chaarakol

chaarakol

lakdi ka koyala, ya kaathakoyala ya chaarakol (Charcoal) kaala-bhoora, sachhidr, thos padaarth hai jo lakdi, haddi aadi ko aakseejan ki anupasthiti mein garam karke usamein se jal evam anya vaashsheel padaarthon ko nikaalkar banaaya jaata hai. is kriya ko "ushmaavightan" (Pyrolysis) kehte hain.

chaarakol mein kaarban ki uchch maatra (lagbhag 80%) hoti hai. yeh lakdi ko 400 °aC se 700 °aC tak hava ki anupasthiti mein garam karke banaaya jaata hai. iska kailoreejanan maan (calorific value) 29,000 se 35,000 kJ/kg ke beech hota hai jo ki lakdi ke kailoreejanan maan (12,000 se 21,000 kJ/kg) se bahut adhik hai.

chaarakol ka upayog dhaatukarm mein indhan ke roop mein, audyogik indhan ke roop mein, khaane banaane ke indhan ke roop mein, baarood nirmaan ke liye, shuddheekaran aur filtaran ke liye, kalaakaari, chikitsa, aadi ke liye kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

hava ki aparyaapt maatra mein lakdi jalaane se udnasheel bhaag gas ke roop mein baahar nikal jaata hai aur kaali thos vastu, jise kaathakoyala kehte hain, bach rahati hai. yeh kaarban naamak tatv ka hi ek ashuddh roop hai, jismein kuchh anya tatv bhi alp maatra mein rahate hain. lakdi se iske bhautik evam raasaayanik gun bhinn hote hue bhi us lakdi ki banaavat ismein surakshit rah jaati hai jisse yeh praapt kiya jaata hai. sookhi lakdi ko 310 degree sein tak tapt karne par pehle vah halke, tatpashchaat‌ gaadhe bhoore rang ki tatha antat: kaali aur jalne yogya ho jaati hai. isse adhik taap par kaathakoyala praapt hota hai. is ushmaavightan ki kriya mein kuchh ati upayogi vastuon ka bhi utpaadan hota hai. prathamat: jalavaashp niklata hai, parantu taap badhaane par praarambhik vightan se kaarban monoksaaid aur kaarban daaiaaksaaid bhi milte hain. adhik taap par ushmakshepak kriya praarambh hoti hai aur alakatara (taar), aml tatha methil ailkohal ityaadi ka aasavan hota hai aur kaathakoyala shesh rah jaata hai. is kriya ke ek baar aarambh hone par abhikriya ki ushma hi kaarbaneekaran ki prakriya ko chalaane ke liye paryaapt hoti hai baahar se ushpa pahuainchaane ki aavashyakta naheen padti.

nirmaan

ghareloo athva doosare kaaryon mein irdhann ke liye kaathakoyale ka upayog bahut praacheen hai. vyaavasaayik maatra mein ise taiyaar karne ki kai vidhiyaaain kaam mein laai jaati hai. praarambhik vidhi mein lakdi ko ek gaddhe ya gol dher mein is prakaar sajaakar ekatrit kar liya jaata hai ki beech mein dhuaaain athva vightan se bani hui gas ke nikalne ke liye maarg rahe. poore dher ko ghaas foos sahit mitti aur dhele se dhak dete hain. bheetar ki lakdi jalaane ke liye chimni se jalati hui luaathi daal di jaati tatha dher ki jad mein sthit, hava ke pravesh ke liye bane chhidr khol diye jaate hain. praarambh mein thodi si lakdi ke jalne se utpann ushma shesh lakdi ko jalaane mein sahaayak hoti hai. kai dinon baad, jab chimni se prakaashaprad lau ke sthaan par halki neeli lau dikhaai dene lagti hai tab neeche ke chhidr band kar, kaathakoyale ko thanda hone ke liye chhod diya jaata hai. is vidhi mein lagbhag 24 pratishat kaathakoyala praapt hota hai, parantu bahut se upayogi udnasheel padaarthon ke vaayu mein mil jaane se haani hoti hai. kai deshon mein, visheshakar jahaaain lakdi sasti hai, abhi bhi isi vidhi dvaara kaathakoyala banaaya jaata hai.

18veen shataabdi ke baad itau ki bani bhatthiyon aur lohe ke bakabhaandon (retorts) ka upayog hone laga. bakabhaand ko saamaanyataya baahar se garam kiya jaata hai tatha utpann gas ko sanghanitr (condenser) mein pravaahit kar upayogi upajaat ekatrit kar liya jaata hai. bachi ges bakabhaandon ko garam karne ke liye prayukt ki jaati hai. praapt padaarthon se lakdi ki spirit, paairoligniys aml, jisse methil ailkohal, aisiton tatha aiseetik aml bante hain, tatha alakatara (tar) milta hai. inhein aasavan dvaara alag kar liya jaata hai. kaheen-kaheen in bahumoolya upajaaton ke liye hi lakdi ka kaarbaneekaran karte hain. aiseetik aml tatha methil ailkohal ke adhik utpaadan ke liye parnapaati (patajhadvaale) vrukshon ki lakdi ko praathamikta di jaati hai. utpaadan moolya ghataane ke vichaar se kuchh deshon mein nalika-bhatthi athva lambi belanaakaar lohe ki oordhvaadhar bhatthi ka upayog hota hai aur kaarbaneekaran ke praapt jalanasheel gas hi inhein garam karne ke kaam mein laai jaati hai. amareeka mein to lakdi se bhare hue rel ke dibbe bakabhaand ke bheetar pravisht kar diye jaate hain tatha kriya ki samaapti par baahar nikaal liye jaate hain.

saviraam (intermittent) Amreeki bhattha

iton se bana yeh bhattha madhumakkhi ke chhatte ke aakaar ka hota hai. shikhar se lakdi jalaai jaati hai. lakdi jalaakar patt (k) se mitti ka lep dekar muainh band kar dete hain. iske kuchh neeche ke maarg (kh) se lakdi daali jaati hai. bhatthe ke pede ke tal par ek maarg (g) hota hai, jisse koyala nikaala jaata hai. (kh) aur (g) lohe ke patt ke bane hote hain. ye patt iton se lohe ke ek chipte chakkar dvaara, mitti se lepakar, band kar diye jaate hain. bhatthe ke chaaron or sooraakh (gh) hote hain, jinhein aavashyakataanusaar iton se band kar sakte hain, athva khula rakh sakte hain. choolhe ke peinde se nikaas maarg (ch) dvaara gesein aur vaashp nikalte hain. ismein ek vaatayam (chh) aur paashi lagi rahati hai. aise upakaranon mein achhi koti ka koyala banta hai. vaashpasheel anshon ka sangrah gaun mahatva ka hota hai. thande ho jaane par inse koyala nikaala jaata hai. thande hone mein paryaapt samay lagta hai.

gunadharm

kaathakoyala kaale rang ka thos padaarth hai, jo peetane par choor ho jaata hai. iske sardhraan hone se ismein shoshan ki shakti bahut hoti hai. yeh vaayumandal se vaashp tatha vividh prakaar ke gaison ki maatra sokh leta hai. yeh shakti kaathakoyale ko sakriykrut (activated) karne par atyadhik badh jaati hai. isi kaaran saadhaaran kaathakoyale mein bhi shoshit hava ki achhi maatra milti hai. vaise to vaayurahit kaathakoyale ka vaastavik aapekshik ghanatv 1.3 se 1.9 ke beech hota hai, parantu aabhaasi ghanatv 0.2 se 0.5 ke beech milta hai. kaathakoyala bhi lakdi ki bhaaainti paani par tairata hai. lakdi ki tulana mein yeh un prabhaavon ke prati adhik avarodhak hai jinse lakdi sadti hai athva usaka kshaya hota hai. isi kaaran lakdi ke latthon ki oopari satah ko jalaakar gaadne athva rakhane ke bheetar ka bhaag bahut samay tak surakshit rah jaata hai.

kaathakoyala hava mein garam karne par rangaheen lau deta hua jalata hai, jismein kaarban daaiaaksaaid gas banti hai tatha thodi raakh bach rahati hai, jo kshaareeya hoti hai. is kriya mein atyadhik garmi niklati hai, jiske kaaran irdhann ke roop mein kaathakoyale ka adhik upayog hota hai. baarood tatha aatishbaaji ke vibhinn sammishranon mein kaathakoyale ke choore ka upayog hota hai. irdhann ke atirikt, vishaili gaison se bachane ke liye gaisamaask tatha ushma avarodhak banaane mein iska prayog hota hai. gaisamaask mein, athva gholon se kuchh vastuon ko hataane ke liye, kaathakoyale ka upayog iski shoshanashakti par aashrit hai. kuchh vastuon se anichhit gandh ya rang door karne mein sakriykrut kaathakoyala atyadhik prayukt hota hai. aise koyale ke rdhraaaaeinn mein shoshit aakseejan se shoshit vishaakt gas ki pratikriya ho jaati hai, jisse vishaakt gas haanirhit gaison mein badal jaati hai.

sakriykrut kaathakoyala (Activated charcoal)

aar. ostraaiko ne san‌ 1900 ke kuchh pehle hi pata laga liya tha ki bhaap ki dhaara mein kaathakoyale ke chatak laal taap tak garam karne se kaathakoyale ki shoshanashakti bahut badh jaati hai. aise kaathakoyale ko sakriykrut kaathakoyala kehte hain. san‌ 1916 ke baad sakriykrut kaathakoyala banaane ki gayi reetiyaaain aavishkrut huin. dviteeya mahaayuddh ke gas maaskon ke liye adhik sakriykrut kaathakoyale ki aavashyakta padi. tab anusandhaanon dvaara pata laga ki patthar ke koyale ko vishesh taap tak tapt karke usapar bhaap pravaahit karne se saste mein achha sakriykrut koyala praapt ho sakta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain