changej Khan

changej Khan

changej Khan (mangoliyaai: Чaaиaaнaaгaaиaaс Хaaаaaаaaн, chingis Khan, san 116218 August, 1227) ek mangol Khan (shaasak) tha jisne mangol saamraajya ke vistaar mein ek aham bhoomika nibhaai. vah apni sangathan shakti, barbarata tatha saamraajya vistaar ke liye prasiddh hua. isse pehle kisi bhi yaayaavar jaati ke vyakti ne itni vijay yaatra naheen ki thi.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

changej Khan ka janm 1162 ke aaspaas aadhunik mangoliya ke uttari bhaag mein onon nadi ke nikat hua tha. changej Khan ki daanyi hatheli par paidaaishi khooni dhabba tha.uske teen sage bhaai va ek sagi bahan thi aur do sautele bhaai bhi the.usaka vaastavik ya praarambhik naam temujin (ya temoochin) tha. mangol bhaasha mein timujin ka matlab lauhakarmi hota hai.usaki maata ka naam hoyalan aur pita ka naam yesoojei tha jo kiyaat kabeele ka mukhiya tha. yesoojei ne virodhi kabeele ki hoyalan ka apaharan kar vivaah kiya tha.lekin kuchh dinon ke baad hi yesoojei ki hatya kar di gayi. uske baad temoochin ki maaain ne baalak temoojin tatha uske sautale bhaaiyon bahanon ka laalan paalan bahut kathinaai se kiya. baarah varsh ki aayu mein timujin ki shaadi borate ke saath kar di gayi.iske baad usaki patni borate ka bhi vivaah ke baad hi apaharan kar liya tha. apni patni ko chhudaane ke liye use ladaaiya ladni padeen thi. in vikt paristhitiyon mein bhi vo dost banaane mein saksham raha. navayuvak boghoorachoo usaka pratham mitr tha aur vo aajeevan usaka vishvast mitr bana raha. usaka saga bhaai jamooka bhi usaka ek vishvasaneeya saathi tha. temujin ne apne pita ke vruddh sage bhaai tugaril urf ong Khan ke saath puraane rishton ki punarsthaapana ki.

sainik jeevan

jamooka hainlaanki praarambh mein usaka mitr tha, baad mein vo shatru ban gaya. 1180 tatha 1190 ke dashakon mein vo ong Khan ka mitr raha aur usane is mitrata ka laabh jamooka jaise pratidvandiyon ko haraane ke liye kiya. jamooka ko haraane ke baad usamein bahut aatmavishvaas aa gaya aur vo anya kabeelon ke khilaaf yuddh ke liye nikal pada. inmein uske pita ke hatyaare shaktishaali taataar kairaait aur khud ong Khan shaamil the. ong Khan ke virooddh usane 1203 mein yuddh chheda. 1206 isvi mein temujin, jamooka aur neman logon ko nirnaayak roop se paraast karne ke baad stepi kshetr ka sabse prabhaavashaali vykti ban gaya. uske is prabhutv ko dekhte hue mangol kabeelon ke saradaaron ki ek sabha (kuriltaai) mein maanyata mili aur use changej Khan (samudri Khan) ya saarvabhaum shaasak ki upaadhi dene ke saath mahaanaayak ghoshit kiya gaya.

kuriltaai se maanyata milne tak vo mangolon ki ek susangathit sena taiyaar kar chuka tha. usaki pehli ichha cheen par vijay praapt karne ki thi. cheen us samay teen bhaagon mein vibhkt tha - uttar pashchimi praant mein tibbati mool ke si-liya log, jarachen logon ka cheen raajavansh jo us samay aadhunik Beijing ke uttar vaale kshetr mein shaasan kar rahe the tatha shung raajavansh jiske antargat dakshini cheen aata tha. 1209 mein si liya log paraast kar diye gaye. 1213 mein cheen ki mahaan deeveer ka atikraman ho gaya aur 1215 mein peking nagar ko loot liya gaya. chin raajavansh ke khilaaf 1234 tak ladaaiyaaain chali par apne sainya abhiyaan ki pragati bhar ko dekh changej Khan apne anucharon ki dekharekh mein yuddh ko chhod vaapas maatrubhoomi ko mangoliya laut gaya.

san 1218 mein kara khita ki paraajaya ke baad mangol saamraajya amoo dariya, turaan aur khvaarajm raajyon tak vistrut ho gaya. 1219-1221 ke beech kai bade raajyon - otraar, bukhaara, samarakand, balkh, guraganj, marv, nishaapur aur heraat - ne mangol sena ke saamane samarpan kar diya. jin nagaron ne pratishodh kiya unka vidhvans kar diya gaya. is dauraan mangolon ne bepanaah barbarata ka parichay diya aur laakhon ki sankhya mein logon ka vadh kar diya.

Bhaarat ki or prasthaan

changej Khan ne gajani aur peshaavar par adhikaar kar liya tatha khvaarijm vansh ke shaasak alaauddeen muhammad ko kaispiyn saagar ki or khaded diya jahaaain 1220 mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. usaka uttaraadhikaari jalaaluddeen mangavarni hua jo mangolon ke aakraman se bhayabheet hokar gajani chala gaya. changej Khan ne usaka peechha kiya aur sindhu nadi ke tat par usako hara diya. jalaaluddeen sindhu nadi ko paar kar Bhaarat aa gaya jahaaain usane Delhi ke sultaan iltutamish se sahaayata ki fariyaad rakhi. iltutamish ne shaktishaali changej Khan ke bhaya se usako sahayata dene se inkaar kar diya.

is samay chegej Khan ne sindhu nadi ko paar kar uttari Bhaarat aur asam ke raaste mangoliya vaapas lautane ki sochi. par asahya garmi, praakrutik aavaas ki kathinaaiyon tatha uske shaman nimitjnyaon dvaara mile ashubh sanketon ke kaaran vo jalaaluddeen mangavarni ke viruddh ek sainik tukadi chhod kar vaapas aa gaya. is tarah Bhaarat mein uske na aane se tatkaal Bhaarat ek sambhaavit lootpaat aur veebhats utpaat se bach gaya.

apne jeevan ka adhikaansh bhaag yuddh mein vyateet karne ke baad san 1227 mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

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