chandragupt vikramaaditya

chandragupt vikramaaditya (raaj 380-413) gupt raajavansh ka raaja.

chandragupt vikramaaditya ki mudra

chandragupt dviteeya mahaan jinko sanskrut mein vikramaaditya ya chandragupt vikramaaditya ke naam se jaana jaata hai; gupt vansh ke ek mahaan shaktishaali samraat the. unka raajya 375-413/15 E tak chala jismein gupt raajavansh ne apna shikhar praapt kiya. gupt saamraajya ka vah samay Bhaarat ka svarnim yug bhi kaha jaata hai. chandragupt dviteeya mahaan apne poorv raaja samudragupt mahaan ke putr the. usane aakraamak vistaar ki neeti evam laabhadayak paarigrahan neeti ka anusaar karke safalta praapt ki.

parichay

chandragupt dviteeya vikramaaditya (375 E - lagbhag 414 E.) samudragupt ke eran abhilekh se spasht hai ki unke bahut se putr pautr the, kintu apne antim samay mein unhonne chandragupt ko apna uttaraadhikaari niyukt kiya. chandragupt dviteeya evam paravarti guptasamraaton ke abhilekhon se bhi yahi dhvanit hota hai ki samudragupt ki mrutyu ke uparaant chandragupt dviteeya hi guptasamraat hue. kintu iske vipreet, ansharoop mein upalabdh 'deveechandraguptam‌' evam katipya anya saahityik tatha puraataatvik abhilekh sambandhi pramaanon ke aadhaar par kuchh vidvaan‌ raamagupt ko samudragupt ka uttaraadhikaari pramaanit karte hain. raamagupt ki ayogyata ka laabh uthaakar chandragupt ne uske raajya evam raani donon ka haran kar liya. raamagupt ki etihaasikta sandigdh hai. bhilsa aadi se praapt taamr sikkon ka raamagupt us pradesh ka koi sthaaneeya shaasak hi raha hoga.

chandragupt dviteeya ki tithi ka nirdhaaran unke abhilekhon aadi ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. chandragupt ka, guptasanvat‌ 61 (380 E.) mein utkeern Mathura stanbhalekh, unke raajya ke paaainchavein varsh mein likhaaya gaya tha. falat: unka raajyaarohan guptasanvat‌ 61-5= 56= 375 E. mein hua. chandragupt dviteeya ki antim gyaat tithi unki rajatamudraaon par praapt haati hai- guptasanvat‌ 90+ 0= 409- 410 E.. isse anumaan kar sakte hain ki chandragupt sambhavat: uparilikhit varsh tak shaasan kar rahe the. iske vipreet kumaaragupt pratham ki pratham gyaat tithi guptasanvat‌ 96= 415 E., unke bilsaind abhilekh se praapt hoti hai. is aadhar par, aisa anumaan kiya jaata hai ki, chandragupt dviteeya ke shaasanakaal ka samaapan 413-14 E. mein hua hoga.

chandragupt dviteeya ke vibhinn lekhon se gyaat devagupt evam devaraaj-anya naam prateet hote hain. abhilekhon evam mudraalekhon se unki vibhinn upaadhiyon- mahaaraajaadhiraaj, paramabhaagavat, sinhavikram, nareindrachandr, nareindrasinh, vikramaank ev vikramaaditya aadi- ka gyaan hota hai.

unka sarvapratham sainik abhiyaan Saurashtra ke shak kshatrapon ke viruddh hua. sangharsh prakriya evam anya sambaddh vishyon ka vistrut gyaan upalabdh naheen hota. chandragupt ke saandhivigrahik veerasen shaab ke udayagiri (bhilsa ke sameep) guhaalekh se, unka samast pruthvi jateene ke uddeshya se vahaaain tak aana spasht hai. isi sthaan se praapt chandragupt ke saamant shaasak sanakaaneek mahaaraaj ke guptasanvat‌ 82 (= 401-2 E.) ke lekh tatha aamrakaardav naam ke sainyaadhikaari ke saaainchi guptasanvat‌ 93 (= 412-13 E.) ke shilaalekh se maalav pradesh mein unki deergh-upasthiti pratyaksh hoti hai. sambhavat: chandragupt dviteeya ne shak rudrasinh truteeya ke viruddh yuddhasanchaalan tatha vijyoparaant Saurashtra ke shaasan ko yaheen se vyavasthit kiya ho. chandragupt ki shakavijya ka anumaan unki rajatamudraaon se bhi hota hai. Saurashtra ki shakamudra parampara ke anukaran mein prachalit in mudraaon se bhi hota hai. Saurashtra ki shakamudra parampara ke anukaran mein prachalit in mudraaon par chandragupt dviteeya ka chitr, naam, virud evam mudraaprachalan ki tithi likhit hai. shak mudraaon se gyaat antim tithi 388 E. prateet hoti hai. iske vipreet in sikkon se gyaat chandragupt ki pratham tithi guptasanvat‌ 90+ 0 hai. falat: anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki chandragupt ki sairaashtravijya praaya: 20 varshon ke sudeergh yuddh ke pashchaat‌ 409 E. ke baad hi kabhi poornaroopen safal hui hogi.

chandragupt ke senaadhyaksh aamrakaardav, apne saanchi abhilekh mein swayam ko, anek samaraavaaptavijyayashasoopataak: kehte hain. in anek samaron ke ullekh se yeh bhi anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki chandragupt ne shakayuddh ke atirikt anya yuddh bhi kiye honge. kintu vartamaan sthiti mein unka vivechan apramaanit hai. Delhi mein kutubameenaar ke paarshv mein sthit lauhastanbh par kinheen (samraat) chandra ki vijyaprashasti utkeern hai. chandra ki pehchaan praacheen Bhaarat ke vibhinn samraaton se ki jaati rahi hai (dekhiye chandra). kintu praaya: vidvaan‌ unki pehchaan chandragupt dviteeya se karte hain. yadi is siddhaant ko sahi maana jaaya to kehna na hoga ki dviteeya chandragupt ne vang pradesh mein sangathit roop se aae hue shatruon ko paraajit kiya evam (yuddh dvaara) sindhu ke saat mukhon ko paar kar vaahleekon ko jeeta. vang ko pehchaan saadhaaranataya poorvi Bengal (praacheen samraat) tatha baahleek ki balkh (vaiktriya) se ki jaati hain, yadyapi kuchh aashcharya naheen jo vaahleekon ki nivaas pashchimi Pakistan mein hi kaheen raha ho. samraat chandragupt dviteeya ke saath chandra ke abhigyaan ko maanane mein kathinaaiyaaain bhi hain. chandragupt dviteeya ne apna raajya pita dvaara uttaraadhikaar mein praapt kiya tha, kintu lauhastanbh ke chandra ne apne svabhajaarjit vistrut saamraajya ka ullekh kiya hai.

saahitya mein bahucharchit samraat vikramaaditya aur chandragupt vikrmaadviteeya donon hi alag samraat hain ...kuchh log inko jodkar itihaas ke saath bhadda majaak karte hain ...

saamraajya

chandragupt ka saamraajya suvistrut tha. ismein poorv mein Bengal se lekar uttar mein sambhavat: balkh tatha uttar-pashchim mein arab saagar tak ke samast pradesh sammilit the. is vistrut saamraajya ko sthirta pradaan karne ki drushti se chandragupt ne anek shaktishaali evam aishvaryonmukhi raajaparivaaron se vivaahasanbandh sthaapit kiye. swayam unki dviteeya raani kuberanaaga 'naagakulasanbhoota' thi. kuberanaaga se utpann prabhaavateegupt vaakaatakanaresh rudrasen dviteeya ko byaaheen thi. naagon evam vaakaatakon ki bhaugolik sthiti se siddh hai ki unase guptasaamraajya ko paryaapt bal evam sahaayata mili hogi. kuntal pradesh ke kadanb naresh shaantivrman ke taalagund abhilekh se vidit hai ki raaja kaakusth (tsth) varman ki putriyaaain gupt evam anya raajaaon ko byaaheen theen. kumaari ka vivaah chandragupt dviteeya ya unke kisi putr se hua hoga.

saamraajya ko shaasan ki suvidha ke liye vibhinn ikaaiyon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha. samraat swayam raajya ka sarvochch adhikaari tha. usaki sahaayata ke liye mantriprishd hoti thi. raaja ke baad doosra uchch adhikaari Yuvraj hota tha. mantri mantriprishd ka mukhya adhikaari evam adhyaksh tha. chandragupt dviteeya ke mantri shikhrasvaami the. inhein karamadaand abhilekh mein kumaaraamaatya bhi kaha hai. is sambandh mein yeh jnyaaatavya hai ki guptakaal mein yuvaraajon ke saahaayya ke liye svatantr parishd hua karti thi. veerasen shaab ko 'anvayapraaptasachiv' kaha hai. ye chandragupt ke saandhivigrahik the. kintu senaadhyaksh sambhavat: aamrakaardav the. chandragupt ke samay ke shaasakeeya vibhaagon ke adhyakshon mein (1) kumaaraamaatyaadhikran (2) balaadhikran (3) ranabhaandaadhikran (4) dandapaashaadhikran (5) vinyashoor (6) mahaaprateehaar (7) talavar (?) (8) mahaadandanaayak (9) vinyasthitisthaapak (10) bhataashvapati aur (11) uparik aadi mukhya hain.

shaasan ki sabse badi ikaai praant tha. praanton ke mukhya adhikaari uparik kahe jaate the. teerabhukti-uparik-adhikran ke raajyapaal mahaaraaj govindagupt the. unki rajdhani vaishaali thi. shaasan ki praanteeya ikaai desh ya bhukti kahalaati thi. praanton ka vibhaajan anek pradeshon ya vishyon mein hua tha. vaishaali ke sarvochch shaasakeeya adhikaari ka vibhaag vaishaali-adhishthaan-adhikran kahalaata tha. nagaraan evam graamon ke shaasan ke liya alag parishd hoti thi. graamashaasan ke liye graamik, mahattar evam bhojak uttaradaayi hote the.

chandragupt ki rajdhani paataliputr thi. kintu paravarti kuntalanareshon ke abhilekhon mein use paatalipuravaraadheeshvar evam ujjayineepuravaraadheeshvar donon kaha hai. bahut sambhav hai, ki shak rudrasinh ki paraajaya ke baad chandragupt ne hapane raajya ki doosari rajdhani ujjayini banaai ho. saahityagranthon mein vikramaaditya ko bhi in donon hi nagaron se sambaddh kiya gaya hai. ujjayini vijay ke baad hi kabhi maalav sanvat‌ vikramaaditya ke naam se sambaddh hokar vikram-sanvat‌ naam se abhihit hone laga hoga. yon yeh sanvat‌ 58 E.poo. se hi aarambh ho gaya prateet hota hai

chandragupt ke raajyakaal mein cheeni yaatri faahyaan ne Bhaarat ka bhraman kiya. faahyaan (400-411 E.) ne tatkaaleen saamaajik evam dhaarmik sthiti tatha vyavastha ka atyant sajeev ullekh kiya hai. madhyadesh ka varnan karte hue faahyaan ne likha hai ki log raaja ki bhoomi jotate hain aur lagaan ke roop mein upaj ka kuchh ansh raaja ko dete hain. aur jab chaahate hain tab usaki bhoomi ko chhod dete hain aur jahaaain man mein aata hai jaakar rahate hain. raaja na praanadand deta hai aur na shaareerik dand. aparaadh ki guruta ya laghuta ki drushti mein rakhate hue arthadand diya jaata hai. baar baar raajadroh karanevaale aparaadhon ka daahina haath kaat liya jaata hai. raajyaadhikaariyon ko niyat vetan milta hai. neech chaandaalon ke atirikt na to koi jeevahinsa karta hai, na madiraapaan karta aur na lahasun pyaas khaata hai. paataliputr mein faahyaan ne ashok ke samay ke bhavya praasaad dekhe. ve atyant sundar the aur aisa lagta tha jaise maanavanirmit na hon. paataliputr madhyadesh ka sabse bada nagar tha. log dhani aur udaar the. achhe dhaarmik kaarya karne mein ek doosare se spardha karte the. desh mein chor daakuon ka koi bhaya naheen tha.

chandragupt ke kaal ki aarthik sampannta usaki prachur svarnamudraaon se pusht hoti hai. iske atirikt usane rajat evam taamr mudraaon ka prachalan bhi kiya. rajat evam taamr mudraaon ka prachalan sambhavat: sthaaneeya tha, kintu usaki svarnamudraaeain saarvabhaum prachanal ke liye theen.

sandarbh granth

  • raadhaakumud mukharji : di gupt enpaayar, pru. 44-66, Mumbai 1959;
  • hemachandr raayachaudhari : di politikl history ov ainsheint India, pru. 553-564, (shashth sanskaran), Calcutta, 1953;
  • di klaasikl ej (r.chan. majoomadaar evam a.the. pusaalakar sanpaadit) pru. 18-22, 348-354, Mumbai, 1962;
  • a.s. alatekar : di kvaayanej ov di gupt enpaayar, pru. 90-164, banaaras, 1957;
  • sudhaakar chattopaadhyaaya : di arli history ov naardan India, pru. 167-175, Calcutta, 1958;
  • gangaaprasaad Mehta : chandragupt vikramaaditya, Allahabad, 1932;
  • vaasudev upaadhyaaya : gupt saamraajya ka itihaas, pru. 78-91, Allahabad 1957