chandradhar sharma 'guleri'

chandradhar sharma 'guleri'

chandradhar sharma 'guleri' (1883 - 12 sitmbar 1922) hindi ke kathaakaar, vyangakaar tatha nibndhakaar the.

anukram

jeevani

moolat: Himachal pradesh ke guler gaaainv ke vaasi jyotirvid mahaamahopaadhyaaya pandit shivraam shaastri raajasammaan paakar Jaipur (Rajasthan) mein bas gaye the. unki teesari patni lakshmeedevi ne san 1883 mein chandradhar ko janm diya. ghar mein baalak ko sanskrut bhaasha, ved, puraan aadi ke adhyayan, pooja-paath, sandhya-vandan tatha dhaarmik karmakaand ka vaataavaran mila aur medhaavi chandradhar ne in sabhi sanskaaron aur vidyaaon aatmasaat kiya. aage chalakar unhonne angreji shiksha bhi praapt ki aur pratham shreni mein utteern hote rahe. Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya se ef. A. (pratham shreni mein dviteeya aur prayaag vishvavidyaalaya se bi. A. (pratham shreni mein pratham) karne ke baad chaahate hue bhi ve aage ki padhaai paristhitivsh jaari na rakh paae haalaaainki unke svaadhyaaya aur lekhan ka kram abaadh roop se chalta raha. bees varsh ki umr ke pehle hi unhein Jaipur ki vedhashaala ke jeernoddhaar tatha usase sambandhit shodhakaarya ke liye gathit mandal mein chun liya gaya tha aur captain gairet ke saath milkar unhonne "the Jaipur objravetari end its bildars" sheershak angreji granth ki rachana ki.

apne adhyayan kaal mein hi unhonne san 1900 mein Jaipur mein naagari manch ki sthaapana mein yog diya aur san 1902 se maasik patra 'samaalochak' ke sampaadan ka bhaar bhi sainbhaala. prasangavash kuchh varsh kaashi ki naagari prachaarini sabha ke sampaadak mandal mein bhi unhein sammilit kiya gaya. unhonne devi prasaad aitihaasik pustakamaala aur soorya kumaari pustakamaala ka sampaadan kiya aur naagari prachaarini pustakamaala aur soorya kumaari pustakamaala ka sampaadan kiya aur naagari prachaarini sabha ke sabhaapati bhi rahe.

Jaipur ke raajapandit ke kul mein janm lenevaale guleri ji ka raajavanshon se ghanishth sambandh raha. ve pehle khetadi naresh jayasinh ke aur fir Jaipur raajya ke saamant-putron ke Ajmer ke meyo college mein adhyayan ke dauraan unke abhibhaavak rahe. san 1916 mein unhonne meyo college mein hi sanskrut vibhaag ke adhyaksh ka pad sainbhaala. san 1920 mein pan॰ madan mohan maalaveeya ke prabandh aagrah ke kaaran unhonne banaaras aakar kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya ke praachyavidya vibhaag ke praachaarya aur fir 1922 mein praacheen itihaas aur dharm se sambaddh maneendr chandr nandi peeth ke professor ka kaaryabhaar bhi grahan kiya.

is beech parivaar mein anek dukhad ghatnaaon ke aaghaat bhi unhein jhelne pade. san 1922 mein 12 sitmbar ko peeliya ke baad tej jvar se maatr 39 varsh ki alpaayu mein unka dehaavasaan ho gaya.

kaarya

is thodi-si aayu mein hi guleri ji ne adhyayan aur svaadhyaaya ke dvaara hindi aur angreji ke atirikt sanskrut praakrut baangla maraathi aadi ka hi naheen jarman tatha French bhaashaaon ka gyaan bhi haasil kiya tha. unki ruchi ka kshetr bhi bahut vistrut tha aur dharm, jyotish itihaas, puraatattv, darshan bhaashaavijnyaaan shikshaashaastr aur saahitya se lekar sangeet, chitrakala, lokakala, vigyaan aur raajaneeti tatha samasaamayik saamaajik sthiti tatha reeti-neeti tak faila hua tha. unki abhiruchi aur soch ko gadhne mein spasht hi is vistrut patabhoomi ka pramukh haath tha aur iska parichay unke lekhan ki vishyavastu aur unke drushtikon mein baraabar milta rahata hai.

pan. chandradhar sharma guleri ke saath ek bahut badi vidambana yeh hai ki unke adhyayan, gyaan aur ruchi ka kshetr haalaaainki behad vistrut tha aur unki pratibha ka prasaar bhi anek krutiyon, krutiroopon aur vidhaaon mein hua tha, kintu aam hindi paathak hi naheen, vidvaanon ka ek bada varg bhi unhein amar kahaani 'usane kaha tha' ke rachanaakaar ke roop mein hi pahachaanata hai. is kahaani ki prakhar chaundh ne unke baaki vaividhya bhare sashakt kruti sansaar ko maano gras liya hai. unke prabal prashansak aur prakhar aalochak bhi amooman isi kahaani ko lekar ulajhate rahe hain. praacheen saahitya, sanskruti, hindi bhaasha samakaaleen samaaj, raajaneeti aadi vishyon se judi inki vidvata ka jikr yada-kada hota rahata hai, par 'kachhuaa dharam' aur 'maaresi mohi kuthaaooain' jaise ek do nibndhon aur puraani hindi jaisi lekhamaala ke ullekh ko chhodkar us vidvata ki baanagi aam paathak tak shaayad hi pahuainchi ho. vyaapak hindi samaaj unki prakaand vidvata aur sarjanaatmak pratibha se lagbhag anajaan hai.

apne 39 varsh ke sankshipt jeevanakaal mein guleri ji ne kisi svatantr granth ki rachana to naheen ki kintu futakar roop mein bahut likha, anginat vishyon par likha aur anek vidhaaon ki visheshataaon aur roopon ko sametate-samanjit karte hue likha. unke lekhan ka ek bada hissa jahaaain vishuddh academic athva shodhaparak hai, unki shaastrajnyaata tatha paanditya ka parichaayak hai; vaheen, usase bhi bada hissa unke khule dimaag, maanavataavaadi drushti aur samakaaleen samaaj, dharm raajaneeti aadi se gahan sarokaar ka parichay deta hai. lok se yeh sarokaar unki 'puraani hindi' jaisi academic aur 'maharshi chyavan ka raamaayan' jaisi shodhaparak rachanaaon tak mein dikhaai deta hai. in baaton ke atirikt guleri ji ke vichaaron ki aadhunikta bhi hamse aaj unke puraavishkaar ki maaaing karti hai.

maatr 39 varsh ki jeevan-avadhi ko dekhte hue guleri ji ke lekhan ka parimaan aur unki vishay-vastu tatha vidhaaon ka vaividhya sachmuch vismayakar hai. unki rachanaaon mein kahaaniyaaain kathaaeain, aakhyaan, lalit nibndh, gambheer vishyon par vivechanaatmak nibndh, shodhapatr, sameekshaaeain, sampaadakeeya tippaniyaaain, patra vidha mein likhi tippaniyaaain, samakaaleen saahitya, samaaj, raajaneeti, dharm, vigyaan, kala aadi par lekh tatha vaktavya, vaidik/pauraanik saahitya, puraatattv, bhaasha aadi par prabandh, lekh tatha tippaniyaaain-sabhi shaamil hain.

vishay-vastu ki vyaapakata ki drushti se guleri ji ka lekhan dharm puraatattv, itihaas aur bhaashaashaastr jaise gambheer vishyon se lekar kaashi ki neend jaise halake-fulake vishyon tak ko samaan bhaav se sametata hai. vishyon ka itna vaividhya lekhak ke adhyayan, abhiruchi aur gyaan ke vistaar ki gavaahi deta hai, to har vishay par itni gaharaai se samakaaleen pariprekshya mein vichaar apne samay aur nae vichaaron ke prati usaki sajagata ko rekhaankit karta hai. raaj jyotishi ke parivaar mein janme, hindu dharm ke tamaam karmakaandon mein vidhivt Dixit, tripundadhaari nishthaavaan braahman ki chhavi se yeh roodhibhanjak yathaarth shaayad mel naheen khaata, magar us saamaajik-raajaneetik-saahityik uttejana ke kaal mein unka pratigaami rudhiyon ke khilaaf aavaaj uthaana svaabhaavik hi tha. yeh yaad rakhana zaroori hai ki ve roodhiyon ke virodh ke naam par keval aaainkh mooaindakar talavaar naheen bhaaainjate. khandan ke saath hi ve uchit aur upayukt ka mandan bhi karte hain. kintu dharm, samaaj, raajaneeti aur saahitya mein unhein jahaaain kaheen bhi paakhand ya anauchitya nazar aata hai, us par ve jamkar prahaar karte hain. is kram mein unki vaichaarik paaradarshita, gaharaai aur dooradarshita isi baat se siddh hai ki unke uthaae hue adhiktar mudde aur unki aalochna aaj bhi praasangik hain.

unke lekhan ki rochakata usaki praasangikta ke atirikt usaki prastuti ki anokhi bhangima mein bhi nihit hai. us yug ke kai anya nibndhakaaron ki tarah guleri ji ke lekhan mein bhi masti tatha vinod bhaav ek antardhaara lagaataar pravaahit hoti rahati hai. dharmasiddhaant, adhyaatm aadi jaise kuchh ek gambheer vishyon ko chhodkar lagbhag har vishay ke lekhan mein yeh vinod bhaav prasangon ke chunaav mein bhaasha ke muhaavaron mein uddharanon aur uktiyon mein baraabar jhankrut rahata hai. jahaaain aalochna kuchh adhik bhedak hoti hai, vahaaain yeh vinod vyangya mein badal jaata hai-jaise shiksha, saamaajik, roodhiyon tatha raajaneeti sambandhi lekhon mein isse guleri ji ki rachanaaeain kabhi gudagudaakar, kabhi jhakajhorakar paathak ki ruchi ko baaaindhe rahati hain.

bhaasha-shaili

guleri ji ki shaili mukhyat: vaartaalaap ki shaili hai jahaaain ve kissaabayaani ke lahaje mein maano seedhe paathak se mukhaatib hote hain. yeh saahityik bhaasha ke roop mein khadi boli ko sainvarane ka kaal tha. at: shabdaavali aur prayogon ke star par saamarasya aur parimaarjan ki kaheen-kaheen kami bhi nazar aati hai. kaheen ve 'prushni', 'klrupti' aur 'aagmeeghr' jaise aprachalit sanskrut shabdon ka prayog karte hain to kaheen 'ber', 'bichhoda' aur 'paind' jaise theth lokabhaasha ke shabdon ka. angreji arabi-faarasi aadi ke shabd hi naheen poore-ke-poore muhaavare bhi unke lekhan mein tatsam ya anoodit roop mein chale aate hain. par bhaasha ke is mile-jule roop aur baatcheet ke lahaje se unke lekhan mein ek anaupachaarikta aur aatmeeyata bhi aa gayi hai. haaain guleri ji apne lekhan mein uddharan aur udaaharan bahut dete hain. in uddharanon aur udaaharanon se aamtaur par unka kathya aur adhik spasht tatha rochak ho uthata hai par kai jagah yeh paathak se udaaharan ki prushthabhoomi aur prasang ke gyaan ki maaaing bhi karta hai aam paathak se praacheen bhaarateeya vaaङamaya, pashchimi saahitya, itihaas aadi ke itne gyaan ki apeksha karna hi galat hai. isliye yeh atirikt 'prasangagarbhatv' unke lekhan ke sahaj rasaasvaad mein kaheen-kaheen avashya hi baadhak hota hai.

baharahaal guleri ji ki abhivyakti mein kaheen bhi jo bhi kamiyaaain rahi hon, hindi bhaasha aur shabdaavali ke vikaas mein unke sakaaraatmak yogadaan ki upeksha naheen ki ja sakti. ve khadi boli ka prayog anek vishyon aur anek prasangon mein kar rahe the-shaayad kisi bhi anya samakaaleen vidvaan se kaheen badhkar. saahitya puraan-prasang itihaas, vigyaan, bhaashaavijnyaaan, puraatattv, dharm, darshan, raajaneeti, samaajashaastr aadi anek vishyon ki vaahak unki bhaasha svaabhaavik roop se hi anek prayuktiyon aur shailiyon ke liye gunjaaish bana rahi thi. vah vibhinn vishyon ko abhivyakt karne mein hindi ki sakshamata ka jeevant pramaan hai. har sandarbh mein unki bhaasha aatmeeya tatha sajeev rahati hai, bhale hi kaheen-kaheen vah adhik jatil ya adhik halaki kyon na ho jaati ho. guleri ji ki bhaasha aur shaili unke vichaaron ki abhivyakti ka maadhyam maatr naheen thi. vah yug-sandhi par khade ek viveki maanas ka aur us yug ki maanasikta ka bhi praamaanik dastaavej hai. isi or ingit karte hue pro॰ naamavar Singh ka bhi kehna hai, ''guleri ji hindi mein sirf ek naya gadya ya nayi shaili naheen gadh rahe the balki ve vastut: ek nayi chetna ka nirmaan kar rahe the aur yeh naya gadya nayi chetna ka sarjanaatmak saadhan hai.''

aaj ke yug mein guleri ji ki praasangikta

apne aur aadhunikta' samakaaleen saamaajik, raajaneetik aur dhaarmik sthitiyon se unke gambheer judaav aur inse sambaddh unke chintan tatha pratikriyaaon mein spasht hoti hai. unka sarokaar apne samay ke keval bhaashik aur saahityik aandolanon se hi naheen, us yug ke jeevan ke har paksh se tha. kisi bhi prasang mein jo sthiti unke maanas ko aakarshit ya uttejit karti thi, us par tippani kiye bagair ve rah naheen paate the. ye tippaniyaaain unke sarokaaron, kushaagrata aur najriye ke khulepan ki gavaahi deti hain. anek prasangon mein galeri ji apne samay se itna aage the ki unki tippaniyaaain aaj bhi hamein apne chaaron or dekhne aur sochane ko majboor karti hain.

'kheloge koodoge hoge kharaab' ki maanyata vaale yug mein guleri ji khel ko shiksha ka sashakt maadhyam maanate the. baal-vivaah ke virodh aur stri-shiksha ke samarthan ke saath hi aaj se sau saal pehle unhonne baalak-baalikaaon ke svasth chaaritrik vikaas ke liye sahashiksha ko aavashyak maana tha. ye sab aaj ham shahari janon ko itihaas ke rochak prasang lag sakte hain kintu poore desh ke sandarbh mein, yahaaain faile ashiksha aur andhavishvaas ke maahaul mein guleri ji ki baatein aaj bhi sangat aur vichaaraneeya hain. bhaaratavaasiyon ki kamajoriyaaain ka ve lagaataar zikr karte rahate hain-visheshakar saamaajik raajaneetik sandarbhon mein. hamaare adh:patan ka ek kaaran aapasi foot hai-''yeh mahaadveep ek doosare ko kaatne ko daudti hui billiyon ka pitaara hai'' (dinaamineshan college : 1904) jaati-vyavastha bhi hamaari bahut badi kamajori hai. guleri ji sabse man ki sankeernata tyaagakar us bhavya karmakshetr mein aane ka aahvaan karte hain jahaaain saamaajik jaati bhed naheen, maanasik jaati bhed naheen aur jahaaain jaati bhed hai to kaarya vyavastha ke hit (varn vishyak katipya vichaar : 1920). chhuaachhoot ko ve sanaatan dharm ke viruddh maanate hain. arthaheen karmakaandon aur jyotish se jude andhavishvaason ka ve jagah-jagah joradaar khandan karte hain. keval shaastramoolak dharm ko ve baahyadharm maanate hain aur dharm ko karmakaand se na jodkar itihaas aur samaajashaastr se jodte hain. dharm ka arth unke liye ''saarvajanik preetibhaav hai'' ''jo saampradaayik irshya-dvesh ko bura maanata hai'' (shri bhaaratavarsh mahaamandal rahasya : 1906). unke anusaar udaarata sauhaard aur maanavataavaad hi dharm ke praanatattv hote hain aur is tathya ki pehchaan behad zaroori hai-''aajkal vah udaar dharm chaahiye jo hindu, sikkh, jain, paarasi, musalmaan, krustaan sabko ek bhaav se chalaavai aur inmein biraadari ka bhaav paida kare, kintu sankeern dharmashiksha...(aadi) hamaari beech ki khaai ko aur bhi chaudi banaaeainge.'' (dinaamineshanal college : 1904). dharm ko guleri ji baraabar karmakaand naheen balki aachaar-vichaar, lok-kalyaan aur jan-seva se jodte rahe.

baahari kadiyaaain