chandrashekhar veinkataraman

sar chandrashekhar veinkataraman

janm 7 November 1888
tiruchiraapalli, tamil naadu
mrutyoo 21 November 1970(1970-11-21) (umr 82)
bangaluru, Karnataka, Bhaarat
raashtreeyata Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
kshetr bhautiki
sansthaaeain bhaarateeya vitt vibhaag
Indian association for kaltiveshan of science
bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan
maatrusanstha preseedeinsi kaalij
dauktaret chhaatr ji N Ramchandran
prasiddh kaarya raman ifekt
puraskaar night baichelar (1929)
bhautiki mein Nobel puraskaar (1930)
Bhaarat ratn
lenin shaanti puraskaar

chandrashekhar veinkataraman (tamil: சaaநaa்aaதaaிaaரaaசaaேaaகaaர வaaெaaஙaa்aaகaaடaaரaaாaaமaaனaa்) (7 November, 1888 - 21 November, 1970) bhaarateeya bhautik-shaastri the. prakaash ke prakeernan par utkrusht kaarya ke liye varsh 1930 mein unhein bhautiki ka pratishthit Nobel puraskaar diya gaya. unka aavishkaar unke hi naam par Raman prabhaav ke naam se jaana jaata hai. 1954 E. mein unhein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara Bhaarat ratn ki upaadhi se vibhooshit kiya gaya tatha 1957 mein lenin shaanti puraskaar pradaan kiya tha.

anukram

parichay

chandrashekhar veinkataraman ka janm 7 November san 1888 E. mein Tamil Nadu ke tiruchiraapal‍aali naamak sthaan mein hua tha. aapke pita chandrashekhar ayyar S. pi. ji. college mein bhautiki ke praadhyaapak the. aapki maata paarvati ammal ek susanskrut parivaar ki mahila theen. san 1892 E. me aapke pita chandrashekhar ayyar vishaakhaapatanam ke shreemati A. vi.N. college mein bhautiki aur ganit ke praadhyaapak hokar chale gaye. us samay aapki avastha chaar varsh ki thi. aapki praarambhik shiksha vishaakhaapattanam mein hi hui. vahaaain ke praakrutik saundarya aur vidvaanon ki sangati ne aapko vishesh roop se prabhaavit kiya.

aapne baarah varsh ki alpaavastha mein hi maitrik ki pareeksha utteern kar li thi. tabhi aapko shreemati eni beseint ke bhaashan sunane ka saubhaagya praapt hua. unke lekh padhne ko mile. aapne raamaayan, mahaabhaarat jaise dhaarmik granthon ka adhyayan kiya. isse aapke hrudaya par bhaarateeya gaurav ki amit chhaap pad gayi. aapke pita uchch shiksha ke liye videsh bhejane ke paksh mein the; kintu ek british Doctor ne aapke svaasthya ko dekhte hue videsh na bhejane ka paraamarsh diya. falat: aapko svadesh mein hi adhyayan karna pada. aapne san 1903 E. mein chennai ke preseedeinsi college mein pravesh le liya. yahaaain ke praadhyaapak aapki yogyata se itne prabhaavit hue ki aapko anek kakshaaon mein upasthit hone se chhoot mil gayi. aap bi.A. ki pareeksha mein vishvavidyaalaya mein akele hi pratham shreni mein aae. aap ko bhautiki mein svarnapadak diya gaya. aapko angreji nibandh par bhi puraskrut kiya gaya. aapne 1907 mein Madras vishvavidyaalaya se ganit mein pratham shreni mein emae ki degree vishesh yogyata ke saath haasil ki. aapne is mein itne ank praapt kiye the, jitne pehle kisi ne naheen liye the.[1]

aapne shikshaarthi ke rup mein kai mahattvapoorn kaarya kiye. san 1906 E. mein aapka prakaash vivrtan par pehla shodh patra London ki filsofikl patrika mein prakaashit hua. usaka sheershak tha - 'aayataakrut chhidr ke kaaran utpann aseemit vivrtan pattiyaaain'. jab prakaash ki kirnein kisi chhidr mein se athva kisi apaaradarshi vastu ke kinaare par se gujarati hain tatha kisi parde par padti hain, to kirnon ke kinaare par mad-teevr athva rangeen prakaash ki pattiyaan dikhaai deti hai. yeh ghatna `vivrtan' kahalaati hai. vivrtan gati ka saamaanya lakshan hai. isse pata chalta hai ki prakaash taragon mein nirmit hai.

un dinon aapke samaan pratibhaashaali vyakti ke liye bhi vaigyaanik banane ki suvidha naheen thi. at: aap Bhaarat sarkaar ke vitt vibhaag ki pratiyogita mein baith gaye. aap pratiyogita pareeksha mein bhi pratham aae aur June, 1907 mein aap asisteint ekaauteint general bankar kalakatte chale gaye. us samay aisa prateet hota tha ki aapke jeevan mein sthirta aa gayi hai. aap achha vetan paaeainge aur ekaauainteint general baneinge. budhaape mein uainchi peinshan praapt kareinge. par aap ek din kaaryaalaya se laut rahe the ki ek sign board dekha, jis par likha tha 'vaigyaanik adhyayan ke liye bhaarateeya parishad (Indian ashosiyeshan faar kalteeveshan aaf saains)'. maano aapko bijli ka karent chhoo gaya ho. tabhi aap traam se utare aur parishd kaaryaalaya mein pahuainch gaye. vahaaain pahuainch kar apna parichay diya aur parishd ki prayogashaala mein prayog karne ki aajnyaa pa li.

tatpashchaat aapka tabaadala pehle rangoon ko aur fir Nagpur ko hua. ab aapne ghar mein hi prayogashaala bana li thi aur samay milne par aap usi mein prayog karte rahate the. san 1911 E. mein aapka tabaadala fir Calcutta ho gaya, to yahaaain par parishd ki prayogashaala mein prayog karne ka fir avsar mil gaya. aapka yeh kram san 1917 E. mein nirvighn rup se chalta raha. is avadhi ke beech aapke anshakaalik anusandhaan ka kshetr tha - dhvani ke kampan aur kaaryon ka siddhaant. aapka vaadyon ki bhautiki ka gyaan itna gahra tha ki san 1927 E. mein Germany mein prakaashit bees khandon vaale bhautiki vishvakosh ke aathavein khand ke liye vaadyayantron ki bhautiki ka lekh aapse taiyaar karavaaya gaya. sampoorn bhautiki kosh mein aap hi aise lekhak hain jo jarman naheen hai.

Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya mein san 1917 E mein bhautiki ke praadhyaapak ka pad bana to vahaaain ke kulapati aashutosh mukharji ne use sveekaar karne ke liye aapko aamantrit kiya. aapne unka nimantran sveekaar karke uchch sarkaari pad se tyaag-patra de diya.

Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya mein aapne kuchh varshon mein vastuon mein prakaash ke chalne ka adhyayan kiya. inmein kirnon ka poorn samooh bilkul seedha naheen chalta hai. usaka kuchh bhaag apni raah badalkar bikhr jaata hai. san 1921 E. mein aap vishvavidyaalayon ki Congress mein pratinidhi ban gaye aaksaford gaye. vahaan jab anya pratinidhi London mein darshaneeya vastuon ko dekh apna manoranjan kar rahe the, vahaaain aap seint paal ke girjaaghar mein uske fusafusaate galiyaaron ka rahasya samajhne mein lage hue the. jab aap jalayaan se svadesh laut rahe the, to aapne bhoomadhya saagar ke jal mein usaka anokha neela va doodhiyaapan dekha. Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya pahuainch kar aapne paarthiv vastuon mein prakaash ke bikhrane ka niyamit adhyayan shuru kar diya. iske maadhyam se lagbhag saat varsh uparaant, aap apni us khoj par pahuainchein, jo 'Raman prabhaav' ke naam se vikhyaat hai. aapka dhyaan 1927 E. mein is baat par gaya ki jab ex kirnein prakeern hoti hain, to unki tarang lambaaiya badal jaati hain. tab prashn utha ki saadhaaran prakaash mein bhi aisa kyon naheen hona chaahiye?

aapne paarad aark ke prakaash ka spectrum spektroskop mein nirmit kiya. in donon ke madhya vibhinn prakaar ke raasaayanik padaarth rakhe tatha paarad aark ke prakaash ko unamein se gujaar kar spectrum banaae. aapne dekha ki har ek spectrum mein antar padta hai. haraek padaarth apni-apni prakaar ka antar daalata hai. tab shreshth spectrum chitr taiyaar kiye gaye, unhein maapakar tatha ganit karke unki saiddhaantik vyaakhya ki gayi. pramaanit kiya gaya ki yeh antar paarad prakaash ki taragan lambaaiyon mein parivrtit hone ke kaaran padta hai. raaman prabhaav ka udghaatan ho gaya. aapne is khoj ki ghoshana 29 fravari san 1928 E. ko ki.

aap san 1924 E. mein anusandhaanon ke liye royal society, London ke failo banaae gaye. Raman prabhaav ke liye aapko san 1930 E. me Nobel puraskaar diya gaya. Raman prabhaav ke anusandhaan ke liye naya kshetr khul gaya.

1948 mein sevaanivruti ke baad unhonne raaman shodh sansthaan ki Bangalore mein sthaapana ki aur isi sansthaan mein shodharat rahe. 1954 E. mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara Bhaarat ratn ki upaadhi se vibhooshit kiya gaya. aapko 1957 mein lenin shaanti puraskaar bhi pradaan kiya tha.

28 February 1928 ko chandrashekhar veङakat raaman ne Raman prabhaav ki khoj ki thi jiski yaad mein Bhaarat mein is din ko pratyek varsh 'raashtreeya vigyaan diwas' ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.

sandarbh

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain