chandrashekhar aajaad

pandit chandrashekhar 'aajaad'
(23 July 1906 se 27 fravari 1931)
Chandrashekar azad.bmp.jpg
alfred park, Allahabad, Bhaarat mein chandrashekhar aajaad ki pratima
upanaam : 'aajaad','pandit ji','Balraj' va 'Quick Silver'
janmasthal : bhaabara gaaainv (chandrshekhar aajaadanagar) (vartamaan aleeraajapur jila)[1][2]
mrutyusthal: alfred park, Allahabad, uttar pradesh
aandolan: bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam
pramukh sangathan: hidustaan soshalist Republican esosiyeshan-ke pramukh senaapati (1928)


pandit chandrashekhar 'aajaad' (23 July 1906 - 27 fravari 1931) aitihaasik drushti se bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke svatantrata senaani the. ve pandit Ram prasaad bismil va sardaar bhagat Singh sareekhe kraantikaariyon ke ananyatam saathiyon mein se the. san 1922 mein gaaaindheeji dvaara asahayog aandolan ko achaanak band kar dene ke kaaran unki vichaaradhaara mein badlaav aaya aur ve kraantikaari gatividhiyon se jud kar Hindustan Republican esosiyeshan ke sakriya sadasya ban gaye. is sanstha ke maadhyam se unhonne Ram prasaad bismil ke netrutv mein pehle 9 August 1925 ko kaakori kaand kiya aur faraar ho gaye. iske pashchaat san 1927 mein 'bismil' ke saath 4 pramukh saathiyon ke balidaan ke baad unhonne uttar Bhaarat ki sabhi kraantikaari paartiyon ko milaakar ek karte hue Hindustan soshalist Republican aisosiyeshan ka gathan kiya tatha bhagat Singh ke saath Lahore mein laala laajapat rai ki maut ka badla saundars ka hatya karke liya evam Delhi pahuainch kar assembly bam kaand ko anjaam diya.

anukram

janm tatha praarambhik jeevan

chandrashekhar aajaad ka janm bhaabara gaaainv (ab chandrshekhar aajaadanagar) (vartamaan aleeraajapur jila) mein 23 July san 1906 ko hua tha.[3][4] unke poorvaj badaraka (vartamaan unnaav jila) se the. aajaad ke pita pandit seetaaraam tivaari sanvat 1956 mein akaal ke samay apne Patrick nivaas badaraka ko chhodkar pehle kuchh dinon madhya pradesh aleeraajapur riyaasat mein naukri karte rahe fir jaakar bhaabara gaaainv mein bas gaye. yaheen baalak chandrashekhar ka bachapan beeta. unki maaain ka naam jagaraani devi tha. aajaad ka praarambhik jeevan aadivaasi baahulya kshetr mein sthit bhaabara gaaainv mein beeta ataev bachapan mein aajaad ne bheel baalakon ke saath khoob dhanush baan chalaaye. is prakaar unhonne nishaanebaaji bachapan mein hi seekh li thi. baalak chandrashekhar aajaad ka man ab desh ko aajaad karaane ke ahinsaatmak upaayon se hatkar sashastr kraanti ki or mud gaya. us samay banaaras kraantikaariyon ka gadh tha. vah manmathanaath gupt aur pranavesh chatarji ke sampark mein aaye aur kraantikaari dal ke sadasya ban gaye. kraantikaariyon ka vah dal "Hindustan prajaatantr sangh" ke naam se jaana jaata tha.

pehli ghatna

1919 mein hue amrutasar ke jaliyaanvaala baag narasanhaar ne desh ke navayuvakon ko udvelit kar diya. chandrashekhar us samay padhaai kar rahe the. jab Gandhiji ne san 1921 mein asahayog aandolanaka farmaan jaari kiya to vah aag jvaalaamukhi bankar fat padi aur tamaam anya chhaatron ki bhaaainti chandrashekhar bhi sadakon par utar aaye. apne vidyaalaya ke chhaatron ke jatthe ke saath is aandolan mein bhaag lene par ve pehli baar girftaar hue aur unhein 15 beton ki saja mili. is ghatna ka ullekh pan0 javaaharalaal Nehru ne kaayada todne vaale ek chhote se ladke ki kahaani ke roop mein kiya hai- aise hi kaayade (kaanoon) todne ke liye ek chhote se ladke ko, jiski umr 15 ya 16 saal ki thi aur jo apne ko aajaad kehta tha, beint ki saja di gayi. vah nanga kiya gaya aur beint ki tikti se baaaindh diya gaya. jaise-jaise beint us par padte the aur usaki chamadi udhed daalte the, vah 'Bhaarat maata ki jaya!' chillaata tha. har beint ke saath vah ladka tab tak yahi naara lagaata raha, jab tak vah behosh na ho gaya. baad mein vahi ladka uttar Bhaarat ke aatankakaari kaaryon ke dal ka ek bada neta bana.|pan0 javaaharalaal Nehru[5][6]

kraantikaari sangathan

asahayog aandolan ke dauraan jab February 1922 mein chauri chaura ki ghatna ke pashchaat bina kise se poochhe gaaaindheeji ne aandolan vaapas le liya to desh ke tamaam navayuvakon ki tarah aajaad ka bhi Congress se moh bhang ho gaya aur pandit Ram prasaad bismil, shacheendranaath saanyaal yogeshachandr chatarji ne 1924 mein uttar Bhaarat ke kraantikaariyon ko lekar ek dal hindustaani prajaataantrik sangh (echa0 aara0 e0) ka gathan kiya. chandrashekhar aajaad bhi is dal mein shaamil ho gaye. is sangathan ne jab gaaainv ke ameer gharon mein dakaitiyaaain daaleen, taaki dal ke liye dhan jutaane ki vyavastha ho sake to yeh tay kiya gaya ki kisi bhi aurat ke upar haath naheen uthaaya jaaega. ek gaaainv mein Ram prasaad bismil ke netrutv mein daali gayi dakaiti mein jab ek aurat ne aajaad ka pistaul chheen liya to apne balashaali shareer ke baavajood aajaad ne apne usoolon ke kaaran us par haath naheen uthaaya. is dakaiti mein kraantikaari dal ke aath sadasyon par, jismein aajaad aur bismil bhi shaamil the, poore gaaainv ne hamla kar diya. bismil ne makaan ke andar ghuskar us aurat ke kasakar chaaainta maara, pistaul vaapas chheeni aur aajaad ko daaaintate hue kheenchakar baahar laaye. iske baad dal ne keval sarkaari pratishthaanon ko hi lootane ka faisala kiya. 1 January 1925 ko dal ne samooche Hindustan mein apna bahucharchit parcha the rivolyooshanari (kraantikaari) baaainta jismein dal ki neetiyon ka khulaasa kiya gaya tha. is paimfalet mein sashastr kraanti ki charcha ki gayi thi. ishtahaar ke lekhak ke roop mein "vijyasinh" ka chhadm naam diya gaya tha. shacheendranaath saanyaal is parche ko Bengal mein post karne ja rahe the tabhi police ne unhein baaainkura mein giraftaar karke jail bhej diya. "echa0 aara0 e0" ke gathan ke avsar se hi in teenon pramukh netaaon - bismil, saanyaal aur chatarji mein is sangathan ke uddeshyon ko lekar matabhed tha.

is sangh ki neetiyon ke anusaar 9 August 1925 ko kaakori kaand ko anjaam diya gaya. jab shaahajahaaainpur mein is yojana ke baare mein charcha karne ke liye meeting bulaayi gayi to dal ke ek maatr sadasya Ashfaq ulla khaaain ne iska virodh kiya tha. unka tark tha ki isse prashaasan unke dal ko jad se ukhaadne par tul jaayega aur aisa hi hua bhi. angrej chandrashekhar aajaad ko to pakad naheen sake par anya sarvochch kaaryakartaaoain - pandit Ram prasaad 'bismil', Ashfaq ulla khaaain evam thaakurroshan Singh ko 19 December 1927 tatha usase 2 din poorv raajendranaath laahidi ko 17 December 1927 ko faaainsi par latakaakar maar diya gaya. sabhi pramukh kaaryakartaaon ke pakade jaane se is mukadame ke dauraan dal paaya: nishkriya hi raha. ekaadh baar bismil tatha yogesh chatarji aadi kraantikaariyon ko chhudaane ki yojana bhi bani jismein aajaad ke alaava bhagat Singh bhi shaamil the lekin kisi kaaran vash yeh yojana poori na ho saki.

4 kraantikaariyon ko faaainsi aur 16 ko kadi kaid ki saja ke baad chandrashekhar aajaad ne uttar Bhaarat ke sabhi kaantikaariyon ko ekatr kar 8 sitmbar 1928 ko Delhi ke feeroj shaah Kotla maidaan mein ek gupt sabha ka aayojan kiya. isi sabha mein bhagat Singh ko dal ka prachaar-pramukh banaaya gaya. isi sabha mein yeh bhi tay kiya gaya ki sabhi kraantikaari dalon ko apne-apne uddeshya is nayi party mein vilay kar lene chaahiye. paryaapt vichaar-vimarsh ke pashchaat ekamat se samaajavaad ko dal ke pramukh uddeshyon mein shaamil ghoshit karte hue "Hindustan Republican aisosiyeshan" ka naam badalkar "Hindustan soshalist Republican esosiyeshan" rakha gaya. chandrashekhar aajaad ne sena-pramukh (kamaandar-in-cheef) ka daayitv samhaala. is dal ke gathan ke pashchaat ek naya lakshya nirdhaarit kiya gaya - "hamaari ladaai aakhiri faisala hone tak jaari rahegi aur vah faisala hai jeet ya maut."

charam sakriyta

aajaad ke prashansakon mein pandit Motilal Nehru, purushottamadaas Tandon ka naam shumaar tha. javaaharalaal Nehru se aajaad ki bheint aanand bhavan mein hui thi usaka zikr Nehru ne apni aatmakatha mein 'faaseevaadi manovrutti' ke roop mein kiya hai. iski kathor aalochna manmathanaath gupt ne apne lekhan mein ki hai. kuchh logon ka aisa bhi kehna hai ki Nehru ne aajaad ko dal ke sadasyon ko samaajavaad ke prashikshan hetu roos bhejane ke liye ek hajaar rupaye diye the jinmein se 448 roopaye aajaad ki shahaadat ke vakt unke vastron mein mile the. sambhavat: surendranaath paandeya tatha yashapaal ka roos jaana tay hua tha par 1928-31 ke beech shahaadat ka aisa silsila chala ki dal lagbhag bikhr sa gaya. jabki yeh baat sach naheen hai. chandrashekhar aajaad ki ichha ke viruddh jab bhagat Singh esembali mein bam feinkane gaye to aajaad par dal ki poori jimmevaari aa gayi. saandars vadh mein bhi unhonne bhagat Singh ka saath diya aur baad mein unhein chhudaane ki poori koshish bhi ki. aajaad ki salaah ke khilaaf jaakar yashapaal ne 23 December 1929 ko Delhi ke najdeek vaayasaraaya ki gaadi par bam feinka to isse aajaad kshubdh the kyonki ismein vaayasaraaya to bach gaya tha par kuchh aur karmachaari maare gaye the. aajaad ko 28 May 1930 ko bhagavati charan vohara ki bam-pareekshan mein hui shahaadat se bhi gahra aaghaat laga tha. iske kaaran bhagat Singh ko jail se chhudaane ki yojana bhi khataai mein pad gayi thi. bhagat Singh, sukhadev tatha raajaguru ki faaainsi rukavaane ke liye aajaad ne durga bhaabhi ko Gandhiji ke paas bheja jahaaain se unhein kora javaab de diya gaya tha. aajaad ne apne balaboote par jhaaainsi aur Kanpur mein apne adde bana liye the. jhaaainsi mein master rudr Narayan, sadaashiv malakaapurakar, bhagavaanadaas maahaur tatha vishvanaath vaishampaayan the jabki Kanpur mein pandit shaaligraam shukl sakriya the. shaaligraam shukl ko 1 December 1930 ko police ne aajaad se ek park mein milne jaate vakt shaheed kar diya tha.

balidaan

echa0esa0aara0e0 dvaara kiye gaye saandars-vadh aur Delhi esembali bam kaand mein faaainsi ki saja paaye teen abhiyukton- bhagat Singh, raajaguru va sukhadev ne appeal karne se saaf mana kar hi diya tha. anya sajaayaafta abhiyukton mein se sirf 3 ne hi privi kaunsil mein appeal ki. 11 fravari 1931 ko landan ki privi kaunsil mein appeal ki sunavaai hui. in abhiyukton ki or se edavoket print ne bahas ki anumati maaaingi thi kintu unhein anumati naheen mili aur bahas sune bina hi appeal khaarij kar di gayi. chandrashekhar aajaad ne mrutyu dand paaye teenon pramukh kraantikaariyon ki saja kam karaane ka kaafi prayaas kiya. ve uttar pradesh ki haradoi jail mein jaakar ganeshashankar vidyaarthi se mile. vidyaarthi se paraamarsh kar ve Allahabad gaye aur javaaharalaal Nehru se unke nivaas aanand bhavan mein bheint ki. aajaad ne pandit Nehru se yeh aagrah kiya ki ve Gandhi ji par Lord iravin se in teenon ki faaainsi ko umr- kaid mein badalavaane ke liye jor daalein. Nehru ji ne jab aajaad ki baat naheen maani to aajaad ne unase kaafi der tak bahas bhi ki. is par Nehru ji ne krodhit hokar aajaad ko tatkaal vahaaain se chale jaane ko kaha to ve apne takiyaakalaam 'ssaala' ke saath bhunabhunaate hue draaiaing room se baahar aaye aur apni cycle par baithakar alfred park ki or chale gaye. alfred park mein apne ek mitr sukhadev raaj se mantrana kar hi rahe the tabhi see0aai0dee0 ka esa0esa0pee0 not baabar jeep se vahaaain aa pahuaincha. uske peechhe-peechhe bhaari sankhya mein karnalaganj thaane se police bhi aa gayi. donon or se hui bhayankar goleebaari mein aajaad ko veeragati praapt hui. yeh dukhad ghatna 27 fravari 1931 ke din ghatit hui aur hamesha ke liye itihaas mein darj ho gayi.

police ne bina kisi ko iski soochana diye chandrashekhar aajaad ka antim sanskaar kar diya tha. jaise hi aajaad ki balidaan ki khabar janta ko lagi saara Allahabad alafred park mein umad pada. jis vruksh ke neeche aajaad shaheed hue the log us vruksh ki pooja karne lage. vruksh ke tane ke ird-gird jhandiyaaain baaaindh di gayeen. log us sthaan ki maati ko kapadon mein sheeshiyon mein bharakar le jaane lage. samooche shahar mein aajaad ki balidaan ki khabar se jaba‍aaradast tanaav ho gaya. shaam hote-hote sarkaari pratishthaanon pa‍aar hamle hone lage. log sadakon par aa gaye.

aajaad ke balidaan ki khabar javaaharalaal Nehru ki patni kamala Nehru ko mili to unhonne tamaam kaaaingresi netaaon va anya deshabhakton ko iski soochana di.. baad mein shaam ke vakt logon ka hujoom purushottam das Tandon ke netrutv mein Allahabad ke rasoolaabaad shamashaan ghaat par kamala Nehru ko saath lekar pahuaincha. agale din aajaad ki asthiyaaain chunakar yuvakon ka ek juloos nikaala gaya. is juloos mein itni jyaada bheed thi ki Allahabad ki mukhya sadakon par jaam lag gaya. aisa lag raha tha jaise Allahabad ki janta ke roop mein saara Hindustan apne is sapoot ko antim vidaai dene umad pada ho. juloos ke baad sabha hui. sabha ko shacheendranaath saanyaal ki patni pratibha saanyaal ne sambodhit karte hue kaha ki jaise Bengal mein khudeeraam Bose ki balidaan ke baad unki raakh ko logon ne ghar mein rakhakar sammaanit kiya vaise hi aajaad ko bhi sammaan milega. sabha ko kamala Nehru tatha purushottam das Tandon ne bhi sambodhit kiya. isse kuchh hi din poorv 6 fravari 1927 ko pandit Motilal Nehru ke dehaant ke baad aajaad bhesh badalkar unki shavayaatra mein shaamil hue the.

vyaktigat jeevan

aajaad prakhar deshbhakt the. kaakori kaand mein faraar hone ke baad se hi unhonne chhipne ke liye saadhu ka vesh banaana bakhoobi seekh liya tha aur iska upayog unhonne kai baar kiya. ek baar ve dal ke liye dhan jutaane hetu gaajeepur ke ek maranaasann saadhu ke paas chela bankar bhi rahe taaki uske marne ke baad math ki sampatti unke haath lag jaaye. parantu vahaaain jaakar jab unhein pata chala ki saadhu unke pahuainchane ke pashchaat maranaasann naheen raha apitu aur adhik hatta-katta hone laga to ve vaapas aa gaye. praaya: sabhi kraantikaari un dinon roos ki kraantikaari kahaaniyon se atyadhik prabhaavit the aajaad bhi the lekin ve khud padhne ke bajaay doosaron se sunane mein jyaada aanandit hote the. ek baar dal ke gathan ke liye Mumbai gaye to vahaaain unhonne kai filmein bhi dekheen. us samay mook filmon ka hi prachalan tha at: ve filmo ke prati vishesh aakarshit naheen hue.

chandrashekhar aajaad ne veerata ki nai paribhaasha likhi thi. unke balidaan ke baad unke dvaara praarambh kiya gaya aandolan aur tej ho gaya, unase prerana lekar hajaaron yuvak s‍aavatantrata aandolan mein kood pade. aajaad ki shahaadat ke solah varshon baad 15 August san 1947 ko Hindustan ki aajaadi ka unka sapana poora to hua kintu ve use jeete ji dekh na sake. sabhi unhein panditji hi kehkar sambodhit kiya karte the.

sandarbh

  1. Chandra Shekhar Azad (1906-1931)
  2. Bhawan Singh Rana (1 January 2005). Chandra Shekhar Azad (An Immortal Revolutionary Of India). Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.. pa॰ 10. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-81-288-0816-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=sudu7qABntcC&pg=PA10. abhigman tithi: 11 September 2012.
  3. The Calcutta review. University of Calcutta. 1958. pa॰ 44. http://books.google.com/books?id=4BAxAQAAMAAJ. abhigman tithi: 11 September 2012.
  4. Catherine B. Asher, san (June 1994). India 2001: reference encyclopedia. South Asia Publications. pa॰ 131. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-945921-42-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=F_BtAAAAMAAJ. abhigman tithi: 11 September 2012.
  5. javaaharalaal Nehru (anuvaadak: haribhaaoo upaadhyaaya) meri kahaani 1995 prushth 73-74
  6. madanalaal varma 'kraant' svaadheenata sangraam ke kraantikaari saahitya ka itihaas (bhaag-do) prushth 474

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