chaitanya mahaaprabhu

shri chaitanya mahaaprabhu
yug 15veen shataabdi
kshetr Bhaarat

chaitanya mahaaprabhu (18 February, 1486-1534) vaishnav dharm ke bhakti yog ke param prachaarak evam bhaktikaal ke pramukh kaviyon mein se ek hain. inhonne vaishnavon ke gaudeeya sanpradaaya ki aadhaarashila rakhi, bhajan gaayaki ki ek nayi shaili ko janm diya tatha raajanaitik asthirta ke dinon mein hindu-muslim ekta ki sadbhaavana ko bal diya, jaati-paant, oonch-neech ki bhaavana ko door karne ki shiksha di tatha vilupt vrundaavan ko fir se basaaya aur apne jeevan ka antim bhaag vaheen vyateet kiya. unke dvaara praarambh kiye gaye mahaamantr naam sankeertan ka atyant vyaapak va sakaaraatmak prabhaav aaj pashchimi jagat tak mein hai. yeh bhi kaha jaata hai, ki yadi gauraang na hote to vrundaavan aaj tak ek mithk hi hota.[1] vaishnav log to inhein shriKrishna ka raadha raani ke sanyog ka avataar maanate hain.[2][3][4] gauraang ke oopar bahut se granth likhe gaye hain, jinmein se pramukh hai shri krushnadaas kaviraaj Goswami virchit chaitanya charitaamrut. iske alaava shri vrundaavan das thaakur rachit chaitanya Bhagwat[5] tatha lochanadaas thaakur ka chaitanya mangal bhi hain.[6]

anukram

janm tatha praarambhik jeevan

chaitanya charitaamrut ke anusaar chaitanya mahaaprabhu ka janm san 1486 ki faalgun shukla poornima ko pashchim Bengal ke navadveep (Nadia) naamak gaanv mein hua,[2] jise ab maayaapur kaha jaata hai. inka janm sandhyaakaal mein Singh lagn mein chandra grahan ke samay hua tha. us samay bahut se log shuddhi ki kaamna se harinaam japate hue ganga snaan ko ja rahe the. tab vidvaan braahmanon ne unki janmakundali ke grahon aur us samay upasthit shagun ka falaadesh karte hue yeh bhavishyavaani ki, ki yeh baalak jeevan paryant harinaam ka prachaar karega.[2] yadyapi baalyaavastha mein inka naam vishvanbhar tha, parantu sabhi inhein nimaai kehkar pukaarate the, kyonki kehte hain, ki ye neem ke ped ke neeche mile the. gauravarn ka hone ke kaaran log inhein gauraang, gaur hari, gaur sundar aadi bhi kehte the.

inke pita ka naam jagannaath mishr va maan ka naam shachi devi tha.[2] nimaai bachapan se hi vilkshan pratibha sampann the. saath hi, atyant saral, sundar va bhaavuk bhi the. inke dvaara ki gayi leelaaon ko dekhkar har koi hataprabh ho jaata tha. bahut kam aayu mein hi nimaai nyaaya va vyaakaran mein paarangat ho gaye the. inhonne kuchh samay tak Nadia mein school sthaapit karke adhyaapan kaarya bhi kiya. nimaai baalyaavastha se hi bhagavadchintan mein leen rahakar Ram va Krishna ka stuti gaan karne lage the. 15-16 varsh ki avastha mein inka vivaah lakshmeepriya ke saath hua. san 1505 mein sarp dansh se patni ki mrutyu ho gayi. vansh chalaane ki vivshata ke kaaran inka doosra vivaah navadveep ke raajapandit sanaatan ki putri vishnupriya ke saath hua. jab ye kishoraavastha mein the, tabhi inke pita ka nidhan ho gaya.[7]

dhaarmik deeksha

w:Chaitanya w:Nityananda w:Advaita Acharya w:Gadadhara w:Srivasa Thakura चरण कमलों पर क्लिक करें
yeh ek intaraiktiv klik yogya chitr hai, dekhne hetu charan kamalon par klik karein. madhya mein shri Krishna chaitanya (madhya), shri nityaanand prabhu (neele vastr mein), shri advaitaachaarya (daadi vaale), shri gadaadhar pandit (parpaladhoteemein), shri shreevaas pandit (kesariya dhoti evam sir munda hua) shobhit hain. panch tattv vibhootiyaaain: chaitanya mahaaprabhu, nityaanand, advaitaachaarya, gadaadhar evam shreevaas, vaishnav vedi par sthaapit hain

san 1509 mein jab ye apne pita ka shraaddh karne gaya gaye, tab vahaan inki bheint ishvarapuri naamak sant se hui. unhonne nimaai se Krishna-Krishna ratane ko kaha. tabhi se inka saara jeevan badal gaya aur ye har samay Bhagwan shreekrushn ki bhakti mein leen rahane lage. Bhagwan shreekrushn ke prati inki ananya nishtha va vishvaas ke kaaran inke asankhya anuyaayi ho gaye. sarvapratham nityaanand prabhu va advaitaachaarya mahaaraaj inke shishya bane. in donon ne nimaai ke bhakti aandolan ko teevr gati pradaan ki. inhonne apne in donon shishyon ke sahayog se dholak, mrudang, jhaaainjh, manjeere aadi vaadya yantr bajaakar va uchch svar mein naach-gaakar hari naam sankeertan karna praarambh kiya.

hare-Krishna, hare-Krishna, Krishna-Krishna, hare-hare. hare-Ram, hare-Ram, Ram-Ram, hare-hare.

gauraang ki maayaapur mein ek mandir mein sthit pratima

yeh athaarah shabdeeya (32 akshareeya) keertan mahaamantr nimaai ki hi den hai. ise taarakabrahmamahaamantr kaha gaya, va kaliyug mein jeevaatmaaon ke uddhaar hetu prachaarit kiya gaya tha.[2] jab ye keertan karte the, to lagta tha maano ishvar ka aahvaan kar rahe hain. san 1510 mein sant pravar shri paad keshav bhaarati se sannyaas ki deeksha lene ke baad nimaai ka naam Krishna chaitanya Dave ho gaya. maatr 24 varsh ki aayu mein hi inhonne gruhasth aashram ka tyaag kar sanyaas grahan kiya.[2] baad mein ye chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke naam se prakhyaat hue. sanyaas lene ke baad jab gauraang pehli baar jagannaath mandir pahunche, tab Bhagwan ki moorti dekhkar ye itne bhaav-vibhor ho gaye, ki unmatt hokar nrutya karne lage, va moorhit ho gaye.[2] sanyog se tab vahaan upasthit prakaand pandit saarvabhaum Bhattacharya mahaaprabhu ki prem-bhakti se prabhaavit hokar unhein apne ghar le gaye. ghar par shaastr-charcha aarambh hui, jismein saarvabhaum apne paanditya ka pradarshan karne lage, tab shreegauraang ne bhakti ka mahattv gyaan se kaheen oopar siddh kiya va unhein apne shadbhujaroopaka darshan karaaya. saarvabhaum tabhi se gauraang mahaaprabhu ke shishya ho gaye aur vah ant samay tak unke saath rahe. pandit saarvabhaum Bhattacharya ne gauraank ki shat-shloki stuti rachi jise aaj chaitanya shatak naam se jaana jaata hai.[2]udeesa ke sooryavanshi samraat, gajapati mahaaraaj prataap rudradev ne inhein shriKrishna ka avataar maana aur inka ananya bhakt ban gaya.[8]

chaitanya mahaaprabhu sannyaas lene ke baad neelaanchal chale gaye. iske baad dakshin Bhaarat ke shreerang kshetr va setu bandh aadi sthaanon par bhi rahe. inhonne desh ke kone-kone mein jaakar harinaam ki mahatta ka prachaar kiya. san 1515 mein vijyaadashami ke din vrundaavan ke liye prasthaan kiya. ye van ke raaste hi vrundaavan ko chale. kehte hain, ki inke harinaam uchchaaran se unmatt ho kar jungle ke jaanavar bhi inke saath naachane lagte the. bade bade jangali jaanavar jaise sher, baagh aur haathi aadi bhi inke aage natamastak ho premabhaav se nrutya karte chalte the. kaartik poornima ko ye vrundaavan pahunche.[2] vrundaavan mein aaj bhi kaartik poornima ke din gauraang ka aagamanotsav manaaya jaata hai. yahaan inhonne imali tala aur akroor ghaat par nivaas kiya. vrundaavan mein rahakar inhonne praacheen shreedhaam vrundaavan ki mahatta pratipaadit kar logon ki supt bhakti bhaavana ko jaagrut kiya. yahaan se fir ye prayaag chale gaye. inhonne kaashi, haridvaar, shrungeri (Karnataka), kaamakoti peeth (Tamil Nadu), dvaarika, Mathura aadi sthaanon par rahakar bhagavadnaam sankeertan ka prachaar-prasaar kiya. chaitanya mahaaprabhu ne apne jeevan ke antim varsh jagannaath puri mein rahakar bitaaen. yaheen par san 1533 mein 47 varsh ki alpaayu mein rathayaatra ke din unhonne shreekrushn ke param dhaam ko prasthaan kiya.

viraasat

chitr:Gaura nitai radhadesh.jpg
chaitanya mahaaprabhu (daaen) evam nityaanand (baayein) ki Belgium mein raadhaadesh sthit moortiyaaain.

chaitanya mahaaprabhu ne logon ki aseem lokapriyta aur sneh praapt kiya kehte hain ki unki adbhut bhagavadbhakti dekhkar jagannaath puri ke raaja tak unke shreecharanon mein nat ho jaate the. Bengal ke ek shaasak ke mantri roopagosvaami to mantri pad tyaagakar chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke sharanaagat ho gaye the. unhonne kushth rogiyon va daliton aadi ko apne gale lagaakar unki ananya seva ki. ve sadaiv hindu-muslim ekta ka sandesh dete rahe. saath hi, unhonne logon ko paarasparik sadbhaavana jaagrut karne ki prerana di. vastut: unhonne jaatigt bhedabhaav se oopar uthakar samaaj ko maanavata ke sootr mein piroya aur bhakti ka amrut pilaaya. ve gaudeeya sanpradaaya ke pratham aachaarya maane jaate hain. unke dvaara kai granth bhi rache gaye. kintu aaj ek shikshaashtak ke sivaaya anya koi granth upalabdh naheen hai. unhonne sanskrut bhaasha mein bhi tamaam rachanaaen keen. unka maarg prem va bhakti ka tha. ve naarad ji ki bhakti se atyant prabhaavit the, kyonki naarad ji sadaiv 'Narayan-Narayan` japate rahate the.

unhonne vishv maanav ko ek sootr mein pirote hue yeh samajhaaya ki ishvar ek hai. unhonne logon ko yeh mukti sootr bhi diya-

Krishna keshav, Krishna keshav, Krishna keshav, paahiyaam. Ram raaghav, Ram raaghav, Ram raaghav, rakshayaam.

shangosvaami

hindu dharm mein naam-jap ko hi vaishnav dharm maana gaya hai aur Bhagwan shreekrushn ko pradhaanata di gayi hai. chaitanya ne inheen ki upaasana ki aur navadveep se apne chh: pramukh anuyaayiyon ko vrundaavan bhejkar vahaan sapt devaalayon ki aadhaarashila rakhavaai. gauraang ne jis gaudeeya sanpradaaya ki sthaapana ki thi. usamein shadgosvaamiyon ki atyant aham bhoomika rahi. in sabhi ne bhakti aandolan ko vyavahaarik svaroop pradaan kiya. saath hi vrundaavan ke sapt devaalayon ke maadhyam se vishv mein aadhyaatmik chetna ka prasaar kiya. rasik kavi kul chakr choodaamani shri jeev Goswami maharaaj shangosvaami ganon mein anyatam the. unhonne paramaarthik ni:svaarth pravrutti se yukt hokar seva va jan kalyaan ke jo anekaanek kaarya kiye vah stutya hain. chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke siddhaant anusaar hari-naam mein ruchi, jeev maatr par daya evam vaishnavon ki seva karna unke svabhaav mein tha. vah maatr 20 varsh ki aayu mein hi sab kuchh tyaag kar vrundaavan mein akhand vaas karne aa gaye the. ye shadgosvaami the:

  • shri gopaal bhatt Goswami, bahut kam aayu mein hi gauraang ki krupa se yahaan aa gaye the. dakshin Bhaarat ka bhraman karte hue gauraang chaar maah inke ghar par thahare the. baad mein inhonne gauraang ke naam sankeertan mein pravesh kiya.[9]
  • shri raghunaath bhatt Goswami, sada hare Krishna ka anvarat jaap karte rahate the aur shreemad Bhagwat ka paath niyam se karte the. raadha kund ke tat par nivaas karte hue, pratidin Bhagwat ka meetha paath sthaaneeya logon ko sunaate the aur itne bhaavavibhor ho jaate the, ki unke premaashruon se Bhagwat ke panne bhi bheeg jaate the.[10]
  • shri roop Goswami (14931564), ka janm 1493 E (tadanusaar 1415 shak.san.) ko hua tha. inhonne 22 varsh ki aayu mein gruhasthaashram tyaag kar diya tha. baad ke 51 varsh ye braj mein hi rahe.[11]
  • shri sanaatan Goswami (1488-1558), chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke pramukh shishya the. unhone gaudeeya vaishnav bhakti sampradaaya ki anekon granthonki rachana ki. apne bhaai roop Goswami sahit vrundaavan ke chh: prabhaavashaali gosvaamiyon mein ve sabse jyeshth the.
  • shri jeev Goswami(1533-1540), ka janm shri vallabh anupam ke yahaan 1533 i0(tad.1455 shak. bhaadrapad shukl dvaadashi ko hua tha. shri jeev ke chehare par suvarn aabha thi, inki aankhein kamal ke samaan theen, va inke ang-pratyang mein chamak niklati thi. shri roop Goswami ne inhein shreemadbhaagvat ka paath karaaya. aur antat: ye vrundaavan pahunche. vahaan inhonne ek mandir bhi banavaaya.[12]
  • shri raghunaath das Goswami, ne yuva aayu mein hi gruhasthi ka tyaag kiya aur gauraang ke saath ho liye the. ye chaitanya ke sachiv svaroop Damodar ke niji sahaayak rahe. unke sang hi inhonne gauraang ke pruthvi par antim dinon mein darshan bhi kiye.[13]

inhonne vrundaavan mein saat vaishnav mandiron ki sthaapana ki. ve is prakaar hain:-govindadev mandir, gopeenaath mandir, madan mohan mandir, raadha raman mandir, raadha Damodar mandir, raadha shyaamasundar mandir aur gokulaanand mandir. inhein saptadevaalaya kaha jaata hai.

adhyaatm

log chaitanya ko Bhagwan shreekrushn ka avataar maanate hain. iske kuchh sandarbh praacheen hindu granthon mein bhi milte hain.[2] shri gauraang avataar ki shreshthata ke pratipaadak anek granth hain. inmein shri chaitanya charitaamrut, shri chaitanya Bhagwat, shri chaitanya mangal, amiya nimaai charit aur chaitanya shatak, aadi vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain. gauraang ki stuti mein anek mahaakaavya bhi likhe gaye hain.

inka likha koi granth ya paath naheen upalabdh hai. maatr aath shlok hi upalabdh hain.[14] ise shikshaashtak kehte hain. kintu gauraang ke vichaaron ko shreekrushnadaas ne 'chaitanya-charitaamrut mein sankalit kiya hai. baad mein bhi samay samay par roop jeev aur sanaatan gosvaamiyon ne apne-apne granthon mein chaitanya-charit-prakaash kiya hai. inke vichaaron ka saar yeh hai ki:-

shreekrushn hi ekamaatr Dave hain. ve moortimaan saundarya hain, premaparak hai. unki teen shaktiyaaain- param brahm shakti, maaya shakti aur vilaas shakti hain. vilaas shaktiyaaain do prakaar ki hain- ek hai praabhav vilaas-jiske maadhyam se shreekrushn ek se anek hokar gopiyon se kreeda karte hain. doosari hai vaibhav-vilaas- jiske dvaara shreekrushn chaturvyooh ka roop dhaaran karte hai. chaitanya mat ke vyooh-siddhaant ka aadhaar prem aur leela hai. golok mein shreekrushn ki leela shaashvat hai. prem unki mool shakti hai aur vahi aanand ka kaaran hai. yahi prem bhakt ke chitt mein sthit hokar mahaabhaav ban jaata hai. yeh mahaabhaav hi raadha hai. raadha hi Krishna ke sarvochch prem ka aalamban hain. vahi unke prem ki aadarsh pratima hai. gopi-Krishna-leela prem ka pratifl hai.[14]

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "gaudeeya sanpradaaya ke pravartak" (hindi mein) (echateeem). amar ujaala. 21. http://www.amarujala.com/Dharam/default1.asp?foldername=20060316&sid=1.
  2. a aa i E u oo A ai O au dau॰aaatul tandan. "bhagavannaam ke amar prachaarak chaitanya mahaaprabhu" (hindi mein) (echateeem). Yahoo jaagaran. http://in.jagran.yahoo.com/dharm/?page=article&articleid=3400&category=12.
  3. "brahm-maadhav gaudeeya mat satr" (angreji mein) (echateeem). http://www.stephen-knapp.com/Brahma_Madhva_Gaudiya_Disciplic_Succession.htm. ""Sri Krishna is so maddened by it that He accepts the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who descends in the mood of Radharani""
  4. "brahm-maadhav gaudeeya mat satr" (angreji mein) (echateeem). shreemadbhaagdat. pp. 11.5.32. http://srimadbhagavatam.com/11/5/32/en1. ""In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.""
  5. gaudeeya saahitya
  6. shri lochanadaas thaakur ki jeevani (shaalaagraam.net par)
  7. "gaudeeya sanpradaaya ke pravartak" (eesapi). amar ujaala. http://www.amarujala.com/dharam/default1.asp?foldername=20060316&sid=1. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  8. gaudeeya vaishnav "His magnetism attracted men of great learning such as Säarvabhauma Bhattäachäarya, the greatest authority on logic, and Shree Advaita Äaachäaarya, leader of the Vaishnavas in Bengal, and men of power and wealth like the King of Orissa, Pratapa Rudra and his bräahman minister, Räamäananda Räaya..."
  9. shri chaitanya charitaamrutam, aadi-leela, 10.105
  10. shri chaitanya charitaamrutam, aadi-leela, 101.152-158
  11. shri chaitanya charitaamrutam, aadi-leela, 10.84; madhya leela adhyaaya-19; antya leela adhyaaya-1
  12. shri chaitanya charitaamrutam, aadi-leela, 10.85
  13. shri chaitanya charitaamrutam, aadi-leela, 10.91-103 evam antya-leela adhyaaya 6
  14. a aa raman, revati (23) (hindi mein). jaateeya manobhoomi ki talaash. bhaarateeya jnyaaanapeeth. pp. 192. 713. http://vrihad.com:5200/bs/home.php?bookid=713.

baahari kadiyaaain