chandragupt maurya

chandragupt maurya
Chandragupt maurya Birla mandir 6 dec 2009 (31).JPG
Birla mandir, Delhi mein ek shail-chitr
raajabhakti: maurya vansh
pad: samraat
uttaraadhikaari bindusaar maurya
raaj 322 pu॰ai॰-298 pu॰ai॰
janm sthaan: Bihar, Bhaarat

chandragupt maurya (janm 340 pu॰ai॰, raaj 322[1]-298 pu॰ai॰[2]) mein Bhaarat ke samraat the. inko kabhi kabhi chandragupt naam se bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai. inhonne maurya saamraajya ki sthaapana ki thi. chandragupt poore Bhaarat ko ek saamraajya ke adheen laane mein safl rahe. Bhaarat raashtra nimaarn moriya ganaraajya ( chandragupt maurya )

samraat chandragupt maurya ke raajyaarohan ki tithi saadhaaranataya 322 E.poo. nirdhaarit ki jaati hai. unhonne lagbhag 24 varsh tak shaasan kiya aur is prakaar unke shaasan ka ant praaya: 298 E.poo. mein hua.

chandragupt maurya ke vanshaadi ke baare mein adhik gyaat naheen hai. hindu saahitya panrapara uske nandon se sambaddh, bataati hai. jain parisishtaparvan‌ ke anusaar chandragupt maurya mayooraposhakon ke ek gram ke mukhiya ki putri se utpann the. madhyakaaleen abhilekhon ke saakshyaanusaar maurya sooryavanshi maandhaata se utpann the. bauddh saahitya mein maurya kshatriya kahe gaye hain. mahaavansh chandragupt komoriya (maurya) khattiyon se paida hua bataata hai. divyaavadaan mein bindusaar swayam ki moordhaabhishikt kshatriya kehte hain. samraat ashok bhi swayam ko kshatriya bataate hain. mahaaparinibbaan sutt se 5 vi shataabdi E 0 poo 0 uttar abhaarat aath chhote chhote gaanaraajyon mein bata tha. moriya pippalivn ke shaasak, ganataantrik vyavasthaavaali jaati siddh hote hain. pippalivn E.poo. chhathi shataabdi mein Nepal ki taraai mein sthit rummindei se lekar aadhunik devariya jile ke kasaya pradesh tak ko kehte the. magadh saamraajya ki prasaaraneeti ke kaaran inki svatantr sthiti sheegra hi samaapt ho gayi. yaheen kaaran tha ki chandragupt ka mayooraposhakon, charavaahon tatha lubdhakon ke sampark mein paalan hua. parampara ke anusaar vah bachapan mein atyant teekshnabuddhi tha, evam samavayask baalakon ka samraat bankar unapar shaasan karta tha. aise hi kisi avsar par chaanakya ki drushti usapar padi, falat: chandragupt takshashila gaye jahaaain unhein raajochit shiksha di gayi. greek itihaasakaar Justin ke anusaar saandrokaattas (chandragupt) saadhaaranajanma tha.

sikandar ke aakraman ke samay lagbhag samast uttar Bhaarat dhanaanand dvaara shaasit tha. nand samraat apni nimn utpatti evam nirankushata ke kaaran janta mein apriya the. braahman chaanakya tatha chandragupt ne raajya mein vyaapt asantosh ka sahaara le nand vansh ko uchhinn karne ka nishchaya kiya apni uddeshyasiddhi ke nimitt chaanakya aur chandragupt ne ek vishaal vijyavaahini ka prabandh kiya braahman granthon mein nandonmoolan ka shreya chaanakya ko diya gaya hai. Justin ke anusaar chandragupt daakoo tha aur chhote-bade safal hamlon ke pashchaat‌ usane saamraajyanirmaan ka nishchaya kiya. arthashaastr mein kaha hai ki sainikon ki bharati choron, mlechhon, aatavikon tatha shastropajeevi shreniyon se karni chaahiye. mudraaraakshas se gyaat hota hai ki chandragupt ne himaalaya pradesh ke raaja parvatak se sandhi ki. chandragupt ki sena mein shak, yavan, kiraat, kanboj, paaraseek tatha vahleek bhi rahe honge. plootaark ke anusaar saandrokottas ne sampoorn Bhaarat ko 6,00,000 sainikon ki vishaal vaahini dvaara jeetkar apne adheen kar liya. Justin ke mat se Bhaarat chandragupt ke adhikaar mein tha.

chandragupt ne sarvapratham apni sthiti Punjab mein sadrudh ki. usaka yavanon viruddh svaatantraya yuddh sambhavat: sikandar ki mrutyu ke kuchh hi samay baad aarambh ho gaya tha. Justin ke anusaar sikandar ki mrutyu ke uparaant Bhaarat ne saandrokottas ke netrutv mein daasata ke bandhan ko tod feinka tatha yavan raajyapaalon ko maar daala. chandragupt ne yavanon ke viruddh abhiyn lagbhag 323 E.poo. mein aarambh kiya hoga, kintu unhein is abhiyaan mein poorn safalta 317 E.poo. ya uske baad mili hogi, kyonki isi varsh pashchim Punjab ke shaasak kshatrap yoodemas (Eudemus) ne apni senaaon sahit, Bhaarat chhoda. chandragupt ke yavanayuddh ke baare mein vistaarapoorvak kuchh naheen kaha ja sakta. is safalta se unhein Punjab aur sindh ke praant mil gaye.

chandragupt maurya ka sambhavat: mahatvapoorn yuddh nandon ke saath uparilikhit sangharsh ke baad hua. Justin evam plootaark ke vrutton mein spasht hai ki sikandar ke Bhaarat abhiyn ke samay chandragupt ne use nandon ke viruddh yuddh ke liye bhadkaaya tha, kintu kishor chandragupt ke ghrusht vyavahaar ne yavanavijeta ko kruddh kar diya. falat:, praanaraksha ke nimitt chandragupt ko vahaaain se bhaagna pada. bhaarateeya saahityik paranparaaon se lagta hai ki chandragupt aur chaanakya ke prati bhi nandaraaja atyant asahishnu rah chuke the. mahaavansh teeka ke ek ullekh se lagta hai ki chandragupt ne aarambh mein nandasaamraajya ke madhya bhaag par aakraman kiya, kintu unhein sheegra hi apni truti ka pata chal gaya aur nae aakraman seemaant pradeshon se aarambh hue. antat: unhonne paataliputr gher liya aur dhananand ko maar daala.

iske baad, aisa prateet hota hai ki chandragupt ne apne saamraajya ka vistaar dakshin mein bhi kiya. maamulanaar naamak praacheen tamil lekhak ne tinevelli jile ki podiyil pahaadiyon tak hue maurya aakramanon ka ullekh kiya hai. iski pushti anya praacheen tamil lekhakon evam granthon se hoti hai. aakraamak sena mein yuddhapriya koshar log sammilit the. aakraamak konkan se elilmalai pahaadiyon se hote hue kongu (Coimbatore) jile mein aae aur yahaaain se podiyil pahaadiyon tak pahuainche. durbhaagyavash uparyukt ullekhon mein is mauryavaahini ke naayak ka naam praapt naheen hota. kintu, 'vanb moriyr' se pratham maurya samraat chandragupt ka hi anumaan adhik sangat lagta hai.

Mysore se upalabdh kuchh abhilekhon se chandragupt dvaara shikaarapur taaluk ke antargat naagarakhand ki raksha karne ka ullekh milta hai. ukt abhilekh 14veen shataabdi ka hai kintu greek, tamil lekhakon aadi ke sakshya ke aadhaar par iski aitihaasikta ekdam asveekrut naheen ki ja sakti.

chandragupt ne Saurashtra ki vijay bhi ki thi. mahaakshatrap rudradaaman‌ ke joonaagadh abhilekh se pramaanit hai ki chandragupt ke raashtreeya, vaishya pushyagupt yahaaain ke raajyapaal the.

chadrangupt ka antim yuddh sikandar ke poorvasenaapati tatha unke samakaaleen Syria ke greek samraat selyookas ke saath hua. greek itihaasakaar Justin ke ullekhon se pramaanit hota hai ki sikandar ki mrutyu ke baad selyookas ko uske svaami ke suvistrut saamraajya ka poorvi bhaag uttaraadhikaar mein praapt hua. selyookas, sikandar ki bhaarateeya vijay poori karne ke liye aage badha, kintu Bhaarat ki raajaneetik sthiti ab tak parivrtit ho chuki thi. lagbhag saara kshetr ek shaktishaali shaasak ke netrutv mein tha. selyookas 305 E.poo. ke lagbhag sindhu ke kinaare aa upasthit hua. greek lekhak is yuddh ka byorevaar varnan naheen karte. kintu aisa prateet hota hai ki chandragupt ki shakti ke sanmukh selyookas ko jhukna pada. falat: selyookas ne chandragupt ko vivaah mein ek yavanakumaari tatha area (hiraat), eraakosiya (kandahaar), paropanisdaai (Kabul) aur gedrosiya (baloochistaan) ke praant dekar sandhi kraya ki. iske badle chandragupt ne selyookas ko 500 haathi bheint kiye. uparilikhit praanton ka chandragupt maurya evam uske utataraadhikaariyon ke shaasanaantargat hona, kandahaar se praapt ashok ke dvibhaashi lekh se siddh ho gaya hai. is prakaar sthaapit hue maitri sambandh ko sthaayitv pradaan karne ki drushti se selyookas na megasthaneej naam ka ek doot chandragupt ke darbaar mein bheja. yeh vruttaant is baat ka pramaan hai ki chandragupt ka praaya: sampoorn raajayakaal yuddhon dvaara saamraajyavistaar karne mein beeta hoga.

antim shrutakevaali bhadrabaahu svaami aur samraat chandragupt ka aagaman darshaata shilaalekh (shravanabelagola)

shravanabelagola se mile shilaalekhon ke anusaar, chandragupt apne antim dinon mein jain-muni ho gaye| chandr-gupt antim mukut-dhaari muni hue, unke baad aur koi mukut-dhaari (shaasak) diganbar-muni nahi hue | at: chandr-gupt ka jain dharm mein mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. svaami bhadrabaahu ke saath shravanabelagol chale gaye. vaheen unhonne upavaas dvaara shareer tyaag kiya. shravanabelagol mein jis pahaadi par ve rahate the, usaka naam chandragiri hai aur vaheen unka banavaaya hua 'chandraguptabasti' naamak mandir bhi hai.

anukram

saamraajya

chandragupt maurya ka saamraajya

chandragupt ka saamraajya atyant vistrut tha. ismein lagbhag sampoorn uttari aur poorvi Bhaarat ke saath saath uttar mein baloochistaan, dakshin mein Mysore tatha dakshin-pashchim mein Saurashtra tak ka vistrut bhoopradesh sammilit tha. inka saamraajya vistaar uttar mein hindkush tak dakshinmein karnaatakatak poorv mein Bengal tatha pashchim mein Saurashtra tak tha saamraajya ka sabse bada adhikaari samraat swayam tha. shaasan ki suvidha ki drushti se sampoorn saamraajya ko vibhinn praanton mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya tha. praanton ke shaasak samraat ke prati uttaradaayi hote the. raajyapaalon ki sahaayata ke liye ek mantriprishd hua karti thi. keindreeya tatha praanteeya shaasan ke vibhinn vibhaag the aur sabke sab ek adhyaksh ke nireekshan mein kaarya karte the. saamraajya ke doorasth pradesh sadkon evam raajamaargon dvaara ek doosare se jude hue the.

paatilputr (aadhunik Patna) chandragupt ki rajdhani thi jiske vishay mein yoonaani raajadoot megasthaneej ne vistrut vivran diye hain. nagar ke prashaasanik vruttaanton se hamein us yug ke saamaajik evam aarthik paristhitiyon ko samajhne mein achhi sahaayata milti hai.

maurya shaasan prabandh ki prashansa aadhunik raajaneetijnyaon ne bhi ki hai jiska aadhaar 'kautileeya arthashaastr' evam usamein sthaapit ki gayi raajya vishyak maanyataaeain hain. chandragupt ke samay mein shaasanavyavastha ke sootr atyant sudrudh the.

shaasanavyavastha

chandragupt maurya ke saamraajya ki shaasanavyavastha ka gyaan pradhaan roop se megasthaneej ke varnan ke avashisht anshon aur kautilya ke arthashaastr se hota hai (de. megasthaneej). arthashaastr mein yadyapi kuchh parivrtanon ke teesari shataabdi ke ant tak hone ki sambhaavana prateet hoti hai, yahi mool roop se chandragupt maurya ke mantri ki kruti thi.

raaja shaasan ke vibhinn angon ka pradhaan tha. shaasan ke kaaryon mein vah athak roop se vyast rahata tha. arthashaastr mein raaja ki dainik charya ka aadarsh kaalavibhaajan diya gaya hai. megesthaneej ke anusaar raaja din mein naheen sota varan‌ dinbhar nyaaya aur shaasan ke anya kaaryon ke liye darbaar mein hi rahata hai, maalish karaate samay bhi in kaaryon mein vyavadhaan naheen hota, keshaprasaadhan ke samay vah dooton se milta hai. smrutiyon ki parampara ke viruddh arthashaastr mein raajaajnyaa ko dharm, vyavahaar aur charitra se adhik mahatva diya gaya hai. megesthaneej aur kautilya donon se hi gyaat hota hai ki raaja ke praanon ki raksha ke liye samuchit vyavastha thi. raaja ke shareer ki raksha astradhaari striyaaain karti theen. megesthaneej ka kathan hai ki raaja ko nirantar praanabhya laga rahata hai jisse har raat vah apna shayanakaksh badalta hai. raaja keval yuddhayaatra, yajnyaaanushthaan, nyaaya aur aakhet ke liye hi apne praasaad se baahar aata tha. aakhet ke samay raaja ka maarg rassiyon se ghira hota tha jinkon laaainghane par praanadand milta tha.

arthashaastr mein raaja ki sahaayata ke liye mantriprishd ki vyavastha hai. kautilya ke anusaar raaja ko bahumat maanana chaahiye aur aavashyak prashnon par anupasthit mantriyon ka vichaar jaanane ka upaaya karna chaahiye. mantriprishd ki mantrana ko gupt rakhate ka vishesh dhyaan rakha jaata tha. megesthaneej ne do prakaar ke adhikaariyon ka ullekh kiya hai - mantri aur sachiv. inki sakhya adhik naheen thi kintu ye bade mahatvapoorn the aur raajya ke uchch padon par niyukt hote the. arthashaastr mein shaasan ke adhikaariyon ke roop mein 18 teerthon ka ullekh hai. shaasan ke vibhinn kaaryon ke liye pruthak‌ vibhaag the, jaise kosh, aakar, lakshan, lavan, suvarn, koshthaagaar, panya, kupya, aayudhaagaar, pautav, maan, shulk, sootr, seeta, sura, soon, mudra, viveet, dyoot, vandhanaagaar, gau, nau, pattan, ganika, sena, sanstha, devata aadi, jo apne apne adhyakshon ke adheen the.

megasthaneej ke anusaar raaja ki seva mein guptacharon ki ek badi sena hoti thi. ye anya karmachaariyon par kadi drushti rakhate the aur raaja ko pratyek baat ki soochana dete the. arthashaastr mein bhi charon ki niyukti aur unke kaaryon ko vishesh mahatva diya gaya hai.

megasthaneej ne paataliputr ke nagarashaasan ka varnan kiya hai jo sambhavat: kisi na kisi roop mein anya nagaron mein bhi prachalit rahi hogi. (dekhiye 'paataliputr') arthashaastr mein nagar ka shasak naagrik kahalaata hai aurausake adheen sthaanik aur gop hote the.

shaasan ki ikaai gram the jinka shaasan graamik graamavruddhon ki sahaayata se karta tha. graamik ke oopar kramash: gop aur sthaanik hote the.

arthashaastr mein do prakaar ki nyaayasabhaaon ka ullekh hai aur unki kaaryavidhi tatha adhikaarakshetr ka vistrut vivran hai. saadhaaran prakaar dharmastheeya ko deevaani aur kantakashodhan ko faujadaari ki adaalat kah sakte hain. dandavidhaan kathor tha. shilpiyon ka angabhang karne aur jaanboojhkar vikraya par raajakar na dene par praanadand ka vidhaan tha. vishvaasaghaat aur vyabhichaar ke liye angachhed ka dand tha.

megasthaneej ne raaja ko bhoomi ka svaami kaha hai. bhoomi ke svaami krushak the. raajya ki jo aay apni niji bhoomi se hoti thi use seeta aur shesh se praapt bhoomikr ko bhaag kehte the. iske atirikt seemaaon par chungi, tatakar, vikrayakar, tol aur maap ke saadhanon par kar, dyootakar, veshyaaon, udyogon aur shilpon par kar, dand tatha aakar aur van se bhi raajya ko aay thi.

arthashaastr ka aadarsh hai ki praja ke sukh aur bhalaai mein hi raaja ka sukh aur bhalaai hai. arthashaastr mein raaja ke dvaara anek prakaar ke janahit kaaryon ka nirdesh hai jaise bekaaron ke liye kaam ki vyavastha karna, vidhvaaon aur anaathon ke paalan ka prabandh karna, majadoori aur moolya par niyantran rakhana. megasthaneej aise adhikaariyon ka ullekh karta hai jo bhoomi ko naapate the aur, sabhi ko sinchaai ke liye naharon ke paani ka uchit bhaag mile, isaliye naharon ko pranaaliyon ka nireekshan karte the. sinchaai ki vyavastha ke liye chandragupt ne vishesh prayatn kiya, is baat ka samarthan rudradaaman‌ ke joonaagadh ke abhilekh se hota hai. is lekh mein chandragupt ke dvaara Saurashtra mein ek pahaadi nadi ke jal ko rokakar sudarshan jheel ke nirmaan ka ullekh hai.

megasthaneej ne chandragupt ke sainyasangathan ka bhi vistaar ke saath varnan kiya hai. chandragupt ki vishaal sena mein chh: lakh se bhi adhik sainik the. sena ka prabandh yuddhaparishd karti thi jismein paaainch paaainch sadasyon ki chh: samitiyaaain theen. inmein se paaainch samitiyaaain kramash: nau, padaati, ashv, rath aur gaj sena ke liye theen. ek samiti sena ke yaataayaat aur aavashyak yuddhasaamagri ke vibhaag ka prabandh dekhti thi. megesthaneej ke anusaar samaaj mein krushakon ke baad sabse adhik sankhya sainikon ki hi thi. sainikon ko vetan ke atirikt raajya se astrashastr aur doosari saamagri milti theen. unka jeevan sampann aur sukhi tha.

chandragupt maurya ki shaasanavyavastha ki visheshata susangathit naukarashaahi thi jo raajya mein vibhinn prakaar ke aaainkadon ko shaasan ki suvidha ke liye ekatr karti thi. kendra ka shaasan ke vibhinn vibhaagon aur raajya ke vibhinn pradeshon par gahra niyantran tha. aarthik aur saamaajik jeevan ki vibhinn dishaaon mein raajya ke itne gahan aur kathor niyantran ki praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas ke kisi anya kaal mein hamein koi soochana naheen milti. aisi vyavastha ki utpatti ka hamein poorn gyaan naheen hai. kuchh vidvaan‌ helenistik raajyon ke maadhyam se shaakhaamani Iran ka prabhaav dekhte hain. is vyavastha ke nirmaan mein kautilya or chandragupt ki maulikta ko bhi uchit mahatva milna chaahiye. aisa prateet hota hai ki yeh vyavastha nitaant naveen naheen thi. sambhavat: poorvavarti magadh ke shaasakon, vishesh roop se nandavansheeya nareshon ne is vyavastha ki neenv kisi roop mein daali thi.

sandarbh granth

  • raadha kumud mukarji : chandraguptamaurya aind hij times;
  • satyaketu vidyaalankaar : maurya saamraajya ka itihaas;
  • maikrindil : enshyeint India aij diskraaibd baai megasthaneej aind erian;
  • kautilya ka arthashaastr
  • hemachandr raayachaudhuri : politikl history ov aisheint India, pru. 264-295, (shashth sanskaran) Calcutta, 1953;
  • di ej ov impeereeyal unity (r.ch. majoomadaar evam a.the. pusaalakar sanpaadit) pru. 5469, Mumbai, 1960;
  • ej ov nandaaj aind di mauryaaj (ke.A. neelakanth shaastri sanpaadit), pru. 132-165, banaaras, 1952;
  • the keinbrij history ov India (E.aar. raipsan sanpaadit), bhaag 1, pru. 467-473, Cambridge, 1922
  • uttaravihaarattakatha theramahind
  • (mahaaparinibbaanasutt)

yeh bhi dekhiye

  1. Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998) [1986]. A History of India (Third Edition san॰). London: Routledge. pp. 59. ISBN 0-415-15481-2.
  2. Kulke and Rothermund 1998:62