chaarvaak darshan

chaarvaak darshan ek bhautikvaadi naastik darshan hai. yeh maatr pratyaksh pramaan ko maanata hai tatha paaralaukik sattaaon ko yeh siddhaant sveekaar naheen karta hai. yeh darshan vedabaahya bhi kaha jaata hai.

vedavaahya darshan chh: hain- chaarvaak, maadhyamik, yogaachaar, sautraantik, vaibhaashik, aur aarhat. in sabhi mein ved se asammat siddhaanton ka pratipaadan hai.

chaarvaak praacheen Bhaarat ke ek aneeshvaravaadi aur naastik taarkik the. ye naastik mat ke pravartak vruhaspati ke shishya maane jaate hain. bruhaspati aur chaarvaak kab hue iska kuchh bhi pata naheen hai. bruhaspati ko chaanakya ne apne arthashaastr granth mein arthashaastr ka ek pradhaan aachaarya maana hai.

anukram

parichay

chaarvaak ka naam sunate hi aapko 'yada jeevet sukhan jeevet, rin krutva, ghrutan peevet' (jab tak jeevo sukh se jeevo, udhaar lo aur ghi peeyo) ki yaad aaegi. 'chaarvaak' naam ko hi ghrunaaspad gaali ki tarah badal diya gaya hai. maanon is siddhaant ko maanane vaale sirf karjakhor, bhogavaadi aur patit log the. prachalit dhaarana yahi hai ki chaarvaak shabd ki utpati 'chaaru'+'vaak' (meethi boli bolne vaale) se hui hai. jaahir hai ki yeh naamakaran is siddhaant ke un virodhiyon dvaara kiya gaya hai ki jinka maanana tha ki yeh log meethi-meethi baaton se bhole-bhale logon ko bahakaate the. chaarvaak siddhaanton ke liye bauddh pitkon tak mein 'lokaayat' shabd ka prayog kiya jaata hai jiska matlab 'darshan ki vah pranaali hai jo jo is lok mein vishvaas karti hai aur svarg, narak athva mukti ki avadhaarana mein vishvaas naheen rakhati'. chaarvaak ya lokaayat darshan ka zikr to mahaabhaarat mein bhi milta hai lekin iska koi bhi mool granth upalabdh naheen. jaahir hai ki choonki yeh apne samay ki sattaadhaari taakaton ke khilaaf baat karta tha, to iske granthon ko nasht kar diya gaya aur prachalit kathaaon mein chaarvaakon ko khalanaayakon ki tarah pesh kiya gaya.

sarvadarshanasangrah mein chaarvaak ka mat diya hua milta hai. padmapuraan mein likha hai ki asuron ko bahakaane ke liye bruhaspati ne vedaviruddh mat prakat kiya tha. naastik mat ke sanbadh mein vishnupuraan mein likha hai ki jab dharmabal se daitya bahut prabal hue tab devataaon ne vishnu ke yahaaain pukaar ki. vishnu ne apne shareer se maayaamoh naamak ek purush utpann kiya jisne narmada tat par digbanr roop mein jaakar tap karte hue asuron ko bahakaakar dharmamaarg me bhrasht kiya. maayaamoh ne apuron ko jo upadesh kiya vah sarvadarshanasangrah mein diye hue chaarvaak mat ke shlokon se bilkul milta hai. jaise, - maayaamoh ne kaha hai ki yadi yagya mein maara hua pashu svarg jaata hai to yajamaan apne pita ko kyon naheen maar daalata, ityaadi. lingapuraan mein tripuravinaash ke prasang mein bhi shivprerit ek diganbar muni dvaara asuron ke isi prakaar bahakaae jaane ki katha likhi hai jiska lakshya jainon par jaan padta hai. vaalmeeki raamaayan ayodhya kaandamein maharshi jaavaali ne raamachandr ko banabaam chhod ayodhya laut jaane ke liye jo upadesh diya hai vah bhi chaarvaak ke mat se bilkul milta hai. in sab baaton se siddh hota hai ki naastik mat bahut praacheen hai. iska avirbhaav usi samay me samajhna chaahiye jav vaidik karmakaandon ki adhikta logon ko kuchh khatakane lagi thi.

chaarvaak ishvar aur paralok naheen maanate. paralok na maanane ke kaaran hi inke darshan ko lokaayat bhi kehte hain. sarvadarshanasangrah mein chaarvaak ke mat se sukh hi is jeevan ka pradhaan lakshya hai. sansaar mein du:kh bhi hai, yeh samajhakar jo sukh naheen bhogana chaahate, ve moorkh hain. machhali mein kaaainte hote hain to kya isse koi machhali hi na khaaya ? chaupaae khet par jaayainge, is dar se kya koi khet hi na bove ? ityaadi. chaarvaak aatma ko pruthak koi padaarth naheen maanate. unke mat se jis prakaar gud, tandul aadi ke sanyog se madya mein maadakata utpann ho jaati hai usi prakaar pruthvi, jal, tej aur vaayu in chaar bhooton ke sanyogavishesh se chetanata utpann ho jaati hai. inke vishleshan ya vinaash se 'main' arthaat chetanata ka bhi naash ho jaata hai. is chetan shareer ke naam ke peechhe fir punaraagaman aadi naheen hota. ishvar, paralok aadi vishay anumaan ke aadhaar par hain.

par chaarvaak pratyaksh ko chhodkar anumaan ko pramaan mein naheen lete. unka tark hai ki anumaan vyaaptijnyaaan ka aashrit hai. jo gyaan hamein baahar indriyon ke dvaara hota hai use bhoot aur bhavishya tak badhaakar le jaane ka naam vyaaptijnyaaan hai, jo asambhav hai. man mein yeh gyaan pratyaksh hota hai, yeh koi pramaan naheen kyonki man apne anubhav ke liye indriyon ka hi aashrit hai. yadi kaho ki anumaan ke dvaara vyaaptijnyaaan hota hai to itaretaraashraya dosh aata hai, kyonki vyaaptijnyaaan ko lekar hi to anumaan ko siddh kiya chaahate ho. chaarvaak ka mat sarvadarshanasangrah, sarvadarshanashiromani aur bruhaspatisootr mein dekhna chaahiye. naishadh ke 17vein sarg mein bhi is mat ka vistrut ullekh hai.

chaarvaak keval pratyakshavaadita ka samarthan karta hai, vah anumaan aadi pramaanon ko nahi maanata hai. uske mat se pruthvi jal tej aur vaayu ye chaar hi tatv hai, jinse sab kuchh bana hai. uske mat mein aakaash tatv ki sthiti nahi hai, inhi chaaron tatvon ke mel se yeh deh bani hai, inke vishesh prakaar ke sanyojan maatr se deh mein chaitanya utpann ho jaata hai, jisko log aatma kehte hai. shareer jab vinsht ho jaata hai, to chaitanya bhi khatm ho jaata hai. is prakaar se jeev in bhooto se utpann hokar inhi bhooto ke ke nasht hote hi samaapt ho jaata hai, aage peechhe iska koi mahatva nahi hai. isaliye jo chetan mein deh dikhaai deti hai vahi aatma ka roop hai, deh se atirikt aatma hone ka koi pramaan hi nahi milta hai. chaarvaak ke mat se stri putr aur apne kutumbiyon se milne aur unke dvaara diye jaane vaale sukh hi sukh kahalaate hai. unka aalingan karna hi purushaarth hai, sansaar mein khaana peena aur sukh se rahana chaahiye. is darshan mein kaha gaya hai, ki:-

yaavajjeevet sukhan jeeved rinan krutva ghrutan pivet, bhasmeebhootasya dehasya punaraagamanan kut: .

arth hai ki jab tak jeena chaahiye sukh se jeena chaahiye, agar apne paas saadhan nahi hai, to doosare se udhaar lekar mauj karna chaahiye, shamashaan mein shareer ke jalne ke baad shareer ko kisne vaapas aate dekha hai?

chaarvaak darshan ke anusaar pruthvi, jal, tej tatha vaayu ye chaar hi tattv srushti ke mool kaaran hain. jis prakaar bauddh usi prakaar chaarvaak ka bhi mat hai ki aakaash naamak koi tattv naheen hai. yeh shoonya maatr hai. apni aanavik avastha se sthool avastha mein aane par uparyukt chaar tattv hi baahya jagat, indriya athva deh ke roop mein drusht hote hain. aakaash ki vastvaatmak satta na maanane ke peechhe inki pramaan vyavastha kaaran hai. jis prakaar ham gandh, ras, roop aur sparsh ka pratyaksh anubhav karte hue unke samavaayiyon ka bhi tattat indriyon ke dvaara pratyaksh karte hain. aakaash tattv ka vaisa pratyaksh naheen hota. at: unke mat mein aakaash naamak tattv hai hi naheen. chaar mahaabhooton ka moolakaaran kya hai? is prashn ka uttar chaarvaakon ke paas naheen hai. yeh vishv akasmaat bhinn-bhinn roopon evam bhinn-bhinn maatraaon mein milne vaale chaar mahaabhooton ka sangrah ya sanghatt maatr hai.

aatma

chaarvaakon ke anusaar chaar mahaabhooton se atirikt aatma naamak koi anya padaarth naheen hai. chaitanya aatma ka gun hai. chooainki aatma naamak koi vastu hai hi naheen at: chaitanya shareer ka hi gun ya dharm siddh hota hai. arthaat yeh shareer hi aatma hai. iski siddhi ke teen prakaar hai- tark, anubhav aur aayurved shaastr.

tark se aatma ki siddhi ke liye chaarvaak log kehte hain ki shareer ke rahane par chaitanya rahata hai aur shareer ke na rahane par chaitanya naheen rahata. is anvaya vyatirek se shareer hi chaitanya ka aadhaar arthaat aatma siddh hota hai.

anubhav 'main sthool hooain', 'main durbal hooain', 'main gora hooain', 'main nishkriya hooain' ityaadi anubhav hamein pag-pag par hota hai. sthoolata durbalata ityaadi shareer ke dharm hain aur 'main' bhi vahi hai. at: shareer hi aatma hai.

aayurved jis prakaar gud, jau, mahuaa aadi ko mila dene se kaal kram ke anusaar us mishran mein madashakt utpann hoti hai, athva dahi peeli mitti aur gobar ke paraspar mishran se usamein bichhoo paida ho jaata hai athva paan, kattha, supaari aur choona mein laal rang na rahane par bhi unke mishran se muainh mein laalima utpann ho jaati hai usi prakaar chaturbhooton ke vishisht sammishran se chaitanya utpann ho jaata hai. kintu in bhooton ke vishisht maatra mein mishran ka kaaran kya hai? is prashn ka uttar chaarvaak ke paas svabhaavavaad ke atirikt kuchh naheen hai. ishvar-nyaaya aadi shaastron mein ishvar ki siddhi anumaan ya aapt vachan se ki jaati hai. chooainki chaarvaak pratyaksh aur keval pratyaksh pramaan ko maanata hai at: uske mat mein pratyaksh drushyamaan raaja hi ishvar hain vah apne raajya ka tatha usamein rahane waali praja ka niynta hota hai. at: use hi ishvar maanana chaahiye.

gyaan meemaansa

prameya arthaat vishay ka yathaarth gyaan arthaat prama ke liye pramaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai. chaarvaak lok keval pratyaksh pramaan maanate hain. vishay tatha indriya ke sannikaarsh se utpann gyaan pratyaksh gyaan kahalaata hai. hamaari indriyon ke dvaara pratyaksh dikhlaayi padne wala sansaar hi prameya hai. iske atirikt anya padaarth asat hai. aaainkh, kaan, naak, jihva aur tvacha ke dvaara roop shabd gandh ras evam sparsh ka pratyaksh ham sabko hota hai. jo vastu anubhavagamya naheen hoti uske liye kisi anya pramaan ki aavashyakta bhi naheen hoti. bauddh, jain naamak avaidik darshan tatha nyaayavaisheshik aadi arddhavaidik darshan anumaan ko bhi pramaan maanate hain. unka kehna hai ki samast prameya padaarthon ki satta keval pratyaksh pramaan se siddh naheen ki ja sakti. parantu chaarvaak ka kathan hai ki anumaan se keval sambhaavana paida ki ja sakti hai. nishchayaatmak gyaan pratyaksh se hi hota hain. doorasth hare bhare vrukshon ko dekhkar vahaaain pakshiyon ka kolaahal sunakar, udhar se aane waali hava ke thande jhoke se ham vahaaain paani ki sambhaavana maanate hain. jal ki upalabdhi vahaaain jaakar pratyaksh dekhne se hi nishchit hoti hai. at: sambhaavana utpann karne tatha lokavyavahaar chalaane ke liye anumaan aavashyak hota hai kintu vah pramaan naheen ho sakta. jis vyaapti ke aadhaar par anumaan pramaan ki satta maani jaati hai vah vyaapti ke atirikt kuchh naheen hai. dhoom ke saath agni ka, pushp ke saath gandh ka hona svabhaav hai. sukh aur dharm ka du:kh aur adharm ka kaaryakaaran bhaav svaabhaavik hai. jaise kokil ke shabd mein madhurata tatha kauve ke shabd mein karkashata svaabhaavik hai usi prakaar sarvatr samajhna chaahiye. jahaaain tak shabd pramaan ki baat hai to vah to ek prakaar se pratyaksh pramaan hi hai. aapt purush ke vachan hamako pratyaksh sunaayi dete hain. unako sunane se arth gyaan hota hai. yeh pratyaksh hi hai. jahaaain tak vedon ka prashn hai unke vaakya adrusht aur ashrutapoorn vishyon ka varnan karte hain at: unki vishvasaneeyata sandigdh hai. saath hi adharm aadi mein ashvaliङagagrahan sadrush lajjaaspad evam maansabhakshan sadrush ghrunaaspad kaarya karne se tatha jarbhari turfari aadi arthaheen shabdon ka prayog karne se ved apni apraamaanikta swayam siddh karte hain.

aachaar meemaansa

uparyukt vivran se yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki chaarvaak log is pratyaksh drushyamaan deh aur jagat ke atirikt kisi anya padaarth ko sveekaar naheen karte. dharm, arth, kaam aur moksh naamak purushaarthachatushtaya ko ve log purush arthaat manushya deh ke liye upayogi maanate hain. unki drushti mein arth aur kaam hi param purushaarth hai. dharm naam ki vastu ko maanana moorkhata hai kyonki jab is sansaar ke atirikt koi anya svarg aadi hai hi naheen to dharm ke fal ko svarg mein bhogane ki baat anargal hai. paakhandi dhoortton ke dvaara kapolakalpit svarg ka sukh bhogane ke liye yahaaain yagya aadi karna dharm naheen hai balki usamein ki jaane waali pashu hinsa aadi ke kaaran vah adharm hi hai tatha havan aadi karna tattd vastuon ka durupayog tatha vyarth shareer ko kasht dena hai isaliye jo kaarya shareer ko sukh pahuainchaaye usi ko karna chaahiye. jismein indriyon ki trupti ho man aandit ho vahi kaarya karna chaahiye. jinse indriyon ki trupti ho man aanandit ho unheen vishyon ka sevan karna chaahiye. shareer indriya man ko anandaaplaavit karne mein jo tattv baadhak hote hain unako door karna, na karna, maar dena dharm hai. shaareerik maanasik kasht sahana, vishyaanand se man aur shareer ko balaat virt karna adharm hai. taatparya yeh hai ki aastik vaidik evam yahaaain tak ki ardhavaidik darshanon mein, puraanon smrutiyon mein varnit aachaar ka paalan yadi shareer sukh ka saadhak hai to unka anusaran karna chaahiye aur yadi ve uske baadhak hote hain to unka sarvatha sarvada tyaag kar dena chaahiye.

moksh

chaarvaakon ki moksh ki kalpana bhi unke tattv meemaansa evam gyaan meemaansa ke prabhaav se poorn prabhaavit hai. jab tak shareer hai tab tak manushya naana prakaar ke kasht sahata hai. yahi narak hai. is kasht samooh se mukti tab milti hai jab deh chaitanyarahit ho jaata hai arthaat mar jaata hai. yeh marana hi moksh hai kyonki mrut shareer ko kisi bhi kasht ka anubhav mar jaata hai. yeh marana hi moksh hai kyonki mrut shareer ko kisi bhi kasht ka anubhav naheen hota. yadyapi anya darshanon mein aatma ke astitv ko sveekaar karte hue usi ke mukt hone ki charcha ki gayi hai aur moksh ka svaroop bhinn-bhinn darshanon mein bhinn-bhinn hai, tathaapi chaarvaak unki maanyata ko prashraya naheen dete. ve na to moksh ko nitya maanate hue sanmaatr maanate hain, na nitya maanate hue sat aur chit svaroop maanate hain na hi ve sachchidaanand svaroop mein usaki sthiti ko hi moksh sveekaar karte hain.

chaarvaak lokaayat

chaarvaak darshan vah darshan hai jo jan saamaanya mein svabhaavat: priya hai. jis darshan ke vaakya chaaru arthaat ruchikr hon vah chaarvaak darshan hai. sabhi shaastreeya gambheer vishyon ka vyaavahaarik evam laukik poorv paksh hi chaarvaak darshan hai. sahaj roop mein jo kuchh ham karte hain vah sab kuchh chaarvaak darshan ka aadhaar hai. chaarvaak darshan jeevan ke har paksh ko sahaj drushti se dekhta hai. jeevan ke prati yeh sahaj drushti hi chaarvaak darshan hai. vaastavikta to yeh hai ki, vishv ka har maanav jo jeevan jeeta hai vah chaarvaak darshan hi hai. aise vaakya aur siddhaant jo sabko ramaneeya lagein lok mein aayat ya vishrut aavashya honge. sambhavat: yahi kaaran hai ki ham chaarvaak darshan ko lokaayat darshan ke naam se bhi jaante hain. yeh darshan baarhaspatya darshan ke naam se bhi vidvaanon mein prasiddh hai. is naam se yeh prateet hota hai ki yeh darshan bruhaspati ke dvaara virchit hai.

chaarvaak darshan ke praneta bruhaspati

bruhaspati bhaarateeya samaaj mein devataaon ke guru ke roop mein maanya hain. parantu bhaarateeya saahitya mein bruhaspati ek naheen hain. chaarvaak darshan ke pravartak aachaarya bruhaspati kaun hain, yeh nirnaya kar paana atyant kathin kaarya hai. aaङaigras evam laukya roop mein do bruhaspatiyon ka samullekh rigved mein praapt hota hai. ashvaghosh ke anusaar aaङaigras bruhaspati raajashaastr ke praneta hain. laukya bruhaspati ke mat mein sat padaarth ki utpatti asat se maani jaati hai. isi prakaar asat padaarth ki utpatti sat se maani gayi hai. jad padaarthon ko hi asat kaha jaata hai. chetan padaarthon ko is maanyata ke anusaar sat kaha jaata hain.

ek bruhaspati ka nirdesh mahaabhaarat ke van parv mein bhi praapt hota hai. yeh bruhaspati shukr ka svaroop dhaaran kar indr ka sarankshan evam daanavon ka vinaash karne ke uddeshya se anaatmavaad ya prapanch vigyaan ki sanrachana karta hai. is prapanch vigyaan ke falasvaroop shubh ko ashubh evam ashubh ko shubh maanate hue daanav ved evam shaastron ki aalochna evam ninda mein sanlagn ho jaate hain. anya prasang mein mahaabhaarat mein hi ek aur bruhaspati ka varnan milta hai jo shukraachaarya ke saath mil kar pravanchanaashaastr ki rachana karte hain. vibhinn shaastron ke aachaaryon ki maane to chaarvaak mat darshan ki shreni mein naheen maana ja sakta kyonki is darshan mein maatr madhur vachanon ki aad mein vanchana ka hi kaarya kiya gaya hai. yeh baat aur hai ki yadi chaarvaak ki sunein to vah bhi vibhinn shaastrajnyaon ko vanchak hi ghoshit karta hai.

ek aise bruhaspati ka taittareeya braahman granth mein varnan milta hai jo gaayatri devi ke mastak par aaghaat karta hai gaayatri devi ko padm puraan ke anusaar samast vedon ka mool maana gaya hai. is drushti se yeh bruhaspati ved ka virodhi maana ja sakta hai. sambhavat: ved ka virodh prati pad karne ke kaaran is bruhaspati ko chaarvaak darshan ka praneta bhi maana jaana yuktiyukt hoga.

vishnu puraan mein bhi bruhaspati ka prasang praapt hota hai. bruhaspati ki is maanyata ke anusaar vaidik karmakaand bahuvitt ke vyaya evam prayaas se saadhya he. vividh sukh ke saadhak ye vaidik upaaya kuchh arth lolup svaarth kendrit dhoorton ka hi vidhaan hai. taarkik bruhaspati ka bhi kaheen kaheen varnan milta hai. ye bruhaspati ved ke anugaami to avashya hain par tarkasammat anushthaanon ka hi samarthan karte hain. inki drushti se tattv nirnaya shaastr par aadhaarit avashya hona chaahiye parantu yeh shaastreeya anusandhaan tark poshit hona nitaant aavashyak hai. tark virhit chintan dharm ke nirdhaaran mein kabhi bhi saarthak naheen ho sakta hai.

vaatsyaayan muni ne apne vishv prasiddh granth kaamasootr mein arthashaastr ke rachayita ke roop mein bruhaspati ka ullekh kiya hai. bruhaspati dvaara virchit arthashaastr ke ek sootr ke anusaar shaastr ke roop mein maatr lokaayat ko hi maanyata di gayi hai. falat: arthashaastr ke praneta bruhaspati evam lokaayat shaastr ke pravarttak mein antar kar paana atyant durooh kaarya hai. kuchh samaalochakon ne arthashaastr ke evam lokaayat shaastr ke nirmaata ko abhinn maanane ke saath-saath kaamasootron ke praneta bhi bruhaspati hi hain, yeh maana hai. yadi laukik ichhaaon ko poorn karna hi chaarvaak darshan ka uddeshya hai to kaamashaastr ke pravarttak muni vaatsyaayan hi bruhaspati hain, yeh maanana upayukt hi hai.

kautilya ne arthashaastr mein lokaayat darshan ka sahaj pratipaadan kiya hai. is prakaar arthashaastr ke rachanaakaar kautilya evam lokaayat darshan ke praneta bruhaspati ek hi hain aisa maana ja sakta hai. koshakaar hemachandr ke anusaar arthashaastr, kaamasootr, nyaayasootr-bhaashya, panchatantr evam chaanakya neeti ke rachayita ek hi hai.

itni vivechana ke baad jo bruhaspati vaidik vaaङaamaya mein vibhinn prasangon mein charchit hain unke yatha kram naam is prakaar spasht hote hain.

laukya bruhaspati

aangirs bruhaspati

devaguru bruhaspati

arthashaastr pravarttak bruhaspati

kaamasootr pravarttak bruhaspati

vedavinindak bruhaspati

taarkik bruhaspati.

padm puraan ke sandarbh mein angira brahma ke maanas putr hain. aangirs bruhaspati angira ke putr evam brahma ke pautr hain. falat: inki devon mein ganana hoti hai. is prakaar Dave guru bruhaspati evam aangirs bruhaspati mein koi bhed naheen maana ja sakta. devon ki sanraksha ke liye devataaon ke guru dvaara asuron ko pradatt upadesh vibhinn lokon mein aayat ho gaya yeh kathan Dave guru bruhaspati ke sandarbh mein vishvasaneeya naheen ho sakta. asur apne guru shukraachaarya ke rahate devaguru ke upadesh ko kyon aadar deinge? at: devaguru se atirikt koi chaarvaak darshan ka pravarttak hona apekshit hai.

kuchh samaalochakon ne spasht roop se sveekaar kiya hai ki chaarvaak ke guru bruhaspati svarg ke svaami indr ke aachaarya vishvavikhyaat bruhaspati naheen hain. ye bruhaspati kisi raajakul ke guru hain. aitihaasik drushti se deinkhe to vasishth, vishvaamitr, dronaachaarya aadi ka kisi raajakul ka guru hona is maanyata ko aadhaar bhi de raha hai.

chaarvaak ke siddhaant

jis prakaar aastik darshanon mein shankar darshan shiromani ke roop mein sveekrut hai usi prakaar naastik darshanon mein sabse utkrusht naastik ke roop mein shiromani ki tarah chaarvaak darshan ki pratishtha nirvivaad hai. naastik shiromani chaarvaak isliye bhi maana jaata hai ki vah vishv mein vishvaas ke aadhaar par kisi na kisi roop mein maanya ishvar ki alaukik sarvamaanya satta ko sire se nakaar deta hai. inke mataanusaar ishvar naam ki koi vastu sansaar mein naheen hai. naastik shiromani chaarvaak jo kuchh baahari indriyon se dikhaai deta hai anubhoot hota hai, usi ki satta ko sveekaar karta hai. yahi kaaran hai ki chaarvaak ke siddhaant mein pratyaksh pramaan ko chhod kar koi doosra pramaan naheen maana gaya hai. jis ishvar ki kalpana anya darshanon mein ki gayi hai usaki satta pratyaksh pramaan se sambhav naheen hai. inke mat se beej se jo ankur ka praadurbhaav hota hai usamein ishvar ki bhoomika ko maanana anaavashyak evam upahaasaaspad hi hai. ankur ki utpatti to mitti evam jal ke sanyog se nitaant svaabhaavik evam sahaj prakriya se sarvaanubhav siddh hai. is svabhaavik kaarya ko sampann karne ke liye kisi adrusht kartta ki sveekruti nirrthak hai.

ishvar ko na maanane par jeev saamaanya ke shubh evam ashubh karmon ke fal ki vyavastha kaise sambhav hogi? is prashn ka samaadhaan karte hue chaarvaak poochhata hai ki kis karm fal ki vyavastha apekshit? sansaar mein do prakaar ke karm dekhe jaate hain. ek laukik tatha doosra alaukik karm. kya aap laukik karmon ke fal ki vyavastha ke sambandh mein chintit hain? yadi haaain, to yeh chinta anaavashyak hai. laukik karmon ka fal vidhaan to lok mein sarv maanya raaja ya prashaasak hi karta hai. yeh sarvaanubhav siddh tathya, pratyaksh hi hai. ham dekhte hain ki chaurya karm aadi nishiddh kaarya karne vaale ko uske dushkarm ka samuchit fal, lok siddh raaja hi dand ke roop mein kaaraagaar aadi mein bhej kar deta hai. isi prakaar kisi ki praan raksha aadi shubh karm karne vaale purush ko raaja hi puraskaar roop mein sufal arthaat dhan dhaanya evam sammaan se vibhooshit kar deta hai.

yadi aap alaukik karmon ke fal ki vyavastha ke sandarbh mein sachint hain to yeh chinta bhi naheen karni chaahiye. kyonki paaralaukik fal ki drushti se vihit ye sabhi yagya, pooja, paath tapasya aadi vaidik karm jan saamaanya ko thagane ki drushti se tatha apni aajeevika evam udar ke bharan poshan ke liye kuchh dhoorton dvaara kalpit hue hain. vaastav mein agnihotr, teen ved, tridnd ka dhaaran tatha shareer mein jagah jagah bhasm ka sanlep buddhi evam purushaarth heenata ke hi parichaayak hain. in vaidik karmon ka fal aaj tak kisi ko bhi drushti gochar naheen hua hai. yadi vaidik karmon ka koi fal hota to avashya kisi na kisi ko iska pratyaksh aaj tak hua hota. at: aaj tak kisi ko bhi in vaidik ya varnaashram-vyavastha se sambaddh karmon ka fal-svarg, moksh, devalok gaman aadi pratyaksh anubhooti naheen hai at: ye samast vaidik karm nishfal hi hain, yeh svat: yukti poorvak siddh ho jaata hai.

adrusht evam ishvar ka nishedh

yahaaain yadi aastik darshan yeh kahe ki paralok svarg aadi ko siddh karne wala vyaapaar adrusht ya dharm evam adharm hai jisse svarg ki siddhi hoti hai to yeh chaarvaak ko sveekaarya naheen hai. alaukik adrusht ka khandan karte hue chaarvaak svarg aadi paralok ke saadhan mein adrusht ki bhoomika ko nirast karta hai tatha is prakaar aastik darshan ke mool par hi kuthaaraaghaat kar deta hai. yahi kaaran hai ki adrusht ke aadhaar par siddh hone vaale svarg aadi paralok ke nirsan ke saath hi is adrusht ke niyaamak ya vyavasthaapak ke roop mein ishvar ka bhi niraas chaarvaak mat mein anaayaas hi ho jaata hai.

jeev evam chaitanya ki avadhaarana

chaarvaak mat mein koi jeev shareer se bhinn naheen hai. shareer hi jeev ya aatma hai. falat: shareer ka vinaash jab mrutyu ke uparaant daah sanskaar hone ke baad ho jaata hai tab jeev ya jeevaatma bhi vinsht ho jaata hai. shareer mein jo chaar ya paaainch mahaabhooton ka samavadhaan hai, yeh samavadhaan hi chaitanya ka kaaran hai. yeh jeev mrutyu ke anantar paralok jaata hai yeh maanyata bhi, shareer ko hi chetan ya aatma sveekaar karne se niraadhaar hi siddh hoti hai. shaastron mein paribhaashit moksh roop param purushaarth bhi chaarvaak naheen sveekaar karta hai. chetan shareer ka naash hi is mat mein moksh hai. dharm evam adharm ke na hone se chaarvaak siddhaant mein dharm-adharm ya punya-paap ko, koi adrushya svarg evam narak aadi fal bhi naheen hai yeh anaayaas hi siddh ho jaata hai.


shareeraatmavaad mein smaran ka upapaadan

chaarvaak mat mein shareer ko hi aatma maan lene par baalyaavastha mein anubhoot kanduk kreeda aadi ka vruddhaavastha ya yuvaavastha mein smaran kaise hota hai? yeh ek jvalant prashn sahaj hi uth khada hota hai. yahaaain yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki baalyaavastha ka shareer, vruddhaavastha ka shareer evam yuvaavastha ka shareer ek hi hai. yadi teenon avasthaaon ka shareer ek hi hota to in teenon avasthaaon ke shareeron mein itna bada antar naheen hota. antar se yeh spasht siddh hota hai ki shareer ke avayav jo maans pind aadi hain inmein vruddhi evam hraas hota hai. tatha in hraas evam vruddhi ke kaaran hi baalyaavastha ke shareer ka naash evam yuvaavastha ke shareer ki utpatti hoti hai yeh bhi siddh hota hai. yadi yeh kahein ki yuvaavastha ke shareer mein yeh vahi shareer hai, yeh vyavahaar hone ke kaaran shareer ko ek maan kar uparyukt smaran ko utpann kiya ja sakta hai, to yeh kathan bhi yuktiyukt naheen ho sakta. kyonki yeh vahi shareer hai yeh pratyabhijnyaaan to svaroop evam aakruti ki samaanata ke kaaran hota hai. falat: donon avasthaaon ke shareeron ko abhinn naheen maana ja sakta hai. aisi sthiti mein poorv darshit baalya-kaal ke smaran ko sampann karne ke liye chaarvaak baalyakaal ke shareer mein utpann kreeda se janya sanskaar doosare yuva-kaal ke shareer mein apne jaise hi naye sanskaar paida kar dete hain. isi prakaar yuvaavastha ke shareer mein vidyamaan sanskaar vruddhaavastha ke shareer mein apne jaise sanskaar utpann kar dete hain. etaavata in baalyaavastha ke sanskaaron ke udbodhan se chaarvaak mat mein smaran bina kisi baadha ke ho jaata hai. antat: chaarvaak darshan mein shareer hi aatma hai yeh sahaj hi siddh hota hai.

yadi shareer hi aatma hai to chaarvaak se yeh poochha ja sakta hai ki 'mam shareeram' yeh mera shareer hai, aisa lokasiddh jo vyavahaar hai vah kaise utpann hoga? is vyavahaar se to yeh prateet ho raha hai ki shareer alag hai evam shareer ka svaami koi aur hai, jo shareer se bhinn aatma hi hai. is prashn ka samaadhaan karte hue chaarvaak kehta hai ki jaise daanav vishesh ke sir ko hi raahoo kaha gaya hai, fir bhi jan-saamaanya 'raahoo ka sir' yeh vyavahaar bade hi sahaj roop mein karta hai, usi prakaar shareer ke hi aatma hone par bhi 'mera shareer' yeh lokasiddh vyavahaar upapann ho jaayega. chaarvaakon mein kuchh chaarvaak indriyon ko hi aatma maanane par indriya ke nasht hone par smaran ki aapatti ka niraas naheen ho paata hai. kinheen chaarvaakon ne praan evam man ko bhi aatma ke roop mein maana hai. shareer hi aatma hai yeh siddh karne ke liye chaarvaak is ved ke sandarbh ko bhi aastikon ke santosh ke liye prastut karta hai. is ved vachan ka taatparya hai ki 'vigyaan se yukt aatma in bhooton se utpann ho kar ant mein in bhooton mein hi vileen ho jaata hai. yeh bhooton mein shareer svaroop aatma ka vilay hi mrutyu hai.'

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain