chaanakyaneeti

chaanakyaneeti ya chaanakyaneetishaastr, chaanakya dvaara rachit ek neeti granth hai. sanskrut-saahitya mein neetiprak granthon ki koti mein chaanakya neeti ka mahattvapoorn sthaan hai. ismein sootraatmak shaili mein jeevan ko sukhamaya evam safal banaane ke liye upayogi sujhaav diye gaye hain. iska mukhya vishay maanav maatr ko jeevan ke pratyek pahaloo ki vyaavahaarik shiksha dena hai. ismein mukhya roop se dharm, sanskruti, nyaaya, shaanti, sushiksha evam sarvatonmukhi maanav jeevan ki pragati ki jhaaainkiyaan prastut ki gayi hain. is neetiprak granth mein jeevan-siddhaant aur jeevan-vyavahaar tatha aadarsh aur yathaarth ka bada sundar samanvaya dekhne ko milta hai.

anukram

parichay

neetivrnan paratv sanskrut grantho mein, chaanakya-neetidrpan ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. jeevan ko sukhamaya evam dhyeyapoorn banaane ke liye, naana vishyon ka varnan ismein sootraatmak shaili se subodh roop mein praapt hota hai. vyavahaar sambandhi sootron ke saath-saath, raajaneeti sambandhi shlokon ka bhi inmein samaavesh hota hai. aachaarya chaanakya Bhaarat ka mahaan gaurav hai aur unke itihaas par Bhaarat ko garv hai. to isse poorv ki ham neeti-darpan ki or badhein, chaliye pehle is mahaan shikshak, prakhar raajaneetijnya evam arthashaastrakaar ke baare mein thoda jaanane ka prayaas karein. praacheen sanskrut shaastrajnyaon ki parampara mein, aachaarya chanak ke putr vishnugupt-chaanakya ka sthaan vishesh hai. ve gunavaan, raajaneeti kushal, aachaar aur vyavahaar mein marmajnya, kootaneeti ke sookshmadarshi praneta aur arthashaastr ke vidvaan maane jaate hain.

ve svabhaav se svaabhimaani, chaaritryavaan tatha sanyami; svarup se kuroop; buddhi se teekshn; iraade ke pakke; pratibha ke dhani, yugadrushta aur yugasrushta the. kartavya ki vedi par man ki madhur bhaavanaaon ki bali denevaale ve dhairyamoorti the.

chaanakya ka samay E.s. poorv 326 varsh ka maana jaata hai. apne nivaasasthaan paataleeputr (patna) se takshasheela prasthaan kar unhonne vahaaain vidya praapt ki. apne praudhjnyaaan se vidvaanon ko prasann kar ve vaheen par raajaneeti ke praadhyaapak bane. lekin unka jeevan, sada aatmanirikshan mein magn rahata tha. desh ki durvyavastha dekhkar unka hrudaya asvasth ho uthata; kalushit raajaneeti aur saampradaayik manovrutti se trust Bhaarat ka patan unase sahan naheen ho paata tha. at: apni dooradarshi soch se, ek vistrut yojana banaakar, desh ko ekasootr mein baaaindhane ka asaamaanya prayaas unhonne kiya.

Bhaarat ke anek janapadon mein ve ghoomein. janasaamaanya se lekar, shikshakon evam samraaton tak mein soyi hui raashtra-nishtha ko unhonne jaagrut kiya. is raajakeeya evam saanskrutik kraanti ko sthir karne, apne gunavaan aur paraakrami shishya chandragupt maurya ko magadh ke sinhaasan par sthaapit kiya. chaanakya yaane svaarthatyaag, nirbheekata, saahas evam vidvatta ki saakshaat moorat !

magadh ke mahaamantri hone par bhi ve saamaanya kutiya mein rahate the. cheen ke prasiddh yaatri faahyaan ne yeh dekhkar jab aashcharya vyakt kiya, tab mahaamantri ka uttar tha "jis desh ka mahaamantri (pradhaanamantri-pramukh) saamaanya kutiya mein rahata hai, vahaaain ke naagrik bhavya bhavanon mein nivaas karte hain; par jis desh ke mantri mahaalayon mein nivaas karte hain, vahaaain ki janta kutiya mein rahati hai. raajamahal ki ataariyon mein, janta ki peeda ka aarttanaad sunaayi naheen deta.”

chaanakya ka maanana tha ki `buddhiryasya balan tasya`. ve purushaarthavaadi the; `daivaadheenan jagatsarvam` is siddhaant ko maanane ke liye kadaapi taiyaar naheen the. saarvajanin hit aur mahaan dhyeya ki poorti mein prajaatantr ya lokashikshan anivaarya hai, par paryaapt naheen aisa unka spasht mat tha. desh ke shikshak, vidvaan aur rakshak – ni:spruhi, chatur aur saahasi hone chaahiye. svajeevan aur samaajavyavahaar mein unnat neetimoolya ka aacharan hi shreshth hai; kintu, svaarthaparaayan sattaavaan ya vittavaanon se, aavashyakta padane par vajrakutil banana chaahiye – aisa unka mat tha. isi kaaran ve “akautilya” kahalaaye.

chaanakya ka vyaktitv shikshakon tatha raajaneetijnyaon ke liye kisi bhi kaal mein tatha kisi bhi desh mein anukaraneeya evam aadarsh hai. unke charitra ki mahaanata ke peechhe, unki karmanishtha, atulaprajnyaa aur drudhapratijnyaa the. ve medha, tyaag, tejasvita, drudhata, saahas evam purushaarth ke prateek hain. unke arthashaastr aur raajaneetishaastr ke siddhaant arvaacheen kaal mein bhi utane hi upayukt hain.

chaanakya-neetidrpan granth mein, aachaarya ne apne poorvajon dvaara sambhaali dharohar ka aur anya vaidik grantho ka adhyayan kar, sootron evam shlokon ka sankalan kiya hai. unhein, aane vaale samay mein susanskrut par kramash: prastut karne ka hamein harsh hai. smrutirup hone ke kaaran, kuchh ek rachanaaon ko kaal evam paristhiti anusaar yathochit nyaaya aur sandarbh dene ka prayaas anivaarya hoga; anyatha aachaarya ke kathan ka apaprayog ho paana atyant sambhav hai. astu.

kuchh udaaharan

  • kisi bhi vyakti ko aavashyakta se adhik 'seedha' naheen hona chaahiye. van mein jaakar dekho- seedhe tane vaale ped hi kaate jaate hain, tedhe ko koi naheen chhoota.
  • agar koi saanp jahareela naheen hai, tab bhi use fufakaarana naheen chhodna chaahiye. usi tarah se kamjor vyakti ko bhi har vakt apni kamjori ka pradarshan naheen karna chaahiye.
  • kabhi bhi apne rahasyon ko kisi ke saath saajha mat karo, yeh pravrutti tumhein barbaad kar degi.
  • har mitrata ke peechhe kuchh svaarth jaroor chhipa hota hai. duniya mein aisi koi dosti naheen jiske peechhe logon ke apne hit na chhipe hon, yeh katu satya hai, lekin yahi satya hai.
  • apne bachche ko pehle paanch saal dulaar ke saath paalana chaahiye. agale paanch saal use daant-fatkaar ke saath nigraani mein rakhana chaahiye. lekin jab bachcha solah saal ka ho jaae, to uske saath dost ki tarah vyavahaar karna chaahiye.
  • sankat kaal ke liye dhan bachaaen. parivaar par sankat aae to dhan kurbaan kar dein. lekin swayam ki raksha hamein apne parivaar aur dhan ko bhi daanv par lagaakar karni chaahiye.
chaanakya neeti ke dviteeya adhyaaya se kuchh ansh -

1. jis prakaar sabhi parvaton par mani naheen milti, sabhi haathiyon ke mastak mein moti utpann naheen hota, sabhi vanon mein chandan ka vruksh naheen hota, usi prakaar sajjan purush sabhi jagahon par naheen milte hain.

2. jhooth bolna, utaavalaapan dikhaana, dussaahas karna, chhal-kapat karna, moorkhataapoorn kaarya karna, lobh karna, apavitrata aur nirdayata - ye sabhi striyon ke svaabhaavik dosh hain. chaanakya uparyukt doshon ko striyon ka svaabhaavik gun maanate hain. haalaaainki vartamaan daur ki shikshit striyon mein in doshon ka hona sahi naheen kaha ja sakta hai.

3. bhojan ke liye achhe padaarthon ka upalabdh hona, unhein pachaane ki shakti ka hona, sundar stri ke saath sansarg ke liye kaamashakti ka hona, prachur dhan ke saath-saath dhan dene ki ichha hona. ye sabhi sukh manushya ko bahut kathinta se praapt hote hain.

4. chaanakya kehte hain ki jis vyakti ka putr uske niyantran mein rahata hai, jiski patni aajnyaa ke anusaar aacharan karti hai aur jo vyakti apne kamaae dhan se poori tarah santusht rahata hai. aise manushya ke liye yeh sansaar hi svarg ke samaan hai.

5. chaanakya ka maanana hai ki vahi gruhasthi sukhi hai, jiski santaan unki aajnyaa ka paalan karti hai. pita ka bhi karttavya hai ki vah putron ka paalan-poshan achhi tarah se kare. isi prakaar aise vyakti ko mitr naheen kaha ja sakta hai, jis par vishvaas naheen kiya ja sake aur aisi patni vyarth hai jisse kisi prakaar ka sukh praapt na ho.

6. jo mitr aapke saamane chikni-chupadi baatein karta ho aur peeth peechhe aapke kaarya ko bigaad deta ho, use tyaag dene mein hi bhalaai hai. chaanakya kehte hain ki vah us barttan ke samaan hai, jiske oopar ke hisse mein doodh laga hai parantu andar vish bhara hua hota hai.

7. chaanakya kehte hain ki jo vyakti achha mitr naheen hai us par to vishvaas naheen karna chaahiye, parantu iske saath hi achhe mitr ke sambandh mein bhi poora vishvaas naheen karna chaahiye, kyonki yadi vah naaraaj ho gaya to aapke saare bhed khol sakta hai. at: saavadhaani atyant aavashyak hai.

8. chaanakya ka maanana hai ki vyakti ko kabhi apne man ka bhed naheen kholana chaahiye. use jo bhi kaarya karna hai, use apne man mein rakhe aur poori tanmayata ke saath samay aane par use poora karna chaahiye.

9. chaanakya ka kehna hai ki moorkhata ke samaan yauvan bhi dukhadaayi hota hai kyonki javaani mein vyakti kaamavaasana ke aaveg mein koi bhi moorkhataapoorn kaarya kar sakta hai. parantu inse bhi adhik kashtadaayak hai doosaron par aashrit rahana.

10. chaanakya kehte hain ki bachapan mein santaan ko jaisi shiksha di jaati hai, unka vikaas usi prakaar hota hai. isliye maata-pita ka kartavya hai ki ve unhein aise maarg par chalaaeain, jisse unamein uttam charitra ka vikaas ho kyonki guni vyaktiyon se hi kul ki shobha badhti hai.

11. ve maata-pita apne bachchon ke liye shatru ke samaan hain, jinhonne bachchon ko ‍aachhi shiksha naheen di. kyonki anapadh baalak ka vidvaanon ke samooh mein usi prakaar apamaan hota hai jaise hanson ke jhund mein bagule ki sthiti hoti hai. shiksha viheen manushya bina pooainchh ke jaanavar jaisa hota hai, isliye maata-pita ka kartavya hai ki ve bachchon ko aisi shiksha dein jisse ve samaaj ko sushobhit karein.

12. chaanakya kehte hain ki adhik laad pyaar karne se bachchon mein anek dosh utpann ho jaate hain. isliye yadi ve koi galat kaam karte hain to use najaraandaaj karke laad-pyaar karna uchit naheen hai. bachche ko daaaintana bhi aavashyak hai.

13. shiksha aur adhyayan ki mahatta bataate hue chaanakya kehte hain ki manushya ka janm bahut saubhaagya se milta hai, isliye hamein apne adhikaadhik samay ka ve‍aadaadi shaastron ke adhyayan mein tatha daan jaise achhe kaaryon mein hi sadupayog karna chaahiye.

14. jis prakaar patni ke viyog ka dukh, apne bhaai-bandhuon se praapt apamaan ka dukh asahaneeya hota hai, usi prakaar karj se daba vyakti bhi har samay dukhi rahata hai. dusht raaja ki seva mein rahane wala naukar bhi dukhi rahata hai. nirdhanata ka abhishaap bhi manushya kabhi naheen bhula paata. inse vyakti ki aatma andar hi andar jalati rahati hai.

15. chaanakya ke anusaar nadi ke kinaare sthit vrukshon ka jeevan anishchit hota hai, kyonki nadiyaaain baadh ke samay apne kinaare ke pedon ko ujaad deti hain. isi prakaar doosare ke gharon mein rahane waali stri bhi kisi samay patan ke maarg par ja sakti hai. isi tarah jis raaja ke paas achhi salaah dene vaale mantri naheen hote, vah bhi bahut samay tak surakshit naheen rah sakta. ismein jara bhi sandeh naheen karna chaahiye.

16. chaanakya kehte hain ki jis tarah veshya dhan ke samaapt hone par purush se muainh mod leti hai. usi tarah jab raaja shaktiheen ho jaata hai to praja usaka saath chhod deti hai. isi prakaar vrukshon par rahane vaale pakshi bhi tabhi tak kisi vruksh par basera rakhate hain, jab tak vahaaain se unhein fal praapt hote rahate hain. atithi ka jab poora svaagat-satkaar kar diya jaata hai to vah bhi us ghar ko chhod deta hai.

17. bure charitra vaale, akaaran doosaron ko haani pahuainchaane vaale tatha ashuddh sthaan par rahane vaale vyakti ke saath jo purush mitrata karta hai, vah sheegra hi nasht ho jaata hai. aachaarya chaanakya ka kehna hai manushya ko kusangati se bachana chaahiye. ve kehte hain ki manushya ki bhalaai isi mein hai ki vah jitni jaldi ho sake, dusht vyakti ka saath chhod de.

18. chaanakya kehte hain ki mitrata, baraabari vaale vyaktiyon mein hi karna theek rahata hai. sarkaari naukri sarvottam hoti hai aur achhe vyaapaar ke liye vyavahaarakushal hona aavashyak hai. isi tarah sundar va susheel stri ghar mein hi shobha deti hai.

chaanakya ki seekh

chaanakya ek jungle mein jhopadi banaakar rahate the. vahaan anek log unase paraamarsh aur gyaan praapt karne ke liye aate the. jis jungle mein vah rahate the, vah pattharon aur kanteeli jhaadiyon se bhara tha. choonki us samay praaya: nange pair rahane ka hi chalan tha, isliye unke nivaas tak pahunchane mein logon ko anek kashton ka saamana karna padta tha. vahaan pahunchate-pahunchate logon ke paanv lahooluhaan ho jaate the.

ek din kuchh log us maarg se behad pareshaaniyon ka saamana kar chaanakya tak pahunche. ek vyakti unase nivedan karte hue bola, 'aapke paas pahunchane mein ham logon ko bahut kasht hua. aap mahaaraaj se kehkar yahaan ki jameen ko chamade se dhakavaane ki vyavastha kara dein. isse logon ko aaraam hoga.' usaki baat sunakar chaanakya muskaraate hue bole, 'mahaashaya, keval yaheen chamada bichhaane se samasya hal naheen hogi. kanteele va pathareele path to is vishv mein anginat hain. aise mein poore vishv mein chamada bichhvaana to asambhav hai. haan, yadi aap log chamade dvaara apne pairon ko surakshit kar lein to avashya hi pathareele path va kanteeli jhaadiyon ke prakop se bach sakte hain.' vah vyakti sir jhukaakar bola, 'haan guruji, main ab aisa hi karoonga.'

iske baad chaanakya bole, 'dekho, meri is baat ke peechhe bhi gahra saar hai. doosaron ko sudhaarane ke bajaay khud ko sudhaaro. isse tum apne kaarya mein vijay avashya haasil kar loge. duniya ko naseehat dene wala kuchh naheen kar paata jabki usaka swayam paalan karne wala kaamayaabi ki bulandiyon tak pahunch jaata hai.' is baat se sabhi sahamat ho gaye

chaanakya ki kutiya

paataliputr ke amaatya aachaarya chaanakya bahut vidvaan nyaayapriya hone ke saath ek seedhe saade imaandaar sajjan vyakti bhi the. ve itne bade saamraajya ke mahaamantri hone ke baavajood chhappar se dhaki kutiya mein rahate the. ek aam aadmi ki tarah unka rahan-sahan tha. ek baar yoonaan ka raajadoot unase milne raaj darbaar mein pahuncha raajaneeti aur kootanaya mein daksh chaanakya ki charcha sunakar raajadoot mantramugdh ho gaya. raajadoot ne shaam ko chaanakya se milne ka samay maanga.

aachaarya ne kaha-aap raat ko mere ghar aa sakte hain. raajadoot chaanakya ke vyavahaar se prasann hua. shaam ko jab vah raajamahal parisar mein 'aamaatya nivaas' ke baare mein poochhane laga. raaj prahari ne bataaya- aachaarya chaanakya to nagar ke baahar rahate hain. raajadoot ne socha shaayad mahaamantri ka nagar ke baahar sarovar par bana sundar mahal hoga. raajadoot nagar ke baahar pahooncha. ek naagrik se poochha ki chaanakya kaha rahate hain. ek kutiya ki or ishaara karte hue naagrik ne kaha-dekhiye, vah saamane mahaamantri ki kutiya hai. raajadoot aashcharya chakit rah gaya. usane kutiya mein pahunchakar chaanakya ke paanv chhue aur shikaayat ki-aap jaisa chatur mahaamantri ek kutiya mein rahata hai. chaanakya ne kaha-agar mai janta ki kadi mehnat aur paseene ki kamaai se bane mahalon se rahoonga to mere desh ke naagrik ko kutiya bhi naseeb naheen hogi. chaanakya ki imaandaari par yoonaan ka raajadoot natamastak ho gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain