chaanakya

chaanakya

chaanakya ka kalpit chitr
janm anumaanat: isaapoorv 375
Punjab
mrutyu anumaanat: isaapoorv 225
paataliputr
nivaas paataliputr
anya naam kautilya, vishnugupt
vidyaalaya takshashila
vyavasaaya chandragupt maurya ke mahaamantri
ullekhaneeya kaam arthashaastr (kai vidvaanon ke beech matabhed paaya jaata hai), chaanakyaneeti

chaanakya (anumaanat: isaapoorv 375 - isaapoorv 225) chandragupt maurya ke mahaamantri the. ve 'kautilya' naam se bhi vikhyaat hain. unhone nandavansh ka naash karke chandragupt maurya ko raaja banaaya. unke dvaara rachit arthashaastr raajaneeti, arthaneeti, krushi, samaajaneeti aadi ka mahaan grannth hai. arthashaastr mauryakaaleen bhaarateeya samaaj ka darpan maana jaata hai.

mudraaraakshas ke anusaar inka asli naam 'vishnugupt' tha. vishnupuraan, Bhagwat aadi puraanon tatha kathaasaritsaagar aadi sanskrut granthon mein to chaanakya ka naam aaya hi hai, bauddh grantho mein bhi iski katha baraabar milti hai. buddhaghosh ki banaai hui vinyapitk ki teeka tatha mahaanaam sthavir rachit mahaavansh ki teeka mein chaanakya ka vruttaant diya hua hai. chaanakya takshashila (ek nagar jo Rawalpindi ke paas tha) ke nivaasi the. inke jeevan ki ghatnaaon ka vishesh sambandh maurya chandragupt ki raajyapraapti se hai. ye us samay ke ek prasiddh vidvaan the, ismein koi sandeh naheen. kehte hain ki chaanakya raajasi thaat-baat se door ek chhoti si kutiya mein rahate the.

unke naam par ek dhaaraavaahik bhi bana tha jo dooradarshan par 1990 ke dashak mein dikhaaya jaata tha.

anukram

parichay

chadragupt ke saath chaanakya ki maitri ki katha is prakaar hai-

paataliputr ke raaja nand ya mahaanand ke yahaaain koi yagya tha. usamein ye bhi gaye aur bhojan ke samay ek pradhaan aasan par ja baithe. mahaaraaj nand ne inka kaala rang dekh inhein aasan par se uthava diya. ispar kruddh hokar inhonne yeh pratijnyaa ki ki jabatak main nandon ka naash na kar looainga tabatak apni shikha na baaaindhooainga. unheen dinon Rajkumar chandragupt raajya se nikaale gaye the. chadragupt ne chaanakya se mel kiya aur donon aadamiyon ne milkar mlechh raaja parvatak ki sena lekar paataliputr par chadhaai ki aur nandon ko yuddh mein paraast karke maar daala.

nandon ke naash ke sambandh mein kai prakaar ki kathaaeain hain. kaheen likha hai ki chaanakya ne shakataar ke yahaaain nirmaalya bheja jise chhoote hi mahaanand aur uske putr mar gaye. kaheen vishkanya bhejane ki katha likhi hai. mudraaraakshas naatak ke dekhene se jaana jaata hai ki nandon ka naash karne par bhi mahaanand ke mantri raakshas ke kaushal aur neeti ke kaaran chandragupt ko magadh ka sinhaasan praapt karne mein badi badi kathinaaiyaaain padeen. ant mein chaanakya ne apne neetibl se raakshas ko prasann kiya aur chandragupt ka mantri banaaya. bauddh grantho mein bhi isi prakaar ki katha hai, keval 'mahaanand' ke sthaan par 'dhananand' hai

jeevan-charit

chandragupt maurya ka saamraajya (323 isaapoorv)

yadyapi kautilya ke jeevan ke sambandh mein praamaanik tathyon ka abhaav hai. unke janmasthaan ke sambandh mein bhi matabhed paaya jaata hai.

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar kautilya ka janm Punjab ke 'chanak' kshetr mein hua tha, jabki kuchh vidvaan maanate hain ki usaka janm dakshin Bhaarat mein hua tha. kai vidvaanon ka yeh mat hai ki vah kaancheepuram ka rahane wala dravin braahman tha. vah jeevikopaarjan ki khoj mein uttar Bhaarat aaya tha. kuchh vidvaanon ke mataanusaar Kerala bhi usaka janm sthaan bataaya jaata hai. is sambandh mein uske dvaara charani nadi ka ullekh is baat ke pramaan ke roop mein diya jaata hai. kuchh sandarbhon mein yeh ullekh milta hai ki Kerala nivaasi vishnugupt teerthaatan ke liye Varanasi aaya tha, jahaaain usaki putri kho gayi. vah fir Kerala vaapas naheen lauta aur magadh mein aakar bas gaya. is prakaar ke vichaar rakhane vaale vidvaan use Kerala ke kutulloor naamaputri vansh ka vanshaj maanate hain. kai vidvaanon ne use magadh ka hi mool nivaasi maana hai. kuchh bauddh saahityon ne use takshashiksha ka nivaasi bataaya hai. kautilya ke janmasthaan ke sambandh mein atyadhik matabhed rahane ke kaaran nishchit roop se yeh kehna ki usaka janm sthaan kahaaain tha, kathin hai, parantu kai sandarbhon ke aadhaar par takshashila ko usaka janm sthaan maanana theek hoga.

vi. ke. subramanyam ne kaha hai ki kai sandarbhon mein is baat ka ullekh milta hai ki sikndar ko apne aakraman ke abhiyaan mein yuva kautilya se bheint hui thi. chooainki alekjeindar ka aakraman adhiktar takshashila kshetr mein hua tha, isliye yeh ummeed ki jaati hai ki kautilya ka janm sthaan takshashila kshetr mein hi raha hoga. kautilya ke pita ka naam chanak tha. vah ek gareeb braahman tha aur kisi tarah apna gujar-basar karta tha. at: spasht hai ki kautilya ka bachapan gareebi aur dikkaton mein gujara hoga. kautilya ki shiksha-deeksha ke sambandh mein kaheen kuchh vishesh jikr naheen milta hai, parantu usaki buddhi ka prakharata aur usaki vidvata uske vichaaron se parilkshit hoti hai. vah kuroop hote hue bhi shaareerik roop se balishth tha. usaki pustak 'arshashaastr' ke avlokan se usaki pratibha, uske bahuaayaami vyaktitv aur dooradarshita ka poorn aabhaas hota hai.

kautilya ke baare mein yeh kaha jaata hai ki vah bada hi svaabhimaani evam krodhi svabhaav ka vyakti tha. ek kinvadanti ke anusaar ek baar magadh ke raaja mahaanand ne shraaddh ke avsar par kautilya ko apamaanit kiya tha. kautilya ne krodh ke vasheebhoot hokar apni shikha kholkar yeh pratijnyaa ki thi ki jab tak vah nandavansh ka naash naheen kar dega tab tak vah apni shikha naheen baaaindheinga. kautilya ke vyaavahaarik raajaneeti mein pravesh karne ka yeh bhi ek bada kaaran tha. nandavansh ke vinaash ke baad usane chandragupt maurya ko raajagaddi par baithane mein har sambhav sahaayata ki. chandragupt maurya dvaara gaddi par aaseen hone ke baad use paraakrami banaane aur maurya saamraajya ka vistaar karne ke uddeshya se usane vyaavahaarik raajaneeti mein pravesh kiya. vah chandragupt maurya ka mantri bhi bana.

kai vidvaanon ne yeh kaha hai ki kautilya ne kaheen bhi apni rachana mein mauryavansh ya apne mantritv ke sambandh mein kuchh naheen kaha hai, parantu adhikaansh sroton ne is tathya ki sanpushti ki hai. 'arthashaastr' mein kautilya ne jis vijigeeshu raaja ka chitran prastut kiya hai, nishchit roop se vah chandragupt maurya ke liye hi sambodhit kiya gaya hai.

Bhaarat par sikndar ke aakraman ke kaaran chhote-chhote raajyon ki paraajaya se abhibhoot hokar kautilya ne vyaavahaarik raajaneeti mein pravesh karne ka sankalp kiya. usaki sarvopari ichha thi Bhaarat ko ek gauravashaali aur vishaal raajya ke roop mein dekhna. nishchit roop se chandragupt maurya usaki ichha ka kendra bindu tha. aachaarya kautilya ko ek or paarangat aur dooradarshi raajaneetijnya ke roop mein maurya saamraajya ka sansthaapak aur sanrakshak maana jaata hai, to doosari or use sanskruti saahitya ke itihaas mein apni atulaneeya evam adbhut kruti ke kaaran apne vishay ka ekamaatr vidvaan hone ka gaurav praapt hai. kautilya ki vidvata, nipunata aur dooradarshita ka bakhaan Bhaarat ke shaastron, kaavyon tatha anya granthon mein parivyaapt hai. kautilya dvaara nandavansh ka vinaash aur mauryavansh ki sthaapana se sambandhit katha vishnu puraan mein aati hai.

ati vidvaan aur maurya saamraajya ka mahaamantri hone ke baavajood kautilya ka jeevan saadagi ka jeevan tha. vah 'saada jeevan uchch vichaar' ka sahi prateek tha. usane apne mantritvakaal mein atyadhik saadagi ka jeevan bitaaya. vah ek chhota-se makaan mein rahata tha aur kaha jaata hai ki uske makaan ki deevaaron par gobar ke upale thope rahate the.

usaki maanyata thi ki raaja ya mantri apne charitra aur ooainche aadarshon ke dvaara logon ke saamane ek pratimaan de sakta hai. usane sadaiv maryaadaaon ka paalan kiya aur karmathata ki jindagi bitaayi. kaha jaata hai ki baad mein usane mantri pad tyaagakar vaanaprasth jeevan vyateet kiya tha. vastut: use dhan, yash aur pad ka koi lobh naheen tha. saaratatv mein vah ek 'vitraagi', 'tapasvi, karmath aur maryaadaaon ka paalan karanevaala vyakti tha, jiska jeevan aaj bhi anukaraneeya hai.

ek prakaand vidvaan tatha ek gambhir chintak ke roop mein kautilya to vikhyaat hai hi, ek vyaavahaarik evam chatur raajaneetijnya ke roop mein bhi use khyaati mili hai. nandavansh ke vinaash tatha magadh saamraajya ki sthaapana evam vistaar mein usaka aitihaasik yogadaan hai. saalaator ke kathanaanusaar praacheen bhaarateeya raajaneetik chintan mein kautilya ka sarvopari sthaan hai. maikiyaaveli ki bhaaainti kautilya ne bhi raajaneeti ko naitikta se pruthak kar ek svatantr shaastr ke roop mein adhyayan karne ka prayaas kiya hai. jaisa ki kaaha jaata h

naam, janmatithi aur janmasthaan

kautilya ka naam, janmatithi aur janmasthaan teenon hi vivaad ke vishay rahe hain. kautilya ke naam ke sambandh mein vidvaanon ke beech matabhed paaya jaata hai. kautilya ke 'arthashaastr' ke pratham anuvaadak pandit shaamaashaastri ne kautilya naam ka prayog kiya hai. 'kautilya naam' ki pramaanikta ko siddh karne ke liye pandit shaamaashaastri ne vishnu-puraan ka havaala diya hai jismein kaha gaya hai—

taannadaan kautalyo braahmanassamuddharishyati.

is sambandh mein ek vivaad aur utpann hua hai aur vah hai kautilya aur kautalya ka. ganapati shaastri ne 'kautilya' ke sthaan par 'kautalya' ko jyaada pramaanik maana hai. unke anusaar kutal gotr hone ke kaaran kautalya naam sahi aur sangat prateet hota hai. kaamandakeeya neetishaastr ke antargat kaha gaya hai—

kautalya iti gotranibndhana vishnu guptasya sanjnyaa.

saanbaashiv shaastri ne kaha hai ki ganapatishaastri ne sanbhavat: kautilya ko praacheen sant kutal ka vanshaj maankar kautalya naam ka prayog kiya hai, parantu is baat ka kaheen koi pramaan naheen milta hai ki kautilya sant kutal ke vansh aur gotr ka tha. 'kotilya' aur 'kautalya' naam ka vivaad aur bhi kai vidvaanon ne uthaaya hai. vi. A. raamaasvaami ne ganapatishaastri ke kathan ka samarthan kiya hai. aadhunik vidvaanon ne donon naamon ka prayog kiya hai. paashchaatya vidvaanon ne kautalya aur kautilya naam ke vivaad ko adhik mahattv naheen diya hai. unke mataanusaar is prakaar ki bhraanti hijje ke her-fer ke kaaran ho sakti hai. adhikaansh paashchaatya lekhakon ne kautilya naam ka hi prayog kiya hai. Bhaarat mein vidvaanon ne donon naamon ka prayog kiya hai, balki jyaadaatar kautilya naam ka hi prayog kiya hai. is sambandh mein raadhaakaant ka kathan bhi vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai. usane apni rachana 'shabdakalpadram' mein kaha hai

astu kautalya iti va kautilya iti ya chaanakyasya gotranaamadheyam.

kautilya ke aur bhi kai naamon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. jismein chaanakya naam prasiddh hai. kautilya ko chaanakya ke naam se pukaararane vaale kai vidvaanon ka mat hai ki chaanak ka putr hone ke kaaran yeh chaanakya kahalaaya. doosari or kuchh vidvaanon ke kathaanaanusaar usaka janm Punjab ke chanak kshetr mein hua tha, isliye use chaanakya kaha gaya hai, yadyapi is sambandh mein koi spasht pramaan naheen milta hai. ek baat spasht hai ki kautilya aur chaanakya ek hi vyakti hai.

uparyukt naamon ke alaava uske aur bhi kai naamon ka ullekh milta hai, jaise vishnugupt. kaha jaata hai ki usaka mool naam vishnugupt hi tha. uske pita ne usaka naam vishnugupt hi rakha tha. kautilya, chaanakya aur vishnugupt teenon naamon se sambandhit kai sandarbh milte hain, kintu in teenon naamon ke alaava uske aur bhi kai naamon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jaise vaatsyaayan, malang, draviml, angul, vaaraanak, kaatyaan ityaadi in bhinn-bhinn naamon mein kaun sa sahi naam hai aur kaun-sa galat naam hai, yeh vivaad ka vishay hai. parantu adhikaansh paashchaatya aur bhaarateeya vidvaanon ne 'arthashaastr' ke lekhak ke roop mein kautilya naam ka hi prayog kiya hai.

kuchh paashchaatya vidvaanon ne kautilya ke astitv par hi prashnavaachak chinh laga diya hai. vintaraneej, jolly aur keeth ke mataanusaar kautilya naam prateekaatmak hai, jo kootaneeti ka prateek hai. paantajali dvaara apne mahaabhaashya mein kautilya ka prasang naheen aane ke kaaran unke maton ka samarthan mila hai. jolly ne to yahaaain tak kah daala hai ki 'arthashaastr' kisi kautilya naamak vyakti ki kruti naheen hai. yeh kisi anya pandit ya aachaarya ka rachit granth hai. shaamaashaastri aur ganapatishaastri donon ne hi paashchaatya vichaarakon ke mat ka khandan kiya hai. donon ka yeh nishchaya mat hai ki kautilya ka poorn astitv tha, bhale hi uske naamon mein mataantar paaya jaata ho. vastut: in teenon paashchaatya vidvaanon ke dvaara kautilya ka astitv ko nakaarane ke liye jo bindu uthaae gaye hain, ve anargal evam mahattvaheen hain. paashchaatya vidvaanon ka yeh kehna hai ki kautilya ne is baat ka kaheen ullekh naheen kiya hai ki vah chandragupt maurya ke shaasanakaal mein amaatya ya mantri tha, isliye us 'arthashaastr' ka lekhan naheen maana ja sakta hai. yeh bachkaana tark hai. kautilya ke kai sandarbhon se yeh spasht ho chuka hai ki usane chandragupt maurya ki sahaayata se nandavansh ka naash kiya tha aur maurya saamraajya ki sthaapana ki thi.

kautilya ki krutiyaaain

kautilya ki krutiyon ke sambandh mein bhi kai vidvaanon ke beech matabhed paaya jaata hai. kautilya ki kitni krutiyaaain hain, is sambandh mein koi nishchit soochana upalabdh naheen hai. kautilya ki sabse mahattpoorn kruti arthashaastr ki charcha sarvatr milti hai, kintu anya rachanaaon ke sambandh mein kuchh vishesh ullekh naheen milta hai.

chaanakya ke shishya kaamandak ne apne 'neetisaar' naamak granth mein likha hai ki vishnugupt chaanakya ne apne buddhibl se arthashaastr roopi mahodadhi ko mathakar neetishaastr roopi amrut nikaala. chaanakya ka 'arthashaastr' sanskrut mein raajaneeti vishay par ek vilkshan granth hai. iske neeti ke shlok to ghar ghar prachalit hain. peechhe se logon ne inke neeti granthon se ghata badhaakar vruddhachaanakya, laghuchaanakya, bodhichaanakya aadi kai neetigranth sankalit kar liye. chaanakya sab vishyon ke pandit the. 'vishnugupt siddhaant' naamak inka ek jyotish ka granth bhi milta hai. kehte hain, aayurved par bhi inka likha 'vaidyajeevan' naam ka ek granth hai. nyaaya bhaashyakaar vaatsyaayan aur chaanakya ko koi koi ek hi maanate hain, par yeh bhram hai jiska mool hemachand ka yeh shlok hai:

vaatsyaayan mallanaag:, kautilyashchanakaatmaj:.
draamil: pakshilsvaami vishnu guptoऽङagulashch s:..

yon dhaatukautilya aur raajaneeti naamak rachanaaon ke saath kautilya ka naam joda gaya hai. kuchh vidvaanon ka yeh maanana hai ki 'arthashaastr' ke alaava yadi kautilya ki anya rachanaaon ka ullekh milta hai, to vah kautilya ki sooktiyon aur kathanon ka sankalan ho sakta hai.

kautilya ka arthashaastr

chaanakya ki raajya ki avadhaarana

raajya ki utpatti ke sandarbh mein kautilya ne spasht roop se kuchh naheen kaha kintu kuchh sanyogavash ki gayi tippaniyon se spasht hota hai ki vah raajya ke daivi siddhaant ke sthaan par saamaajik samjhaute ka pakshadhar tha. haubs, lauk tatha rooso ki tarah raajya ki utpatti se poorv ki praakrutik dasha ko vah araajakata ki sanjnyaa deta hai. raajya ki utpatti tab hui jab 'matsya nyaaya' ke kaanoon se tang aakar logon ne manu ko apna raaja chuna tatha apni krushi upaj ka chhatha bhaag tatha svarn ka dasava bhaag use dena sveekaar kiya. iske badle mein raaja ne unki suraksha tatha kalyaan ka uttaradaayitv sambhaala. kautilya raajatantr ka pakshadhar hai.

raajya ke tattv : saptaang siddhaant

kautilya ne paashchaatya raajaneetik chintakon dvaara pratipaadit raajya ke chaar aavashyak tattvon - bhoomi, janasankhya, sarkaar va sabhprabhuta ka vivran na dekar raajya ke saat tattvon ka vivechan kiya hai. is sambandh mein vah raajya ki paribhaasha naheen deta kintu pehle se chale aa rahe saaptaang siddhaant ka samarthan karta hai. kautilya ne raajya ki tulana maanav-shareer se ki hai tatha uske saavayav roop ko sveekaar kiya hai. raajya ke sabhi tattv maanav shareer ke ango ke samaan paraspar sambandhit, antanirbhar tatha mil-julakar kaarya karte hain-

svaamyamaatyajanapadadurgakoshadandamitraani prakrutay: .arthashaastr 06.1.01.
  • (1) svaami (raaja) sheersh ke tulya hai. vah kuleen, buddhimaan, saahasi, dhairyavaan, sanyami, dooradarshi tatha yuddh-kala mein nipun hona chaahiye.
  • (2) amaatya (mantri) raajya ki aaainkhe hain. is shabd ka prayog kautilya ne mantreegan, sachiv, prashaasanik va nyaayik padaadhikaariyon ke liye bhi kiya hai. ve apne hi desh ke janmajaat naagrik, uchch kul se sambandhit, charitravaan, yogya, vibhinn kalaaon mein nipun tatha svaameebhakt hone chaahiye.
  • (3) janapad (bhoomi tatha praja ya janasankhya) raajya ki janghaaeain athva pair hain, jin par raajya ka astitv tika hai. kautilya ne upajaaoo, praakrutik sansaadhanon se paripoorn, pashudhan, nadiyon, taalaabon tatha vanyapradesh pradhaan bhoomi ko upayukt bataaya hai.

janasankhya mein krushakon, udyamiyon tatha aarthik utpaadan mein yogadaan dene waali praja sammilit hai. praja ko svaamibhkt, parishrami tatha raaja ki aajnyaa ka paalan karne wala hona chaahiye.

  • (4) durg (kila) raajya ki baahein hain, jinka kaarya raajya ki raksha karna hai. raaja ko aise kilon ka nirmaan karavaana chaahiye, jo aakramak yuddh hetu tatha rakshaatmak drushtikon se laabhakaari hon. kautilya ne chaar prakaar ke durgon-audik (jal) durg, parvat (pahaadi) durg, vanadurg (jangali) tatha dhanvan (marusthaleeya) durg ka varnan kiya hai.
  • (5) kosh (raajakosh) raaja ke mukh ke samaan hai. kosh ko raajya ka sarvaadhik mahattvapoorn tattv maana gaya hai, kyonki raajya ke sanchaalan tatha yuddh ke samay dhan ki aavashyakta hoti hai. kosh itna prachur hona chaahiye ki kisi bhi viptti ka saamana karne mein sahaayak ho. kosh mein dhan-vruddhi hetu kautilya ne kai upaaya bataae hain. sankatakaal mein raajasv praapti hetu vah raaja ko anuchit tareeke apnaane ki bhi salaah deta hai.
  • (6) dand (bal, danda ya sena) raajya ka mastishk hain. praja tatha shatru par niyantran karne ke liye bal athva sena atyadhik aavashyak tattv hai. kautilya ne sena ke chh: prakaar bataae hain. jaise-vanshaanugat sena, vetan par niyukt ya kiraae ke sainik, sainya nigmon ke sainik, mitr raajya ke sainik, shatru raajya ke sainik tatha aadivaasi sainik. sankatakaal mein vaishya tatha shoodron ko bhi sena mein bharti kiya ja sakta hai. sainikon ko dhairyavaan, daksh, yuddh-kushal tatha raashtrabhakt hona chaahiye. raaja ko bhi sainikon ki sukh-suvidhaaon ka dhyaan rakhana chaahiye. kautilya ne dandaneeti ke chaar lakshya bataae hain- apraapya vastu ko praapt karna, praapt vastu ki raksha karna, rakshit vastu ka sanvardhan karna tatha sanvakhradhat vastu ko uchit paatron mein baaaintana.
  • (7) suhrud (mitr) raajya ke kaan hain. raaja ke mitr shaanti va yuddhakaal donon mein hi usaki sahaayata karte hain. is sambandh mein kautilya sahaj (aadarsh) tatha krutrim mitr mein bhed karta hai. sahaj mitr krutrim mitr se adhik shreshth hota hai. jis raaja ke mitr lobhi, kaami tatha kaayar hote hain, usaka vinaash avashyambhaavi ho jaata hai.

is prakaar kautilya ka saptaang siddhaant raajya ke saavayav svaroop (Organic form) ka niroopan karte hue sabhi ango (tattvon) ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika par prakaash daalata hai. yadyapi yeh siddhaant raajya ki aadhunik paribhaasha se mel naheen khaata, kintu kautilya ke raajya mein aadhunik raajya ke chaaron tattv vidyamaan hain. janapad bhoomi va janasankhya hai, amaatya sarkaar ka bhaav hai tatha svaami (raaja) samprabhutta ka prateek hai. kosh ka mahattv raajaprabandh, vikaas va sanvardhan mein hai tatha sena aantarik shaanti vyavastha tatha baahari suraksha ke liye aavashyak hai. videshi maamalon mein mitr mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai, kintu durg ka sthaan aadhunik yug mein suraksha-pratirksha ke anya upakaranon ne le liya hai.

raajya ka kaarya

praacheen bhaarateeya raajaneetik chintan ka anukaran karte hue kautilya ne bhi raajatantr ki sankalpana ko apne chintan ka kendra banaaya hai. vah laukik maamalon mein raaja ki shakti ko sarvopari maanata hai, parantu karttavyon ke maamalon mein vah swayam dharm mein baindha hai. vah dharm ka vyaakhyaata naheen, balki rakshak hai. kautilya ne raajya ko apne aap mein saadhya maanate hue saamaajik jeevan mein use sarvochch sthaan diya hai. raajya ka hit sarvopari hai jiske liye kai baar vah naitikta ke siddhaanto ko bhi pare rakh deta hai.

kautilya ke anusaar raajya ka uddeshya keval shaanti-vyavastha tatha suraksha sthaapit karna naheen, varan vyakti ke sarvochch vikaas mein yogadaan dena hai. kautilya ke anusaar raajya ke kaarya hain-

suraksha sambandhi kaarya

vaahya shatruon tatha aakramanakaariyon se raajya ko surakshit rakhana, aantarik vyavastha nyaaya ki raksha tatha daivi (praakrutik aapadaaon) vipttiyon- baadh, bhookamp, durbhiksh, aag, mahaamaari, ghaatak jantuon se praja ki raksha raaja ke kaarya hain.

svadharm ka paalan karaana

svadharm ke antargat varnaashram dharm (varn tatha aashram paddhati) par bal diya gaya hai. yadyapi kautilya manu ki tarah dharm ko sarvopari maankar raajya ko dharm ke adheen naheen karta, kintu praja dvaara dharm ka paalan na kiye jaane par raaja dharm ka sanrakshan karta hai.

saamaajik daayitv

raaja ka karttavya sarvasaadhaaran ke liye saamaajik nyaaya ki sthaapana karna hai. saamaajik vyavastha ka samuchit sanchaalan tabhi sanmbhav hai, jabki pita-putr, pati-patni, guru-shishya aadi apne daayitvon ka nirvaah karein. vivaah-vichhed ki sthiti mein vah stri-purush ke samaan adhikaaron par bal deta hai. streevadh tatha braahman-hatya ko gambheer aparaadh maana gaya hai.

janakalyaan ke kaarya

kautilya ke raajya ka kaarya-kshetr atyant vyaapak hai. vah raajya ko maanav ke bahumukhi vikaas ka daayitv saunpakar use aadhunik yug ka kalyaanakaari raajya bana deta hai. usane raajya ko anek kaarya saunpe hain. jaise- baaaindh, taalaab va sinchaai ke anya saadhanon ka nirmaan, khaanon ka vikaas, banjar bhoomi ki jutaai, pashupaalan, vanyavikaas aadi. inke alaava saarvajanik manoranjan raajya ke niyantran mein tha. anaathon nirdhanon, apango ki sahaayata, stri sammaan ki raksha, punakhravavaah ki vyavastha aadi bhi raajya ke daayitv the.

is prakaar kautilya ka raajya sarvavyaapak raajya hai. jan-kalyaan tatha achhe prashaasan ki sthaapana usaka lakshya hai, jismein dharm va naitikta ka prayog ek saadhan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. kautilya ka kehna hai,

''praja ki prasannata mein hi raaja ki prasannata hai. praja ke liye jo kuchh bhi laabhakaari hai, usamein usaka apna bhi laabh hai.''

ek anya sthaan par usane likha hai.

''bal hi satta hai, adhikaar hai. in saadhanon ke dvaara saadhya hai prasannata.''

is sambandh mein sailetore ka kathan hai, ''jis raajya ke paas satta tatha adhikaar hai, usaka ekamaatr uddeshya apni praja ki prasannata mein vruddhi karna hai. is prakaar kautilya ne ek kalyaanakaari raajya ke kaaryon ko uchit roop mein nirdeshit kiya hai.''

kootaneeti tatha raajyashilp

kautilya ne na keval raajya ke aantarik kaarya, balki vaahya kaaryon ki bhi vistaar se charcha ki hai. is sambandh mein vah videsh neeti, antarraashtreeya sambandhon tatha yuddh va shaanti ke niyamon ka vivechan karta hai. kootaneeti ke sambandhon ka vishleshan karne hetu usane mandal siddhaant pratipaadit kiya hai-

mandal siddhaant

kautilya ( chaanakya) ne apne mandal siddhaant mein vibhinn raajyon dvaara doosare raajyon ke prati apnaai neeti ka varnan kiya. praacheen kaal mein Bhaarat mein anek chhote-chhote raajyon ka astitv tha. shaktishaali raaja yuddh dvaara apne saamraajya ka vistaar karte the. raajya kai baar suraksha ki drushti se anya raajyon mein samjhauta bhi karte the. kautilya ke anusaar yuddh va vijay dvaara apne saamraajya ka vistaar karne vaale raaja ko apne shatruon ki apekshaakrut mitron ki sankhya badhaani chaahiye, taaki shatruon par niyantran rakha ja sake. doosari or nirbal raajyon ko shaktishaali padosi raajyon se satark rahana chaahiye. unhein samaan star vaale raajyon ke saath milkar shaktishaali raajyon ki vistaar-neeti se bachane hetu ek gut ya 'mandal' banaana chaahiye. kautilya ka mandal siddhaant bhaugolik aadhaar par yeh darshaata hai ki kis prakaar vijay ki ichha rakhane vaale raajya ke padosi desh (raajya) uske mitr ya shatru ho sakte hain. is siddhaant ke anusaar mandal ke kendra mein ek aisa raaja hota hai, jo anya raajyon ko jeetne ka ichhuk hai, ise ''vijeegeeshu'' kaha jaata hai. ''vijeegeeshu'' ke maarg mein aane wala sabse pehla raajya ''ari'' (shatru) tatha shatru se laga hua raajya ''shatru ka shatru'' hota hai, at: vah vijeegeeshu ka mitr hota hai. kautilya ne ''madhyam'' va ''udaaseen'' raajyon ka bhi varnan kiya hai, jo saamarthya hote hue bhi rananeeti mein bhaag naheen lete.

kautilya ka yeh siddhaant yathaarthavaad par aadhaarit hai, jo yuddhon ko antarraashtreeya sambandhon ki vaastavikta maankar sandhi va samjhaute dvaara shakti-santulan banaane par bal deta hai.

chh: sootreeya videsh neeti

kautilya ne videsh sambandhon ke sanchaalan hetu chh: prakaar ki neetiyon ka vivran diya hai-

  • (1) sandhi shaanti banaae rakhane hetu samatulya ya adhik shaktishaali raaja ke saath sandhi ki ja sakti hai. aatmaraksha ki drushti se shatru se bhi sandhi ki ja sakti hai. kintu iska lakshya shatru ko kaalaantar nirbal banaana hai.
  • (2) vigrah ya shatru ke viruddh yuddh ka nirmaan.
  • (3) yaan ya yuddh ghoshit kiye bina aakraman ki taiyaari,
  • (4) aasan ya tatasthata ki neeti,
  • (5) sanshraya arthaat aatmaraksha ki drushti se raaja dvaara anya raaja ki sharan mein jaana,
  • (6) dvaidheebhaav arthaat ek raaja se shaanti ki sandhi karke anya ke saath yuddh karne ki neeti.

kautilya ke anusaar raaja dvaara in neetiyon ka prayog raajya ke kalyaan ki drushti se hi kiya jaana chaahiye.

kootaneeti aacharan ke chaar siddhaant

kautilya ne raajya ki videsh neeti ke sandarbh mein kootaneeti ke chaar siddhaanton saam (samajhaana, bujhaana), daam (dhan dekar santusht karna), dand (balaprayog, yuddh) tatha bhed (foot daalna) ka varnan kiya. kautilya ke anusaar pratham do siddhaanton ka prayog nirbal raajaaon dvaara tatha antim do siddhaanton ka prayog sabal raajaaon dvaara kiya jaana chaahiye, kintu usaka yeh bhi mat hai ki saam daam se, daam bhed se aur bhed dand se shreyaskar hai. dand (yuddh) ka prayog antim upaaya ke roop mein kiya jaae, kyonki isse swayam ki bhi kshati hoti hai.

guptachar vyavastha

kautilya ne guptacharon ke prakaaron va kaaryon ka vistaar se varnan kiya hai. guptachar vidyaarthi gruhapati, tapasvi, vyaapaari tatha vish -kanyaaon ke roop mein ho sakte the. raajadoot bhi guptachar ki bhoomika nibhaate the. inka kaarya desh-videsh ki gupt soochanaaeain raaja tak pahuainchaana hota tha. ye janamat ki sthiti ka aankalan karne, vidrohiyon par niyantran rakhane tatha shatru raajya ko nasht karne mein yogadaan dete the. kautilya ne guptacharon ko raaja dvaara dhan va maan dekar santusht rakhane ka sujhaav diya hai.

chaanakya aur makiyaaveli

yeh satya hai ki kautilya ne raashtra ki raksha ke liye gupt pranidhiyon ke ek vishaal sangathan ka varnan kiya hai. shatrunaash ke liye vishkanya, ganika, aupanishdik prayog, abhichaar mantra aadi anaitik evam anuchit upaayon ka vidhaan hai aur is uddeshya ki praapti ke liye mahaan dhan-vyaya tatha dhan-kshaya ko bhi (sumahataaऽpi kshayavyayen shatruvinaashoऽbhyupagantavya:) raashtra-neeti ke anukool ghoshit kiya hai.

'kautilya arthashaastr' mein aisi charchaaon ko dekhkar hi mudraaraakshasakaar kavi vishaakhaadatt chaanakya ko kutilmati (kautilya: kutilmati:) kaha hai aur baanabhatt ne 'kautilya arthashaastr' ko 'nirgun' tatha 'atinrushansapraayopadesham' (nirdayata tatha nrushansata ka upadesh dene wala) kehkar nindit batalaaya hai. 'manyajushri moolakalp' naam ki ek naveen upalabdh aitihaasik kruti mein kautilya ko 'durmati', krodhan aur 'paapak' pukaarakar garha ka paatr pradarshit kiya gaya hai.

praachyavidya ke visheshagya anek aadhunik paashchaatya vidvaanon ne bhi uparyukt anaitik vyavasthaaon ko dekhkar kautilya ki tulana Europe ke prasiddh lekhak aur raajaneetijnya mekiyaavali se ki hai, jisne apni pustak 'the prins' mein raaja ko lakshya-praapti ke liye uchit anuchit sabhi saadhanon ka aashray lene ka upadesh diya hai. vintaranitj aadi paashchaatya vidvaan kautilya tatha mekiyaavali mein nimnalikhit samaanataaen pradarshit karte hain:

  • (k) mekiyaavali aur kautilya donon raashtra ko hi sab kuchh samajhte hain. ve raashtra ko apne mein hi uddeshya maanate hain.
  • (kh) kautilya-neeti ka mukhya aadhaar hai, 'aatmodaya: paraglaani;' arthaat doosaron ki haani par apna abhyudaya karna. mekiyaavali ne bhi doosare deshon ki haani par apne desh ki abhivruddhi karne ka paksh-poshan kiya hai. donon ek samaan sveekaar karte hain ki is prayojan ki siddhi ke liye kitne bhi dhan tatha jan ke vyaya se shatru ka vinaash avashya karna chaahiye.
  • (g) apne uddeshya ki siddhi ke liye kisi bhi saadhan, naitik ya anaitik, ka aashray lena anuchit naheen hai. mekiyaavali aur kautilya donon ka mat hai ki saadhya ko siddh karna hi raaja ka ekamaatr lakshya hona chaahiye. saadhanon ke auchitya ya anauchitya ki use chinta naheen karni chaahiye.
  • (gh) donon yuddh ko raashtra-neeti ka aavashyak ang maanate hain. donon ki sammati mein pratyek raashtra ko yuddh ke liye udyat rahana chaahiye, kyonki isi ke dvaara desh ki seema tatha prabhaav ka vistaar ho sakta hai.
  • (ङ) apni praja mein aatank sthaapit karke drudhta tatha nirdayata se us par shaasan karna donon ek samaan pratipaadit karte hain. donon ek vishaal susangathit guptachar vibhaag ki sthaapana ka samarthan karte hain, jo praja ke pratyek paarshv mein pravesh karke raaja ke prati usaki bhakti ki pareeksha kare aur shatru se sahaanubhooti rakhane vaale logon ko gupt upaayon se nasht karne ka yatn kare.

kautilya tatha mekiyaavali mein aisi sadrushata dikhaana yuktisangat naheen. nissandeh kautilya bhi mekiyaavali ke samaan yathaarthavaadi tha aur keval aadarshavaad ka anuyaayi na tha. parantu yeh kehna ki kautilya ne dharm ya naitikta ko sarvatha tilaannyajali de di thi, satyata ke vipreet hoga. kautilya ne 'arthashaastr' ke pratham adhikran mein hi sthaapana ki hai;

tasmaat svadharm bhootaanaan raaja na vyabhichaarayet.
svadharm sandadhaano hi, pretya cheh na nandati. (1/3)

arthaat- raaja praja ko apne dharm se chyut na hone de. raaja bhi apne dharm ka aacharan kare. jo raaja apne dharm ka is bhaanti aacharan karta hai, vah is lok aur paralok mein sukhi rahata hai.

isi pratham adhikran mein hi raaja dvaara amaryaadaaon ko vyavasthit karne par bhi bal diya gaya hai aur varn tatha aashram-vyavastha ko sudrudh karne ke liye aadesh diya gaya hai. yahaan par trayi tatha vaidik anushthaan ko praja ke sanrakshan ka mool aadhaar batalaaya gaya hai. kautilya ne sthaan-sthaan par raaja ko vruddhon ki sangat karne wala, vidya se vinmr, jitendriya aur kaam-krodh aadi shatru-shadvarg ka daman karne wala kaha hai. aisa raaja adhaarmik athva atyaachaari bankar kis prakaar praja-peedn kar sakta hai ? iske vipreet raaja ko praja ke liye pitru-tulya kaha gaya hai, jo apni praja ka paalan-poshan, sanvardhan, sanrakshan, bharan, shikshan ityaadi vaisa hi karta hai jaisa vah apni santaan ka karta hai.

yeh theek hai ki kautilya ne shatrunaash ke liye anaitik upaayon ke karne ka bhi upadesh diya hai. parantu is sambandh mein arthashaastr ke nimn vachan ko naheen bhoolana chaahiye:

evam dooshyeshu adhaarmikeshu vartet, na itareshu. (5/2)

arthaat- in kootaneeti ke upaayon ka vyavahaar keval adhaarmik evam dusht logon ke saath hi kare, dhaarmik logon ke saath naheen. (dharmayuddh mein bhi adhaarmik vyavahaar sarvatha varjit tha. keval koot-yuddh mein adhaarmik shatru ko nasht karne ke liye iska prayog kiya ja sakta tha.)

moolyaankan

chaanakya ki neeti ka prabhaav : 250 isaapoorv mein maurya saamraajya ; apne charamotkarsh par yeh saamraajya mugal saamraajaya ya british saamraajya se bhi vishaal tha.

kautilya ka raajya-siddhaant bhaarateeya raajaneetik chintan hetu mahattvapoorn den hai. usane raajaneetik shaastr ko dhaarmikta ki or adhik jhuke hone ki pravrutti se mukt kiya. yadyapi vah dharm va naitikta ka virodh naheen karta, kintu usane raajaneeti ko saadhaaran naitikta ke bandhanon se mukt rakha hai. is drushti se uske vichaar Europeeya daarshanik maikyaavali ke vichaaron ka poorv sanket prateet hote hain. is aadhaar par use ''Bhaarat ka maikayaavali'' bhi kaha jaata hai. seleetor ka mat hai ki kautilya ki tulana arastu se karna uchit hoga, kyonki donon hi satta hastagat karne ke sthaan par raajya ke uddeshyon ko adhik mahattv dete hain. yathaarthavaadi hone ke naate kautilya ne raajya ke vyavahaarik paksh par adhik dhyaan kendrit kiya hai. kautilya ka raajya yadyapi sarvaadhikaari hai, kintu vah janahit ke prati udaaseen naheen hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain