chanpoo

champoo shravya kaavya ka ek bhed hai, arthaat gadya-padya ke mishrit kaavya ko champoo kehte hain. gadya tatha padya mishrit kaavya ko "chanpoo" kehte hain.

gadyapadyamayan kaavyan champoorityabhidheeyate - (saahitya darpan 6 / 336)

kaavya ki is vidha ka ullekh saahityashaastr ke praacheen aachaaryon- bhaamah, dandi, vaaman aadi ne naheen kiya hai. yon gadya padyamaya shaili ka prayog vaidik saahitya, bauddh jaatak, jaatakamaala aadi ati praacheen saahitya mein bhi milta hai. champookaavya parampara ka praarambh hamein atharv ved se praapt hota hai. champoo naam ke prakrut kaavya ki rachana dasveen shati ke pehle naheen hui. trivikram bhatt dvaara rachit 'nalachampoo', jo dasveen sadi ke praarambh ki rachana hai, champoo ka prasiddh udaaharan hai. iske atirikt somadev suri dvaara rachit yash:tilk, bhojaraaj krut champoo raamaayan, kavi karnapoori krut aanandavrundaavan, gopaal champoo (jeev Goswami), neelakanth champoo (neelakanth Dixit) aur champoo Bhaarat (anant kavi) dasveen se satrahaveen shati tak ke udaaharan hain. yeh kaavya roop adhik lokapriya na ho saka aur na hi kaavyashaastr mein usaki vishesh maanyata hui. hindi mein yashodhara (maithileesharan gupt) ko champoo-kaavya kaha jaata hai, kyonki usamein gadya-padya donon ka prayog hua hai.

gadya aur padya ke is mishran ka uchit vibhaajan yeh prateet hota hai ki bhaavaatmak vishyon ka varnan padya ke dvaara tatha varnanaatmak vishyon ka vivran gadya ke dvaara prastut kiya jaaya. parantu chanpoorachayitaaon ne is manovaigyaanik vaishishtya par vishesh dhyaan na dekar donon ke sanmishran mein apni svatantr ichha tatha vaiyaktik abhiruchi ko hi mahatva diya hai.

parichay

gadya-padya ka sanmishran sanskrut saahitya mein praacheen hai, parantu kaavyashaili mein nibddh, "chanpoo" ki sanjnyaa ka adhikaari gadya-padya ka samanjas mishran utana praacheen naheen maana ja sakta. gadya-padya ki mishrit rachana Krishna yajurvedeeya sanhitaaon mein upalabdh hoti hai. paali jaatakon mein bhi gadya mein kathaanak tatha padya (gaatha) mein mool sootraatmak sanketon ki upalabdhi avashya hoti hai. parantu kaavyatatv se virhit hone ke kaaran inhein ham "chanpoo" ka drushtaant kisi prakaar naheen maan sakte. harishen rachit samudragupt ki prayaagaprashasti (samay 350 E.) tatha bauddh kavi aayanshoor (chaturth shati) praneet jaatakamaala chanpoo ke aadim roop maane ja sakte hain, kyonki pehle mein samudragupt ki digvijya tatha doosare mein 34 jaatak vishuddh kaavyashaili ka aashray lekar alankrut gadya padya mein varnit hain. prateet hota hai ki chanpoo gadyakaavya ka hi ek paribruhit roop hai aur iseeliye gadyakaavya ke suvarnayug (saptam ashtam shati) ke anantar navam shati ke aaspaas is kaavyaroop ka udaya hua.

chanpoo kaavya ka pratham nidrshan trivikram bhatt ka nalachanpoo hai jismein chanpoo ka vaishishtya sfutataya udbhaasit hota hai. dakshin ke raashtrakootavanshi raaja Krishna (dviteeya) ke pautr, raaja jagatug aur lakshmi ke putr, indraraaj (truteeya) ke aashray mein rahakar trivikram ne is ruchir chanpoo ki rachana ki thi. indraraaj ka raajyaabhishek vi.san. 972 (915 E.) mein hua tha aur unke aashrit hone se kavi ka bhi vahi samay hai dasham shati ka poorvaardh. is chanpoo ke saat uchhvaason mein nal tatha damayanti ki vikhyaat pranayakatha ka bada hi chamatkaari varnan kiya gaya hai. kaavya mein sarvatr shubhag sanbhag shlesh ka prasaad lakshit hota hai.

jain kavi somaprabhasoori ka "yashastilk chanpoo" dasham shati ke madhyakaal ki kruti hai (rachanaakaal 959 E.). granthakaar raashtrakootanaresh Krishna ke saamant chaalukya arikeshri (truteeya) ke putr ka sabhaakavi tha. is chanpoo mein jain puraanon mein prakhyaat raaja yashodhar ka charitra vistaar ke saath varnit hai. chanpoo ke antim teen uchhravaason mein jainadharm ke siddhaaton ka vistrut vivran prastut kar kavi ne in siddhaanton ka paryaapt prachaar prastaar kiya hai. granth mein us yug ke naanaavidh dhaarmik, aarthik tatha saamaajik vishyon ka vivran somaprabhasoori ki vyaapak tatha bahumukhi vandushi ka parichaayak hai.

Ram tatha Krishna ke charit ka avalanban kar anek pratibhaashaali kaviyon ne apni pratibha ka ruchir pradarshan kiya hai. aise chanpoo kaavyon mein bhojaraaj (11veen shati) ka raamaayan chanpoo, anantabhatt ka "Bhaarat chanpoo", shesh shreekrushn (16veen shati) ka "paarijaataharan chanpoo" kaafi prasiddh hain. bhojaraaj ne raamaayan chanpoo ki rachana kishkindha kaand tak hi ki thi, jiski poorti Lakshman bhatt ne "yuddhakaand" ki tatha veinkataraaj ne "uttar kaand" ki rachana kar ki thi.

jain kaviyon ke samaan chaitanya mataavalanbi vaishnav kaviyon na apne siddhaanton ke pasar ke liye is lalit kaavyamaadhyam ko badi safalta se apnaaya. Bhagwan shreekrushn ki lalaam leelaaon ka prasang aisa hi sundar avsar hai jab in kaviyon ne apni alokasaamaanya pratibha ka prasaad apne chanpoo kaavyon ke dvaara bhakt paathakon ke saamane prastut kiya. kavi karnapoor (16veen shati) ka aanandavrundaavan chanpoo, tatha jeev Goswami (17veen shati) ka gopaalachanpoo saras kaavya ki drushti se nitaant safal kaavya hain. inmein se pratham kaavya Krishna ki baalaleelaaon ka vistrut tatha vishd varnan karta hai, dviteeya kaavya Krishna ke samagr charit ka maarmik vivran hai.

"veeramitrodaya" ke prakhyaat rachayita mitr mishr (17veen shati ka prathamaardh) ka "aanandakand chanpoo" krushnaparak chanpuon mein ek ruchir shrunkhala jodta hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein bhi chanpookaavyon ki lokapriyta kam na thi. neelakanth Dixit ka "neelakanthavijya chanpoo" samudramanthan ke vishay mein hai (rachanaakaal 1631 E.). shri vaishnav veinkataadhvari (17veen shati) ke "vishvagunaadarsh chanpoo" ki rachana anya chanpuon se is baat mein vishisht hai ki ismein Bhaarat ke naana teertho, dharmo tatha shaastrajnyaon mein doshon tatha gunon ka udghaatan badi maarmikta se ek saath kiya gaya hai. yeh vishesh lokapriya kaavya hai. vaaneeshvar vidyaalankaar ka "chitrachanpoo" Bengal ke ek vishisht pandit kavi ki rachana hai jismein bhakti dvaara bhagavatpraapti ka sanket roopakashaili mein ek saras aakhyaan ke maadhya se kiya gaya hai (18veen shati).

is prakaar sanskrut saahitya mein bhaavon ke prakatan ke nimitt anek shataabdiyon tak lokapriya maadhyam hone par bhi uttar bhaarateeya bhaashaasaahitya mein chanpoo kaavya drudhamool na ho saka. draavidi bhaasha ke saahitya mein saamanyat:, kerali tatha Andhra saahitya mein visheshat:, chanpoo kaavya aaj bhi lokapriya hai jiske pranyan ki or kavijnon ka dhyaan poornat: aakrusht hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  • hindi saahityakosh, bhaag-1, pru0 243, jnyaaanamandal limited Varanasi, truteeya sanskaran, vasant panchami 1985)