chaansalar

chaansalar (Chancellor) ek aadhikaarik pad jiska prayog adhiktar un raashtron mein hota hai jinki sabhyata pratyaksh ya paroksh roop mein roman saamraajya se paida hui hai. maulik roop mein, chaansalar roman nyaayaadheesh the jinke liye nyaayaalayon mein ek parde ke peechhe baithane ki vyavastha thi. yeh parda shrotaaon aur nyaayaadheeshon ke beech hua karta tha.

parichay

England mein chaansalar ka pad Edward di kanfesar ke samay sthaapit hua. Edward pehla angrej raaja tha jisne raajapatron par hastaakshar karne ke bajaay unapar raajamudra ankit karne ki naarman pratha apnaai. England mein praarambh mein, chaansalar ek dhaarmik padaadhikaari tha jo ek or raajapurohit ke roop mein dhaarmik kaarya sampann karta tha doosari or raajakeeya kshetr mein raaja ka sachiv tatha raajamudra ka sanrakshak hota tha. raajapurohit ke roop mein vah raaja ke 'nyaayaachaar ka sanrakshak' tha, sachiv ke roop mein use raajakeeya kaaryon mein raaja ka vishvaas praapt tha tatha raajamudra ke sanrakshak ke roop mein vah raajaajnyaa ki abhivyakti ke liye aavashyak tha. parantu pramukh roop se vah sachivaalaya ke ek vibhaag, chaansari, ka adhyaksh tha. henari dviteeya ke raajya kaal mein chaansalar nyaayik kaarya bhi karne laga. uske nyaayik kaaryo ki vruddhi ka pramukh kaaran yeh tha ki raaja ko sambodhit sabhi nivedanapatr uske dvaara hi raaja ke paas pahunchate the. in nivedanapatron ki sankhya itni badhne lagi ki Edward pratham ne ek aajnyaapti dvaara chaansalar ko un par nirnaya dene ka adhikaar saunpa. Edward truteeya ke kaal mein chaansalar ne in nyaayik kaaryo ke liye yathesht adhikaar praapt kar liye. san 1474 E. mein uske ye adhikaar yahaaain tak badh gaye ki apne nirnaya vah privi kaaunsil ko na bhej kar, swayam nyaayik aajnyaaptiyaaain jaari karne laga. 19veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh mein chaansalar kramash: maulik mukadamon par nirnaya dene ke kaarya ko apne adheen chaansari nyaayaadheeshon ko saunpata gaya aur san 1851 E. mein jab chaansari mein appeal ke nyaayaalaya ki sthaapana hui tab praathamik nyaayaalayon ke nirnaya ke viruddh appeal vah swayam tabhi sunata tha jab chaansari ke appeal nyaayaalaya ke nyaayadheeshon mein paraspar matabhinnata hoti thi.

aadhunik kaal mein chaansalar uchch nyaayaalaya ke chaansari vibhaag ka ek sadasya hai tatha apne nyaayik adhikaar privi kaunsil ki nyaayik samiti tatha house of laards mein prayukt karta hai. apne nyaayik kartavyon ke atirikt nyaayaadheeshon ki niyukti tatha nyaayaalayon ki vyavastha bhi karta hai aur sarkaar ka vidhisanbandhi pramukh paraamarshadaata hai. saath hi, vah house of laards ke adhiveshanon ki adhyakshata bhi karta hai aur saamaanyat: mantrimandal ka sadasya hota hai. raaja ke pratinidhi ke roop mein vah kuchh vishvavidyaalayon ka vijitr bhi hai. uske liye roman Catholic hona anivaarya naheen hai. is prakaar laard chaansalar apne vidhaayi, nyaayik evam prashaasakeeya adhikaaron ke saath shakti vibhaajan ke siddhaant ke viruddh ek jvalant udaaharan hai. pad ki uchchata mein kaintarabari ke aarkabishp ke baad hi usaka sthaan hai. parantu doosari or anya uchch nyaayik adhikaariyon ki tulana mein use apne pad ka sthaayitv naheen praapt hai, kyonki pratyek sarkaar ke bhang hone par use bhi padatyaag karna padta hai.

chaansalar of di eksachekar ki sthaapana henari truteeya ke raajyakaal mein hui thi. aadhunik samay mein chaansalar of di eksachekar kraaun ka pramukh vitt mantri hai tatha raajakosh ka dviteeya laard. uske pramukh kaarya hain : vittasanbandhi vishyon par mantrimandal ko paraamarsh dena tatha house ov kaarmas mein sarkaar ki vittaneeti ki vyaakhya tatha spashteekaran karna. iske liye sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn avsar use bajat prastut karte samay milta hai. chaansalar ov dachi laikaanstar, laikaanstar ki dachi mein bhoomi ke prabandh tatha nyaayaalayon ki vyavastha ke liye taaj ka pratinidhaan karta hai. jarman ripblik ka pradhaan mantri bhi aastriya saamraajya kaal mein chaansalar kahalaata raha hai.

in padon ke atirikt dhaarmik mathon tatha vishvavidyaalayon ke pramukh adhikaari ko bhi chaansalar kehte hain.

sandarbh granth

  • aidams ji.bi. : kaanstityooshanal histreeov England, London, 1951;
  • seinsan, dablyoo.aar. : di la aind custom ov di kaansteetyooshan, London, 1909,
  • kipr, di.L. : di kaanstityooshanal history ov maadarn Britain, London, 1953.