakraanti, jeintaak (jantaak - vinyapitk), bhangodan, khuddaak, bhootadhaatri (nidra ke liye). isse charakasanhita ka upadeshakaal upanishdon ke baad aur buddh ke poorv nishchit hota hai. iska pratisanskaar kanishk ke samay 78 E. ke lagbhag hua.

tripitk ke cheeni anuvaad mein kanishk ke raajavaidya ke roop mein charak ka ullekh hai. kintu kanishk bauddh tha aur usaka kavi ashvaghosh bhi bauddh tha, par charak sanhita mein buddhamat ka jordaar khandan milta hai. at: charak aur kanishk ka sambandh sandigdh hi naheen asambhav jaan padta hai. paryaapt pramaanon ke abhaav mein mat sthir karna kathin hai.

charakasanhita ka sangathan

charak sanhita vishyon ke anusaar aath bhaagon (jinko 'sthaan' kaha gaya hai) mein vibhaajit hai aur ismein 120 adhyaaya hain. ye aath sthaan hain-

sootrasthaanam, nidaanasthaanam, vimaanasthaanam, shaareerasthaanam,
indriysthaanam, chikitsaasthaanam, kalpasthaanam aur siddhisthaanam .

charakasanhita aatreyasampradaaya ka pramukh granth maani jaati hai jismein kaayachikitsa pramukhata ke saath pratipaadit hai. yeh sanhita 'sootrasthaan' se aarambh hoti hai jismein aayurved ke moolabhoot siddhaanton ka varnan hai.

charakasanhita ka aayurved ko maulik yogadaan

charakasanhita ka aayurved ke kshetr mein anek maulik yogadaan hain jinmein se mukhya hain-

  • rogon ke kaaran tatha unki chikitsa ka yuktisangat drushtikon
  • chikitsakeeya pareekshan ki vastunishth vidhiyon ka ullekh

bhaashya

'charakataatparyateeka' is granth ki sarvaprasiddh teeka hai. ise 'aayurvedadeepika' bhi kehte hain. iske rachayita chakrapaanidtt (1066) hain. anya bhaashyagranth hain-

  • bhattaarak harishchandr dvaara rachit charakanyaas (6thi shataabdi)
  • jejjat krut nirntarapadavyaakhya (875 E),
  • shivdaas sen krut tattvachandrika (1460 E)
  • yogeendranaathasen krut charakopaskaar
  • narasinh kaviraaj krut charakatattvaprakaash
  • gangaadhar kavirtn dvaara rachit jalpakalpataru (1879).

charakasanhita ka mool

`charakasanhita' aaj hamein jis roop mein upalabdh hai, sanbhavataya usaki rachana moolat: aatreya ke ek pratibhaavaan shishya agnivesh ne isaapoorv 7veen athva 8veen shataabdi mein ki thi. ismein aatreya ki shikshaaon ka samaavesh hai. agnivesh ka granth 11veen shataabdi in. tak upalabdh raha prakat hota hai.

samay ke saath-saath ayurvedik chikitsa shaastr ke naye siddhaant bante gaye, naye-naye upachaar aadi ki khoj hoti rahi. tab yeh aavashyak samajh gaya ki agnivesh tantr ka sanshodhan kiya jaaye aur yeh kaarya charak ne kiya jo sambhavataaya isaapoorv 175 mein rahe honge. isi sanshodhit sanskaran ko `charak sanhita' ke naam se jaana gaya. ise naveen shataabdi in. mein ek Kashmiri pandit va dradhabal ne pun: sanshodhit evam sampaadit kiya aur yahi sanskaran ab hamein upalabdh hai.

`charak sanhita' ek vishaal granth hai jismein ayurvedik chikitsaashaastr ke vibhinn pahaluon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. is granth se hamein us praacheen kaal mein chikitsa-shaastr ki poori jaankaari milti hai.

chikitsa vigyaan ke vidyaarthiyon ka chayan evam deeksha

ayurvedik chikitsa-shaastr ke adhyayan ke ichhuk pratyaashi ko, saamaajik, shaareerik, maanasik evam aadhyaatmik apekshaaon ko poora hone ki dasha mein bhi vidyaarthi banane ki aajnyaa pratyaashi dvaara dhaarmik anushthaan sampann karne ke pashchaat hi milti thi. is dhaarmik anushthaan mein guru tatha anya vyaktiyon ki upasthiti tatha praarthana tatha pavitra agni ke samaksh devataaon ko fool arpit karna sammilit tha. is samaaroh ka charam bindu us samay hota tha jab guru apne shishya ko pavitra agni ke teen fare lagava kar use nimn shapath dilaata tha :

vidyaarthi ke karttavya

is samaaroh ke pashchaat varshon tak shishya apne guru tatha svaami ke jeevan se juda rahata tha tatha uske parivaar ka ek sadasya ban jaata tha. vah apne guru ki seva karta tha. rogiyon ki ilaaj karte hue avlokan karta tha, vividh prakaar ki kaarya-pranaaliyon, saaj-saamaan aur shalya-upakaranon se parichit ho jaata tha tatha apne guru ki pratyaksh dekharekh mein saiddhaantik evam vyaavahaarik prashikshan praapt karta tha. kai varshon ke pashchaat jab guru-shishya ki pragati tatha aacharan se santushtaho jaata tha to vah shishya ki pareeksha leta tha. shishya ke pareeksha mein safal ho jaane par guru raaja se us shishya ko chikitsaashaastr ka vyav-~saaya praarambh karne ke liye anujnyaa pradaan karne ki sifaarish karta tha. raajya chikitsak ke pad par niyukti hi kisi chikitsak ki sarvochch aakaanksha hoti thi. anya baaton ke atirikt raajachikitsak vish dene ki sambhaavana ke viruddh raaja ki raksha karne ke liye bhi uttaradaayi hota tha. is sankat se koi bhi raaja bahut hi kam mukt rahata tha. iske atirikt jab raaja kisi shatru ke viruddh apni sena ke saath ravaana hota tha, tab chikitsak bhi usaki sena ke saath jaata tha.

charak ke chikitsa-vigyaan ka vishay

apne samay ke ayurvedik chikitsa-shaastr ke varnan mein charak ne vibhinn vishyon ka bruhad vivechan kiya hai. udaaharan-svaroop bhroon ki utpati evam vikaas, maanav-shareer ka shareer-rachana-vigyaan, shareer ki kaaryavidhi tatha shareer ke teen padaarth- vaayu, pitt, kaf ke asantulan athva anya kisi kaaran shareer ki kaaryavidhi mein avyavastha, vibhinn rogon ka nidaan, vargeekaran, vigyaan niroopan, poorvaanumaan tatha upachaar evam shareer ke kaayaakalp vigyaan jaise vishyon ka varnan kiya hai.

bhroon shaastr

bhroon ke prajanan evam vikaas ke sambandh mein yeh bataaya gaya hai ki bhroon-nirmaan mein purush-stri donon hi--purush apne veerya athva stri apne raj dvaara yogadaan karte hain. bhroon ka nar-maada hona usamein purush ke veerya athva stri ke raj ki pradhaanata par nirbhar hota hai. bhroon ka ubhayalingi hona do dashaaoain mein sambhav hai ya to bhroon mein manushya ke veerya tatha stri ke raj mein samaanupaat ho athva veerya ki prajanan-shakti samaaptapraaya ho chuki ho. yadi parinaami mool do ya usase adhik anshon mein vibhaajit ho jaaya to do ya usase adhik judvaaain bachchon ko janm deta hai, inmein se pratyek ke ling ka nirdhaaran garbh mein munashya ke veerya evam stri ke raj ki saapekshik pradhaanata dvaara hota hai.

bhinn-bhinn maheenon mein bhroon ke vikaas ka varnan bhi kiya gaya hai. pratham maas mein bhroon ki avaleh ke samaan aakruti hoti hai, doosare maas mein yeh kathor ho jaati hai, teesare mein paaainch vishisht ubhaar (abhivruddhiyaaain) prakat ho jaati hain tatha angon ka maamooli vibhedeekaran hone lagta hai. chauthe maheene mein angon ka vibhedeekaran adhik nishchit ho jaata hai tatha hrudaya ke kaarya ke saath bhroon mein chetanata bhi viksit ho jaati hai. paaainchavein maheenein mein yeh chetna aur adhik spasht ho jaati hai. chhathe maheene mein buddhi ka vikaas hona bhi shuru ho jaata hai. saatavein mein angon ka vikaas poorn ho jaata hai. bachche ka janm navein ya dasvein maheene mein hota hai.

bhroon-vikaas se sambandhit charak sanhita mein diya gaya varnan tatkaaleen anya praacheen sabhyataaon ke chikitsa-vigyaan ke granthon mein diye gaye varnan se bahut adhik agravarti hai. hamaare vartamaan gyaan ke pariprekshya mein ismein kuchh sudhaar vaanchhit hain kintu pashchimi sansaar, `charak sanhita jaisi upayukt vyaakhya agale 1500 varsh tak bhi na kar paaya.

shareer ke vibhinn bhaag maata athva pita se vyutpann hue samajhe jaate hain. tvacha, rakt, maans, naabhi, hrudaya, fefade, yakrut, pleeha, stan, shroni, udar, aaainton tatha majja ki vyutpatti maata se hoti hai, sir ke baal, naakhoon, daant, asthi, shira tatha veerya aadi ki pita se. bhroon ki vruddhi ek-doosare ke oopar kramik parto ke chadhne se hoti hai. vibhinn angon ke prakat hone ke kram ke baare mein vivechakon ne alag-alag sammatiyaaain di hai kintu charak ne jor dekar yeh kaha hai ki sabhi jnyaaanendriyaaain tatha ang teesare maheene mein hi prakat hone lagte hain.

janm se poorv hi bhroon ke ling ka pata lagaane ke liye bhinn-bhinn lakshan bataaye gaye hain. yadi maata ke daayein stan mein pehle doodh utar aaye vah chalte samay pehle daayaaain paaainv uthaaye, usaki daayeen aaainkh badi lage, vah nar naamon waali vastuon ki ichha kare, use svapn mein nar naam ke fool dikhaai dein, uske chehare par raunak aa jaaye, vah striyon ki sangati mein adhik rahana chaahe, bhroon ke kaaran usaka udar baayeen or ko adhik nikla hua hon, usaka svabhaav evam kriyaayein purush-sareekhi prateet hon to samajhna chaahiye ki vah ladke ko janm degi aur inke vipreet dishaaoain mein ladki ko.

shareer-rachana-vigyaan

manushya ki shareer-rachana ke baare mein kiya gaya charak ka varnan kaafi alpaviksit hai. shareer mein daant evam naakhoonon sahit asthiyon ki kul sankhya 360 bataai gayi hai. 32 daant hote hain. 32 daaainton ke kotar, 20 naakhoon, 60 angulaasthiyaan, 20 lambi asthiyaan, 4 lambi asthiyon ke aadhaar, 2 edi, 4 takhane ki haddi, 4 kalaai ki haddi, 4 agrabaahu ki haddi, 4 taang ki haddi, 2 baahu ki kohani ke patal, 2 jaangh ki khokhali haddi, 5 skandhaasthi, 2 hansali, 2 nitmbafalak, 1 saarvajanik asthi, 45 peeth ki haddeeyaaain, 14 vakshaasthi, 24 pasaliyaaain, 24 garton mein sthit gulikaaeain, 15 kanthaasthi, 1 shvaas-nali, 2 taalugart, 1 nichle jabade ki haddi, 2 jabade ki aadhaar-bandh asthi, 1 naak, gaalon evam bhaunhon ki haddi, 2 kanapati tatha 4 paan ke aakaar ki kapaalaasthi. (sushrut ke anusaar kul milkar asthiyon ki sankhya 300 hai).

shareer ki maaainsapeshiyon ko keval maaainsalapind hi bataaya gaya hai. aisa samjha jaata tha ki hrudaya ke vibhinn angon ko jaane waali das vaahikaaeain hoti hai. mastishk ki rachana tatha kaaryo ka varnan lagbhag naheen ke baraabar hai. yadyapi fefadon ka ullekh hai, kintu unhein shvasan se kisi prakaar bhi sambandhit naheen maana gaya hai.

shareer-kriya-vigyaan

charak ke anusaar jo bhojan ham khaate hain tatha hamaara shareer bhi mitti, agni, jal, vaayu tatha aakaash naamak paaainch panchatatvon (bhoot) se bana hota hai. shareer mein ye panchatatv ras, rakt, maaains, vasa, asthi majja tatha veerya naamak vastuon (dhaatuon) ke roop mein hote hain. bhojan ka kaarya in dhaatuon ka poshan karna, inke santulan ko banaae rakhana tatha paachan-kriya ka jaari rakhana hai. jo bhojan khaaya jaata hai, vah pehle ek ras mein parivrtit hota hai, tatpashchaat rakt, maans tatha anya dhaatuon mein. paachan-prakriya ke dauraan ek halki pratikriya hoti hai jisse ek jhaagadaar padaarth `kaf' banta hai. kuchh samay pashchaat jab bhojan adhapacha hota hai, tab ek khatti pratikriya shuru ho jaati hai. is pratikriya dvaara aaainton mein bhojan se ek taral padaarth - `pitt' banta hai. aaainton mein thoda aur neeche, pacha hua bhojan ek sookhe ambaar mein badal jaata hai aur is prakriya mein ek katu evam kathor pratikriya aarambh hoti hai, jismein vaat (vaayu) utpann hoti hai. is prakaar uparyukt teen dosh utpann hote hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain