chaalukya raajavansh

chaalukya praacheen Bhaarat ka ek prasiddh gurjar raajavansh tha. inki rajdhani baadaami (vaataapi) thi. apne mahattam vistaar ke samay (saataveen sadi) yeh vartamaan samay ke sampoorn Karnataka, pashchimi Maharashtra, dakshini madhya pradesh, tateeya dakshini Gujarat tatha pashchimi Andhra pradesh mein faila hua tha.

anukram

parichay

chaalukya raajavansh kai shaakhaaon mein vibhkt tha. yeh maanyata hai ki ve (chaalukya) solanki vansh ke hi samaroop the, kyonki ve bhi is roodhi mein vishvaas karte the ki parivaar ka adhishthaata brahma ki hatheli se utpann hua tha. yeh bhi kibdanti hai ki chaalukyon ka mool vaasasthaan ayodhya tha, jahaaain se chalakar us parivaar ka Rajkumar vijyaaditya dakshin pahuaincha aur vahaaain apna raajya sthaapit karne ke prayatn mein pallavon se yuddh karta hua maara gaya. uske putr vishnuvardhan ne kadanbo aur gangon ko paraast kiya aur vahaaain apne raajya ki sthaapana ki. vansh ki rajdhani Bijapur jile mein basaai thi. vishnuvardhan ka ek uttaraadhikaari keertivrman pratham tha, jo chhathi shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein hua tha. usane kadanbon, gangaan aur mauryon ko paraajit karke apne poorvajon dvaara arjit pradesh mein kuchh aur bhaag mila liye. pulakeshin dviteeya, kubj vishnuvardhan aur jayasinh uske teen putr the aur chhathi shataabdi ke ant mein usaka uttaraadhikaar uske chhote bhaai mangalesh ko praapt hua. mangalesh ne 602 E. ke poorv malava ke kalachureeya buddharaaj ko paraast kiya aur dakshin mein kalachuri raajya ke vistaar ko roka. usane apne putr ko raajya ka uttaraadhikaari banaane ka prayatn kiya, kintu uske bhateeje pulakeshin dviteeya ne iska virodh kiya. falasvaroop gruhayuddh mein mangalesh ke jeevan ka ant hua. pulakeshin dviteeya ne jo 609 mein sinhaasan par baitha, ek bada yuddh abhiyaan jaari kiya aur Mysore ke kandab, konkan ke maurya, kannauj ke harshavardhan aur kaanchi ke pallavon ko paraast kiya tatha laat, maalava, gurjar aur kaling par vijay praapt ki. uske chhote bhaai vishnuvardhan ne apne liye Andhra pradesh jeeta to baadaami raajya mein mila liya gaya. usane san 615- 616 mein is Rajkumar ko Andhra ka mukhya shaasak niyukt kiya aur tab usaka shaasan Rajkumar aur uske uttaraadhikaariyon ke haath mein raha, jo poorvi chaalukyon ke roop mein prasiddh the. sambhavat: pulakeshin dviteeya ne pallav narasinh varman se san 642 mein vuddh karte hue praan diye. uske raajyakaal mein san 641 mein ek cheeni yaatri yuvaanachvaaङ ne uske raajya ka bhraman kiya, jiske sansmaranon se us kaal mein dakshin ki aantarik sthiti ki jhalak praapt ho sakti hai. pulakeshin dviteeya ki mrutyu ke pashchaat 13 varsh tak dakshin ka praant pallavon ke adhikaar mein raha. 655 E. mein uske bete vikramaaditya pratham ne pallavon ke adhikaar se apna raajya pun: praapt kar liya. usane apni senaaeain lekar pallavon par aakraman kar diya aur pradesh ke ek bhaag par apna prabhutv sthaapit kar liya, yadyapi vah prabhutv bahut alp samay tak hi raha. uske prapautr vikramaaditya dviteeya ne pallavon se pun: bair thaan liya aur usaki rajdhani kaanchi ko loot liya. vikramaaditya dviteeya ke raajyakaalaantargat (733-745 E.) chaalukya raajya ke uttari bhaag par sindh ke arabon ne aadhiptya jama liya, kintu avanijnaashraya pulakeshi naam ke uske saamant ne, jo chaalukya vansh ki paarshvavarti shaakha ka sadasya tha tatha jisk mukhya sthaan nausaari mein tha, aadhiptyakaariyon ko khadedkar baahar kar diya. usaka putr aur uttaraadhikaari keertivrman dviteeya aathaveen shataabdi ke madhya raashtrakoot daaneedurg dvaara padachyut kiya gaya.

isi kaal mein baadaami chaalukyon ka mahattam saamraajya

jaisa isse poorv kaha ja chuka hai, kubj vishnuvardhan, pulakeshin dviteeya ka chhota bhaai, jo chaalukya saamraajya ke poorvi bhaag ka adhishthaata tha, 1915-16 E. mein Andhra ki rajdhani beingi ke sinhaasan par baitha. poorvi chaalukyavanshiyon ko raashtrakooton se deerghakaaleen yuddh karna pada. ant mein raashtrakooton ne chaalukyon ki baadaami shaasak shaakha ko apadasth kar diya aur dakshin par adhikaar kar liya. raashtrakoot Rajkumar govind dviteeya ne Andhra par adhikaar kar liya aur tatkaaleen shaasak kubj vishnuvardhan ke doorasth uttaraadhikaari, vishnuvardhan chaturth ko aatmasamarpan ke liye baadhya kiya. vishnuvardhan chaturth apne mukhiya govind dviteeya ke paksh mein raashtrakoot dhruv truteeya ke viruddh bandhughaatak yuddh lada aur uske saath paraajaya ka saajheedaar bana. usane dhruv truteeya aur uske putr evam uttaraadhikaari govind truteeya ke prabhatv ko maanyata de di. tadanantar putr vijyaaditya dviteeya kai varshon tak svatantrata ke liye govind truteeya se lada, kintu asafal raha. raashtrakoot samraat ne use apadasth kar diya aur Andhra ke sinhaasan ke liye bheem salukki ko manoneet kiya. govind truteeya ki mrutyu ke pashchaat uske uttaraadhikaari amoghavarsh pratham ke raajyakaal mein vijyaaditya ne bheem salukki ko paraast kar diya, Andhra par pun: adhikaar kar liya or dakshin ko jeetata hua, vijyakaal mein kainbe (khanbhaat) tak pahuainch gaya jo dhvast kar diya gaya tha. tatpashchaat uske pratihaar raajya par aakraman kiya kintu pratihaar vaagbhatt dviteeya dvaara paraajit hua. ghatanaavashaat shatruon mein tang aakar use apne desh ki sharan leni padi. vijyaaditya dviteeya ke pautr vijyaaditya truteeya (844-888i.) ne uttari arkaat ke pallavon ko paraajit kiya, tanjor ke kolaaon ko unke desh ke pandyaaon par punarvijya mein sahaayata di, raashtrakoot Krishna dviteeya aur uske sabandhi dahaal ke kalachuri sankaragan aur kaaling ke gangon ko paraast kiya aur kirnapuaa tatha chakrakoot nagaron ko jalwa diya. 10veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein guhayuddh hua aur badap ne, jo chaalukya saamrajya ka paarshvavarti bhaag tha, raashtrakoot Krishna truteeya ko sahaayata dekar tatkaleen chaalukya shaasak daanaarnav ko paraast kar diya. fir veingo ke sinhaasan par avaidh adhikaar kar liya, jahaaain par usane aur use uttaraadhikaariyon ne 999 E. tak raajya kiya. ant mein daanaarnav ke putr shaktivrman ne sabhi shatruon ko paraast karne aur apne desh mein apna prabhutv sthaapit karne mein safalta praapt ki. shaktivrman ka uttaraadhikaar uske chhote bhaai vimlaaditya ne sainbhaala. uske pashchaat usaka putr raajaraaj (1018-60) uttaraadhikaari hua. raajaraaj ne tanjor ke raajeindrachol pratham ki kanya se vivaah kiya aur usase usako kulottung naam ka putr utpann hua jo apne jeevan ke praarambhik dinon mein chol rajdhani mein apni naani tatha raajeindrachol ki raani ke paas raha. san 1060 mein raajaraaj apne sautele bhaai vikramaaditya saptam dvaara adasth kiya gaya jo veingi ke sinhaasan par 1076 tak raha. san 1070 mein raajaraaj ke putr kulottung ne chol desh par saarvabhaumik shaasan kiya aur san 1076 mein apne chaacha vijaaditya saptam ko paraajit kar Andhra ko apne raajya mein mila liya. kulottung aur uske uttaraadhikaari, jo "chol" kahalaana pasand karte the, san 1271 tak chol desh par shaasan karte rahe.

oopar iska ullekh kiya ja chuka hai ki baadaami ka chaalukya keertivrman dviteeya 8veen shati ke madhyabhaag mein raashtrakooton dvaara padachyut kar diya gaya, jinhonne baad mein dakshin mein do sau varshon se adhik kaal tak raajya kiya. is kaal mein keertivrman dviteeya ka bhaai bheem aur uske uttaraadhikaari raashtrakooton ke saamanton ki haisiyat se Bijapur jile mein raajya karte rahe. in saanmaton mein antim tail dviteeya ne dakshin mein raashtrakooton ke shaasan ko samaapt kar diya aur 973 E. mein desh mein saarvabhaum satta sthaapit kar li. vah badi safalta ke saath cholon aur gangon se lada aur maalava ke raaja munj ko bandi bana liya, jise ant mein usane marava diya. tail ki praarambhik rajdhani maanyakhet thi. san 993 ke kuchh dinon pashchaat rajdhani ka sthaanaantaran kalyaani mein ho gaya jo ab Bihar mein hai. tail ka pautr jayasinh (san 1015-1042) paramaar bhoj aur raajeindr chol se safalataapoorvak lada. jayasinh ka beta someshvar (1042-1068) bhi cholon se badi safalataapoorvak lada aur laal, maalava tatha gurjar ko raund daala. usaka uttaraadhikaar uske putr someshvar dviteeya ne 1069 mein sainbhaala jise uske chhote bhaai vikramaaditya shashth ne 1076 E. mein apadasth kar diya. vikramaaditya kulottung pratham se Andhra desh par adhikaar karne ke nimitt lada. yuddh ke vibhinn parinaam hue aur kulottang pratham ki mrutyu ke pashchaat (1018 E.) kuchh kaal tak ke liye vikramaaditya ne us pradesh kar apna prabhutv sthaapit rakha. usane dvaarasamudr ke "hoyasalon" aur devagiri ke yaadavon ke vidrohon ka daman kiya aur laal tatha gurjar ko loot liya. uske darbaar ki shobha Kashmiri kavi "vilhan" se thi, jisne vikramaankadevacharit likha hai. vikramaaditya shashth ke pautr tail truteeya ke shaasanakaal mein san 1156 mein kalachuri bijjal ne dakshin par saarvabhaum adhikaar kar liya aur chaalukya samraat ki mrutyu ke pashchaat san 1163 mein apne ko samraat ghoshit kar diya. tail truteeya ke putr someshvar chaturth ne 1181 mein kalachuri se pun: raajasinhaasan chheen liya, kintu 1184 ke lagbhag fir Yadav bhillam ko samarpan karna pada. uske uttaraadhikaariyon ke vishay mein kuchh bhi gyaat naheen hain. chaalukyavansh ki teen pramukh shaakhaaon ke saath, jinka ullekh pehle kiya ja chuka hai, kuchh doosari shaakhaaeain bhi theen jinhonne dakshin Andhra aur Gujarat aadi ke kuchh bhaagon mein praarambhik kaal mein shaasan kiya.

sanskruti

baadaami ke chaalukya

uttari Karnataka ke pattadakal mein praacheen kannad abhilekh

chaalukya nareshon ki poorn upaadhi satyaashraya shri pruthiveevallabh mahaaraajaadhiraaj parameshvar bhattaarak thi. ismein se parameshvar ka sarvapratham upayog harshavardhan par pulakeshin dviteeya ki vijay ke baad hua aur mahaaraajaadhiraaj tatha bhattaarak sarvapratham vikramaaditya pratham ke samay prayukt hue. raajavansh ke yogya vyaktiyon ko raajya mein adhikaar ke padon par niyukt kiya jaata tha. raajya mein raaniyon ka mahatav bhi naganya naheen hota tha. vijit pradesh ke shaasakon ko vijeta ki adheenata sveekaar kar lene par shaasan par adhikaar fir se praapt ho jaata tha. abhilekhon mein saamant aur mahattar ke atirikt vishyapati, deshadhipti, mahaasaandhivigrahik, gaamund, graamabhogik aur karan ke ullekh milte hain. raajya raashtra, vishay, naadu aur graamon mein vibhkt tha. raajya ke karon mein nidhi, upanidhi, klrupt, udrang aur uparikr ke atirikt maarunch, aadityunch, uchamann aur marupann aadi sthaaneeya karon ke ullekh hain. makaanon aur utsavon par bhi kar tha. vyaapaari sangh swayam apne oopar bhi kar lagaaya karte the. chaalukyon ko sena sangathit aur shaaktishaali thi. iska ullekh yuvaanachvaaङ ne kiya hai aur iska samarthan chaalukyon ki vijyon se, vishesh roop se harsh par siddh hota hai. usaka kehna hai ki paraajit senaapati ko koi dand naheen diya jaata, keval use striyon ke vastr pahanane padte hain. chaalukyon ki nausena ki shakti bhi naganya naheen thi.

yuvaan chvaanङ ne likha hai mitti achhi aur upajaaoo hai, baraabar joti jaati hai aur isse bahut adhik upaj hoti hai. usane Maharashtra ke nivaasiyon ko garveela aur yuddhapriya batalaaya hai evam kaha hai ki ve upakaar ke prati krutajnya aur apakaar ke prati pratishodhak hote hai, vipnn aur sharanagat ke liye ve aatmabalidaan tak karne ko tatpar rahate hain aur apamaan karanevaale ki hatya ki unhein pipaasa hoti hai. striyon mein uchchakulon mein shiksha ke prasaar ke kai pramaan hain. mandir saamaajik tatha aarthik jeevan ke vishisht kendra the. aarthik jeevan mein shreniyon ka mahatva tha. kaansyakaar aur teliyon ki shreniyon ke ullekh abhilekhon mein milte hain. lakshmeshvar ke abhilekh mein Yuvraj vikramaaditya dvaara porigire sthaan ke mahaajanon, nagar aur 18 prakrutiyon ko di gayi aachaaravyavastha ka vivran hai. raajya ki or se taul aur maan mein aadarsh roop prastut kiya gaya tha.

braahman dharm unnati par tha. chaalukya naresh vishnu athva Shiv ke upaasak the. unhonne in devataaon ki pooja ke liye pattakal, baadaami aadi sthaanon par bhavya mandir nirmit kiye. grahan ke avsar par ve daan dete the aur smrutiyon ke aadarsh par vrat aur daan karte the. ve vaidik yajnyaon ka anushthaan karte the aur vidvaan braahmanon ka santkaar karte the. kintu dhaarmik vishyon mein ve sahishnu the tatha jainiyon ka aadar karte the. aur unhein bhi daan dete the. chaalukya raajya mein jain dharm unnat dasha mein tha. raajya mein kai ullekhaneeya jain mandir bhi banavaae gaye. bauddh dharm ki sthiti ke liye hamaare paas koi samakaaleen puraatatv ka pramaan naheen hai. yuvaan chvaaङ ka kathan hai ki Maharashtra mein sau se oopar bauddh vihaar aur paaainch hajaar se oopar bauddh bhikshu the.

yuvaanachvaand ke anusaar logon ko jnyaaanaarjan ki ruchi thi. raajavansh ke vyakti swayam vidyaaon aur shaastron ka adhyayan karte the aur vidvaanon ko daan ke dvaara protsaahan dete the. vaataapi shiksha aur gyaan ke kendra ke roop mein prasiddh thi. sanskrut saahitya ke vibhinn angon ka adhyayan hota tha. abhilekhon ki bhaashaashaili par prasiddh kaavyagranthon ka prabhaav spasht hai. ehole prashasti ki rachana jain kavi ravikeerti ne ki thi. jaineindr vyaakaran ke rachayita poojyavaad isi kaal ke the. vijyaanka athva vijjika, jiski ganana raajashekhar ne vaidarbhi shaili ka prayaag karne mein keval kaalidaas ke baad ki hai, sambhavat: chandraaditya ki raani vijyabhattaarika hi thi. somadevasoori ne yashastilkachanpoo aur neetivaakya mrut ki rachana vemulavaad ke chaalukyon ke sanrakshan mein ki thi. kannad saahitya ke itihaas mein bhi is kaal ka yogadaan mahatvapoorn hai. shri vardhadev ne tatvaarthamahaashaastr par choodaamani naam ki teeka likhi. shyaamakundaachaarya praakrut, sanskrut aur karnaat bhaashaaon ke lekhak ke roop mein prasiddh hain. kannad bhaasha ke sarvashreshth kavi aur aadipuraan tatha vikramaarjunavijya ke rachayita panp vemulavaad ke chaalukya naresh arikesari dviteeya ke darbaar mein the.

aihole, megruti aur baadaami ke mandiron se dakshin ke mandiron ka itihaas praarambh hota hai. pattakal ke mandiron mein inke vikaas ka doosra charan parilkshit hota hai in mandiron se moortiyon ki sankhya mein vruddhi ke saath hi inki shaili mein bhi vikaas milta hai. thos chattaanon ko kaatkar mandiron ka nirmaan karne ki kala mein adbhut kushalata dikhlaai padti hai. lokeshvar mandir ke nirmaata shreegundan anivaaritaachaari ne anek nagaron ki nirmaanayojana ki thi aur anek vaastu, yaan, aasan, shayan, manimukut aur ratnachoodaamani aadi banaae the. vah tribhuvanaachaari aur dakshin desh ke sootradhaar ke roop mein prasiddh the. vidvaan ajanta ke bhittichitron mein se kuchh ko isi kaal ki kruti maanate hain. pattadakal ke abhilekh mein bhi shilpakaaron aur moortikaaron ke ek vansh ki teen peedhiyon ka ullekh hai. ek abhilekh mein bharat ki parampara par aadhaarit nrutya ke ek nae granth ki lokapriyta ka ullekh hai jisne anya virodhi paddhatiyon par vijay praapt ki thi.

kalyaani ke chaalukya

lakundi (gadag jila) mein sthit jain mandir

inke raajachihron mein mayooradhvaj bhi tha. inka poorn virud tha- samast bhuvanaashraya shreepruthiveevallabh mahaaraajaadhiraaj parameshvar paramabhattaarak satyaashrayakulatilk chaalukyaabharan shreemat -jiske ant mein mall antavaali raaja ki vishisht upaadhi hoti thi. raajavansh ke vyaktiyon ko vibhinn pradeshon ke karon ka bhaag bhukti ke roop mein milta tha. Yuvraj ko raajya ke do pramukh praanton ka shaasan diya jaata tha. saamanton ke abhilekhon mein unke adhipti ke vanshaavali ke baad "tatpaad padmopajeevi" ke saath unka swayam ka ullekh hota tha. unke abhilekh mein raajya ki uttarottar abhivruddhi aur aachandraark-sthaayitv soochak shabdon ka abhaav hota tha. striyon ko bhi praant aur doosare praadeshik vibhaajanon ka shaasan de diya jaata tha. chaalukyon ke abhilekhon mein kai raajaguruon ke ullekh hain. raajya ke vaibhav ke pradarshan ki bhaavana badh rahi thi. isi ke saath shaasanavyavastha ki jatilta badh rahi thi. udaaharanaarth, saandhivigrahik ke saath hi hamein kannadasaandhivigrahik, laatasaandhivigrahik aur herisaandhivigrahik ke ullekh milte hain. Rajbhavan mein sevakon aur adhikaariyon mein kai rang dikhlaai padte hain. chaalukya abhilekhon mein anek yogya mantriyon tatha adhikaariyon ke naam milte hain jinhonne chaalukyon ke gaurav ko badhaane mein vishesh yog diya tha. aise adhikaari praaya: ek se adhik padon par rahate the. vishisht gauravapraapt adhikaariyon aur vishisht sainikon ka ek varg tha J sahavaasi kahalaata tha. vah sadaiv samraat ke saath rahata tha aur usaki seva mein praan tak tyaagane ke liye prastut rahata tha. pad praaya: vanshagat hote the aur vetan ke sthaan par bhukti athva kar ka bhaag dene ka prachalan tha. vishisht seva ke liye vishesh upaadhiyon aur vishesh chihron ke upayog ka adhikaar diya jaata tha. sainik adhikaariyon mein senaadhipti, mahaadandanaayak, dandanaayak aur katituragasaahini ke ullekh milte hain. sena mein sabhi jaati aur varg ke log sanmilit hote the. raajya raashtra, vishay, naadd, kanpan aur thaan mein vibhkt tha. kintu in praadeshik vibhaajanon ke saath abhilekhon mein jo sankhyaaeain prayukt hui hain unka nishchit mahatva abhi tak naheen spasht ho paaya hai. shaasan mein sthaaneeya svaayatt sansthaaon ka vishesh sthaan tha. inmein se kuchh ka svaroop saamaajik aur dhaarmik bhi tha. nagaron ka prabandh karanevaali sabhaaeain mahaajan ke naam se prasiddh theen. gaanvon ki sansthaaeain, jo mukhyat: chol sansthaaon jaisi theen, pehle ki tulana mein adhik sakriya theen. ye saamoohik sansthaaeain paraspar sahayog ke saath kaam karti theen aur saamaajik jeevan mein upayogi anek kaaryon ka prabandh karti theen. gaaainv ke adhikaariyon mein urodeya, perggade, gaarvud, senabov aur kulakarni ke naam milte hain. raajya dvaara liye jaanevaale kar pramukh roop se do prakaar ke the : aay, yatha siddhaaya, pannaaya aur dandaaya tatha shunk, yatha vaddaraavulad shunk, perjjuk aur manneya shunk. inke atirikt aruvan, balli, karavand, tulabhog aur masatu ka bhi nirdesh hai. manevan gruhakar tha, kannadivn (darpanak) sambhavat: nartakiyon se liya jaata tha aur balanjeeyatere vyaapaariyon par tha. vivaah ke liye banaae gaye shaamiyaanon par bhi kar ka ullekh milta hain. is kaal k sanskruti ka svaroop udaar aur vishaal tha aur usamein Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon ke prabhaav bhi samaavisht kar liye gaye the. striyon ke saamaajik jeevan mein bhaag lene par bandhan naheen the. uchch varg ki striyon ki shiksha ki samuchit vyavastha thi. nartakiyon (sooleyar) ki sankhya kam naheen thi. sateepratha ke bhi kuchh ullekh milte hain. mahaayog, shoolabrahm aur sallekhan aadi vidhiyon se praanotsarg ke kuchh udaaharan milte hain. divangat sambandhi, guru athva mahaan vyaktiyon ki smruti mein nirmaan karaane ko parokshavinya kehte the. polo jaise ek khel ka chalan tha. mandir saamaajik aur aarthik jeevan ke bhi kendra the. unamein nrutya, geet aur naatak ke aayojan hote the. sangeet mein raajavansh ke kuchh vyaktiyon ki nipunata ka ullekh milta hai. senaapati ravidev ke liye kaha gaya hai ki jab vah apna sangeet prastut karta tha, log poochhate the ki kya yeh madhu ki varsha athva sudha ki sarita naheen hain?

krushi ke liye jalaashayon ke mahatva ke anuroop hi unke nirmaan aur unki marammat ke liye samuchit prabandh hota tha. aarthik drushti se upayogi fasalein, jaise paan, supaari kapaas aur fal, bhi paida ki jaati theen. udyogon aur shilpon ki shreniyon ke atirikt vyaapaariyon ke bhi sangh the. vyaapaariyon ne kuchh sangh, tatha naanaadeshi aur tishaiyaayirttu ainjoorruvar ka sangathan atyadhik viksit tha aur ve Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon aur videshon ke saath vyaapaar karte the. is kaal ke sikkon ke naam hain- pon athva gadyaan, pag athva hag, vis aur kaani. jayasinh, jagadekamall aur traiyokyamall ke naam ke sone aur chaaaindi ke sikke upalabdh hote hain. mattar, kammas, nivrtan aur khandug bhoomi naapane ki ikaaiyaaain thi kintu naapane ke dand ka koi sunishchit maap naheen tha. sambhavat: raajya ki or se naap ki ikaaiyon ka vyavasthit aur nishchit karne ka prayatn hua tha.

sahanasheelata aur udaarata is yug ke dhaarmik jeevan ki visheshataaeain theen. sabhi dharm aur sanpradaaya samaan roop se raajaaon aur saamanton ke daan ke paatr the. braahman dharm mein Shiv aur vishnu ki upaasana ka adhik prachalan tha, inmein bhi Shiv ki pooja raajavansh aur desh donon mein hi adhik janapriya thi. kalachoorya logon ke samay mein lingaayat sanpradaaya ke mahatva mein vruddhi hui thi. kollaapur mahaalakshmi ki shaakt vidhi se pooja ka bhi atyadhik prachaar tha. iske baad kaartikeya ki pooja ka mahatva tha. bauddh dharm ke pramukh kendra bail va gaave aur danbal the. kintu bauddh dharm ki tulana mein jain dharm ka prachaar adhik tha.

ved, vyaakaran aur darshan ki uchch shiksha ke nimitt raajya mein vidyaalaya ya ghatikaaeain theen jinki vyavastha ke liye raajya se anudaan diye jaate the. desh mein braahmanon ke anek aavaas athva brahmapuri theen jo sanskrut ke vibhinn angon ke gahan adhyayan ke kendra theen.

vaadiraaj ne jayasinh dviteeya ke samay mein paarshvanaathacharit aur yashodharacharitr ki rachana ki. vilhan ki prasiddh rachana vikramaankadevacharit mein vikramaaditya shashth ke jeevanacharit ka vivran hai. vijnyaaaneshvar ne yaajnyaavalkya smruti par apni prasiddh teeka mitaakshara ki rachana vikramaaditya ke samay mein hi ki thi. vijnyaaaneshvar ke shishya Narayan ne vyavahaarashiromani ki rachana ki thi. maanasollaas athva abhilshitaartheechintaamani jismein raaja ke hit aur ruchi ke anek vishyon ki charcha hai someshvar truteeya ki kruti thi. paarvateeruktimneeya ka rachayita vidyaamaadhav someshvar ke hi darbaar mein tha. sageetachoodaamani jagadekamall dviteeya ki kruti thi. sangeetasudhaakar bhi kisi chaalukya Rajkumar ki rachana thi. kannad saahitya ke itihaas mein yeh yug atyant samruddh tha. kannad bhaasha ke svaroop mein bhi kuchh parivartan hue. shatpadi aur tripdi chhandon ka prayog badha. chanpoo kaavyon ki rachana ka prachalan samaapt ho chala. ragale naam ke vishesh prakaar ke geeton ki rachana ka praarambh isi kaal mein hua. kannad saahitya ke vikaas mein jain vidvaanon ka pramukh yogadaan tha. sukumaaracharitr ke rachayita shaantinaath aur chandrachoodaamanishtak ke rachayita naagavarmaachaarya isi kal mein hue. rann ne, jo tailap ke darbaar ka kavichkravarti tha, ajitpuraan aur saahasabheemavijya naamak chanpoo, rann kand naam ka nighantu aur parashuraamacharite aur chakreshvaracharite ki rachana ki. chaamanudaraaya ne 978 E. mein chaamundaaraayapuraan ki rachana ki. chhandonbudhi aur karnaatakakaadanbari ki rachana naagavarma pratham ne ki thi. durgasinh ne apne panchatantr mein samakaaleen lekhakon mein meleemaadhav ke rachayita karnapaarya, ek neetigranth ke rachayita kavitaavilaas aur madanatilk ke rachayita chandraraaj ka ullekh kiya hai. shreedharaachaarya ko gadyapadyavidyaadhar ki upaadhi praapt thi. chandraprabhacharite ke atirikt usane jaatakatilk ki rachana ki thi jo kannad mein jyotish ka pratham granth hai. Abhinav panp ke naam se prasiddh naagachandr ne mallinaathapuraan aur raamachandracharitpuraan ki rachana ki. isse poorv vaadi kumudachandr ne bhi ek raamaayan ki rachana ki thi. nayasen ne dharmaamrut ke atirikt ek vyaakaran granth bhi racha. neminaathapuraan karnapaarya ki kruti hai. naagavarma dviteeya ne kaavyaalokan, karnaatakabhaashaabhooshan aur vaastukosh ki rachana ki. jagaddal somanaath ne poojyavaad ke kalyaanakaarak ka kannad mein anuvaad karnaatak kalyaanakaarak ke naam se kiya. kannad gadya ke vikaas mein veerashaiv logon ka vishesh yogadaan tha. praaya: do sau lekhakon ke naam milte hain jinmein kuchh ullekhaneeya lekhikaaeain bhi theen. basav aur anya veerashaiv lekhakon ne vachan saahitya ko janm diya jismein saadhaaran janta mein veerashaiv siddhaanton ke prachalan ke liye saral bhaasha ka upayog kiya gaya. kuchh lingaayat vidvaanon ne kannad saahitya ke anya angon ko bhi samruddh kiya.

abhilekhon mein prastar ke kuchh kushal shilpiyon ke naam milte hain yatha shankaraarya, naagoj aur mahaakaal. chaalukya mandiron ki baahari deevaaron aur darvaajon par sookshm alankaarita milti hai. mandiron ke mukhya praveshadvaar paarshv mein hain. vimaan aur doosare vishyon mein bhi in mandiron ka viksit roop hoyasal mandiron mein dikhlaai padta hai. in mandiron ke kuchh ullekhaneeya udaaharan hain lakkundi mein kaashivishveshvar, ittagi mein mahaadev aur kuruvatti mein mallikaarjun ka mandir.

poorvi chaalukya

vanshaavali

dantidurg (raashtrakoot saamraajya) (735-756) ne chaalukya saamraajya ko paraajit kar raashtrakoot saamraajya ki neenv daali.

inhein bhi dekhein