bundelakhand ka kaavya

chhatrasaal ke samay mein jahaan bundelakhand ko "it jamuna ut narmada, it chambal ut tons" se jaana jaata hai, vaheen bhaugolik drushti janajeevan, sanskruti aur bhaasha ke sandarbh se bundela kshatriyon ke vaibhavakaal se joda jaata hai. bundeli is bhoo-bhaag ki sabse adhik vyavahaar mein aane waali boli hai. vigat 700 varshon se ismein paryaapt saahitya srujan hua. bundeli kaavya ke vibhinn saadhanaaon, jaatiyon aur aadi ka parichay bhi milta hai. kaavroo ka aadhaar iseeliye bundelakhand ki nadiyaan, parvat aur uske veeron ko banaya gaya hai. vibhinn pravruttiyon aur aandolanon ke aadhaar par bundelakhand kaavya ke kul saat yug maane ja sakte hain, jinhein adhyayan ke suvidha se nimn naamon se abhihit kiya gaya hai.

1. bhaasha kaavya aandolan - naveen shati vikrami se terahaveen shati tak 2. katha kaavya kaal - terahaveen se solahaveen shadi vikrami tak 3. reeti bhakti kaavya kaal - satrahaveen shadi se satrahaveen shati vikrami tak. 4. saanskrutik unmesh kaal - satrahaveen shati se atthaaharaveen shati vikrami tak. 5. shrrungaar kaavya kaal - atthaarahaveen shati se unnees sau pachaas vikrami tak. 6. svatantrata poorv aadhunik - samvat 1950 se 2000 vikrami tak. 7. atyaadhunik kaal - samvat 2000 se ab tak.

anukram

bhaasha kaavya aandolan kaal

9veen shati vikrami se 13veen shati vikrami tak

chhaandas ka sanskrut mein apabhranshi ke maadhyam se lok bhaasha mein viksit hona, ek ghatna naheen hai, yeh samay ki aavashyakta rahi hai. chhaandas, praakrut sanskrut aur apabhransh ke sameekaranon par anek vichaar diye gaye hain. chhathi shataabdi mein apabhransh ka prayog bhaasha ke rup mein milta hai. 12veen shataabdi tak vah saahityik bhaasha si rahi hai par janapadeeya boliyon se yeh bhi mukt naheen maani gayi hai. navya bhaarateeya aarya bhaasha ka vikaas madhya desheeya shauraseni se maana gaya hai aur apabhransh ke vikaasonmukh rup grahan karte samay avah ki sthiti maani gayi. avah ka prayog sabse pehle apabhransh ke liye hua hai. anek jain rachanaaen bauddh rachanaaen, naath panthiyon ki rachanaaen aadi samaane aayi hai. siddhon ne jis bhaasha ka prayog kiya hai vah lok bhaasha adhik hai. hindi ka praarambhik naam bhaasha hi kaha gaya hai.

bhaasha ke svarup mein anek parivartan evam samruddhiyaan aayeen. maukhik parampara se bhi kaavya srujan hua. yeh lok kaavya tak hi seemit raha hai. likhit kaavyon mein katha kaavyon ki bharamaar rahi hai. inmein pramukh kruti vishnudaas likhit raamaayan katha, mahaabhaarat katha, rukmini mangal, svargaarohan katha aadi aisi krutiyaan hai, jinse bhaasha kaavya ki parampara par prakaash padta hai. bhaasha kaavya ke praarambhik charan mein jis kruti ko prastut kiya gaya hain vah sthaaneeyata ke prabhaavon se praay: mukt hai. isliye kisi bhi boli se praarambhik rup se mel khaati, vyaapak bhaasha ka svarup prastut karti hai.

maukhik parampara ke mahaakaavya aalhaakhand ka vaishishtya bundeli ka apna hai. mahova 12veen shati tak kala kendra to raha hai jiski charcha is prabandh kaavya mein hai. iski praamaanikta ke liye na to ant:saakshya hi upaadeya aur na barhisaakshya. itihaas mein paramaardedev ki katha kuchh doosare hi rup mein hai parantu aalha khand ka raaja paramaal ek vaibhavashaali raaja hai, aalha aur oodal uske saamant hai. yeh prabandh kaavya samast kamjoriyon ke baavajood bundelon jan saamaanya ki neeti aur kartavya ka paath sikhaata hai. bundelakhand ke pratyek gaanvon mein ghanaghor varsha ke din aalha jamata hai.

bhari dupahari saravan gaaiye, sorath gaaiye aadhi raat. aalha pavaada vaadin gaaiye, ja din jhadi lage din raat..

aalha bhale hi maukhik parampara se aaya hai, par bundeli bhoomi sanskruti aur boli ka pratham mahaakaavya hai, jaganik iske rachayita hai. bhaasha kaavya mein bundeli boli ka uttam mahaakaavya sveekaar kiya jaana chaahiye. bundeli boli aur uske saahitya ka samruddh itihaas hai aur bhaasha kaavyakaal mein usaki koi bhi likhit kruti upalabdh naheen hai.

katha kaavya kaal

13veen shati vikrami se 16veen shati vikrami tak

katha kaavya prabandh kaavya ka hi ek bhed hai jismein mahaakaavya ke vidhaan ki hi har cheej hoti hai parantu katha sahaj pravaah yukt bina kisi gambheer gahan jeevan darshan ke hoti hai. bundelakhand mein jaganik ke baad vishnudaas hi aise kavi hain jinhonne 14veen shati mein do katha kaavya mahaabhaarat katha aur raamaayan katha likhi. in donon kathaaon ka aadhaar Krishna katha aur raamakatha hai par unke nirvaah ki shaili mein sanskrut katha kaavyon aur hindi katha kaavyon se bhinnata hai. yeh bundeli ke pratham granth hai. bundeli braj ki sahodara deerghakaal tak maani gayi hai. jab tak usaka bundeli asmita ko bruj se aakraant karne par bhi koi kshati naheen pahunchi. bundeli maati ke kavi vishnudaas ki rachanaaen anek samay tak agyaat raheen. jab bundeli peeth saagar ke prakaash mein aayi to unamein bundeli ka maardav, oj laalitya evam sanskruti moortimaan dikhe.

kavi ne yug ki chetna ko donon kathaaon ke maadhyam se vyakt kiya hai aur tatkaaleen paristhitiyon par prakaash daala hai. mahaabhaarat ki rachana ka samay 1435 E. aur raamaayan katha ki rachana 1443 E. siddh ho jaati hai. bhaasha ki drushti se vishnudaas ka kaavya atyant mahatvapoorn hai. bundeli kaviyon ne jan bhaasha mein kaavya rachanaaen prastut ki. katha kaavya shaili mein doha, soratha, chaupaai aur chhandon ka prayog adhik hai. yahi baad mein bhakti kaavya ki bhoomi ka kaarya karte hain.

reetibhkti kaavya kaal

16veen shati vikrami se 17veen vikrami tak

samaaj mein vyaapt jadta udaasi aur akarmanyata ke sthaan par bhakti ki or pravrutti milti hai. bundelakhand mein bhakti ki us paavan dhaar ke darshan naheen hote jo bruj pradesh mein pravaahit hue. yahaan sabhi prakaar ki upaasanaaon ka jor raha. Goswami tulaseedaas bhi isi bhoo-bhaag se jude huye the. prasiddh kavi raheem bhi bundelakhand ki sanskruti ke prati shraddhaavaan thea jo unki ukti

chitrakoot mein ram rahe rahimn avadh naresh. ja par vipda padt hai so aavat ihi desh..

mahaakavi balabhadr mishr atyant pratibhaashaali kavi hain. inke pramukh granthon mein sikhnakh, bhaasha-bhaashya, balabhadri vyaakaran, hanumaanaashtak teeka, govarddhan satasai adhik charchit hai. inke samay tak orachha, panna, chhatarapur, Jhansi, teekamagadh, datiya aur saagar kendra ke rup mein ubharakar saamane aane lage. mahaakavi keshav ke poorv mahaaraaj madhukar shaah, pandit hariraam vyaas aadi kaviyon ne bundeli kaavyadhaara mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya hai. madhukar shaah "tikait' bundelakhand ki raksha mein hi prasiddh hue. kavi deshbhakt aur dharm pravar ke rup mein unka smaran ab tak kiya jaata hai. pandit hariraam vyaas madhukar shaah ko deeksha dene vaale guru, ek sangeetajnya, bhakt aur saadhak ke rup mein vikhyaat hue. unki rachanaaon mein raag maali, vyaas vaani, raag paryaayaachi aadi mein bundeli aur tatha reeti saavet ka adbhut samanvaya milta hai.

keshavadaas (samvat 1612) is kaal ke anyatam kavi hain. inki samast kaviyon ka aadhaar sanskrut ke granth hain par kavi priya, rasik priya, raamachandrika, veerasinhadev charitra, vigyaan geeta, ratan vaadani aur jahaaaingeer rasachandrika mein kavi ki vyaapak kaavya bhaasha prayogasheelata evam bundel bhoomi ki sanskruti reeti rivaaj bhaashaagat prayogon se keshav bundeli ke hi pramukh kavi hain. reeti aur bhakti ka samanvit rup keshav kaavya mein aadyopaant hai. reetivaadi kavi ne kavipriya, rasikpriya mein reeti tatv tatha vigyaan geeta evam raamachandrika mein bhakti tatv ko pratyaksh evam apratyaksh rup mein prastut kiya hai. aachaarya kavi keshavadaas ne bundeli gaari (lokageet) ko pramukhata se apne kaavya mein sthaan diya aur savaiya mein isi gaari'geeta ko parishkrut rup mein rakha hai. raamachandrika ke saare samvaad savaiyon mein hai aisi sambaad yojana durlabh hai. raamaleelaaon mein keshav ke sanvaadon ka prayog shataabdiyon se ho raha hai.

praveen rai mahaaraaj indrajeet Singh ke darbaar mein thi. mahaaraaj indrajeet swayam "dheeraj Narendra" upanaam se kavita karte the. pan॰ gaureeshankar Dwivedi ne inka samay san. 1620 vikrami maana hai. inheen ke samay mein kalyaan mishr (vikrami san.) 1635 kavitt lekhan mein shreshth maane gaye hain. aise hi naam baalakrushn mishr tatha gadaadhar bh ke maane gaye hain. bundeli ke anek muhaavaron ka prayog bihaari satasai mein milta hai. balabhadr mishr ke pautr shri shivlaal mishr (san. 1660) ne theth bundeli ke kriya padon ka prayog kiya hai. isi prakaar svaami agradaas ki kundaliyon mein shat-pratishat bundeli lokoktiyon ko aadhaar banaakar lok sandesh diya hai. isi kaavyadhaara mein sundar das ka "sundar shrrungaar' paraganit kiya jaata hai. reetibhkti kaavya mein khemadaas rasik suvansh kaayasth, pohanadaas mishr tatha orachha ke anek kaviyon ka yogadaan hai. bhakti kaavya bundelakhand mein poori samagrata ke saath mein aaya. yahaaain ke raajaaon ne use protsaahan diya. anek rachanaaen aashrayadaata ki ichha ke anusaar milti hai. reeti bhakti kaavyakaal mein prastut ki gayi pratiyon mein bundeli sanskruti, bhaasha aur reeti tatv ki abhivyakti vishesh hai. isi kaal ke uparaant bundeli ki rachanaaon mein theth sthaaneeyata ka prabhaav dikhne lagta hai.

[saanskrutik unmeshakaal]

17veen vikrami se 18veen vikrami

bundelakhand mein champataraaya ke baad chhatrasaal ne svaatantrata ki mashaal jalaai. aurangajeb ne chhatrasaal ko jitna dabaaya utana hi ve adhik ubharate gaye. svatantr satta sthaapit karne mein chhatrasaal ne mugal adhikaar ke sabhi shaharon, raajyon ko loota. apni dhaak jamaate hue ekachhatr raajya banaane ke upakram mein chhatrasaal ne vikt sangharsh kiya. laalakrut 'chhatraprakaash' isi prakaar ke bundelakhand raaja ka kaavya itihaas hai. laal kavi aur "bhooshan' donon ka lakshya ek hi hai. poori shataabdi mein saanskrutik kshetron mein jaagarukata ka parichay milta hai. reetibhkti ki mishrit kaavya dhaara prachhann rup mein pravaahit hoti rahi par chhatrasaal, Akshay ananya, gore "laal laal' bakhshi hansaraaj, harisevak mishr aadi kaviyon ki rachanaaon ka samaaj par anukal prabhaav pada. ek drushti se samaaj ka chaturdik vikaas is kaal mein hua hai. laal aur chhatrasaal jahaan hindutv aur svaadheen bundelakhand ka samarthan karte hain tatha pruthak astitv banaate hain. akshar ananya bhakti aur upaasana ke kshetr mein nirgun kaavya-dhaara ka samarthan kabeer ki bhaaainti karte hain. premamaargi kaavyadhaara mein harisevak mishr tatha sagun Krishna bhakti kaavya mein bakhshi hansaraaj ke dvaara madhuraabhakti ka pratipaadan hua. Ram kaavyadhaara mein keshav ke uparaant anek kaviyon ne kaavya rachana ki, par keshav ki tulana mein ve kam hi prabhaav daal sakein. is prakaar bundelakhand ke kabeer (akshar ananya) soor (bakhshi hansaraaj), jaayasi (harisevak mishr), raashtreeya kavi "laal' aadi ne chaturdik unmesh ka sandesh diya.

kaviyon ka pradeya is prakaar hai ki bakhtabali mahaachaarya ne champataraaya ke yuddhon ka varnan kiya to unke putr bhaanubh (1701 vi.) ne bhi chhatrasaal ke yuddhon ka varnan aur raashtreeyata ki bhaavana ka prasaar kiya. inheen ke doosare putr gulaab bhi isi dhaara ke kavi the. "laal' ka pradeya is kaal mein isliye adhik hai ki unhonne chhatrasaal ko naayak banaakar ukane samast ghatnaaon ka yathaarth chitran kiya hai laal ki panktiyon ko tatkaaleen raajaaon ne dharmavaakya ke rup mein liya hai. chhatraprakaash mein yuddhon ka dhaaraavaahik chitran karne vaale laal ne likha-

dhani champat ke autaro pancham shri chhatrasaal. jinki aajnyaa sheeshadhari kari kahaani laal..

chhatrasaal swayam ek kavi bhi rahe hain. yuddh kala aur kaavyakala ka adbhut mel unamein milta hai. bundelakhand ke charit-naayak bankar ve mahaan kaarya mein lage rahe. inke baad san. 1712 vi. mein deveedaas, akshar ananya (1700 vi.) ke naam mahatvapoorn hai. akshar ananya ne vyaapak kaavyabhaasha ko apnaaya par bundeli reetirivaaj, sanskruti, uktiyon aur muhaavaron ko apnaakar bhakti, gyaan aur vairaagya ki triveni pravaahit ki. unhonne kabeer ki bhaaainti maanavadharm ka pratipaadan kiya aur samaaj ki buraaiyon ko door karne mein yogadaan diya. isi prakaar harisevak mishr san. 1720 ne premamaargi kaavyadhaara mein "kaamarup katha' ke maadhak se ekanishth prem ka sandesh diya. deshi riyaasaton mein mahaaraaj udotasinh ke aashray mein kovidmishr ne bhaasha mein hitopadesh, raamabhooshan muhoort dapann, naayika bhed aadi granth likhe. saagar ke suvesh kaayasth ne hitopadesh aur mitramilaap likhe. bundeli muhaavaron aur kavitaaon ka uttam prayog kavi ne apne granthon mein kiya hai. is samay ke shaasakon mein mahaaraaj udeetasinh swayam ek kavi rahe hain.

kaalpi ke shreepati datiya ke jaageeradaar, pruthveesinh rasanidhi, datiya ke rohuainda gram ke harikesh aadi kaviyon ne apne kaavya se janasamaaj ko amoolya krutiyaaain di. harikesh ki ""jagatasinh digvijya bundelakhand ke itihaas ki mahatvapoorn kruti hai.

bakhshi hansaraaj ki teen rachanaaon-meharaaj chariri sanehasaagar aur virh'vilaas mein antim do aisi rachanaaeain hain jinmein soor ke samaan vaatsalya, virhavarnan, madhuraabhakti aur bundeli sanskruti ka darshan hota hai. isi kaal mein padmaakar kavi ke pita mohanabhatt, krushnakavi sana orachha, gopakavi --rasanidhi ke darabaari kavi-- rupanaaraayan mishr, khandan kaayasth datiya, kaveendr gyaani joo, gumaanamishr --kavitaakaal,-- bodha kavi ka krutitv bundeli kaavya ke itihaas mein amoolya mani taakata hai.

saanskrutik unmesh kaavyakaal bundelakhand ki chaturdik pratibhaaon se parichay hi naheen karta balki bundelakhand ke vikaas mein yog deta hai. iske uparaant bundelakhand mein shrrungaar kaavya kaal aata hai.

shrungaar kaavya kaal

18veen vikrami se 1950 vi. tak

bhaktikaal ki samruddhi brujabhoomi maani jaati hai to reeti ya shrrungaar kaavya ka poorn unmesh bundelabhoomi mein hi hua hai. aachaarya kavi keshavadaas reetikaal ke shreshthatam kavi maane jaate hain. unke baad shrrungaar ki dhaara mein padmaakara—aasan. 1810—aakhumaanakavi, thaakur, Damodar Dave, manchit, navalasinh kaayasth jhaaainsi, prataap saahi charakhaari, pajanes panna, gadaadhar bhatt, saradaarakavi lalitpur, bhagavant kavi panna, isuri, gangaadharavyaas chhatarapur, khyaaleeraam charakhaari, bhagavant kavi panna, isuri, gangaadharavyaas chhatarapur, khyaaleeraam charakhaari, aadi kaviyon ne bundeli ki shrrungaar maadhuri ko anek prakaar se sanvarkiddhat kiya hai.

padmaakar ke aate-aate- bundelakhand ke ve sau varsh beet gaye jinse is bhoo-bhaag mein saanskrutik unmesh ka pravaah aaya. chhatrasaal ki mrutyu ke baad samagr bundelakhand chhoti-chhoti ikaaiyon mein baint gaya. in sabse mein ek hod avashya thi par vah shrrungaar tak hi seemit rahi. anek raajaaon ke aashray se prabhaavit unki samast krutiyon mein reetibddh shrrungaar kramash: lokatatv se judta gaya. kadaachit padmaakar ke dvaara hi shrrungaar ka pishtapeshan bhi bahut ho chuka tha, at: ve rachanaayein adhik sundar ban padeen jinmein lok jeevan raha hai. isliye faag saahitya athva riatukaavya adhik aakarshak ban pade hain. padmaakar ne bundeli sanskruti, bhaasha aur jeevanadarshan ko shrrungaar ras se samanvit karke prastut kiya hai. jagat vinod, padmaabharan, prabodhapachaasa aur gangaalahari krutiyon mein unki pratibha ke darshan hote hain. virudaavali mein ve utane naheen jame jitne lokatatv samanvit kaavya mein faag ka ek namoona paryaapt hai-

faag ki bhaurein abheerain lai gahi govind bheetar gori. I curry man ki padmaakar oopar naai abeer ki jhori.. chheen peetaambar kammr tain su bida dai meed kapolan rori. nain nachaai kahau muskaai, aaiyo lala fir khelan hori..

isi prakaar gangaalahari mein "sudhar so ho to maaaing leto aur doojo kahooain/jaato ban kheti kari, khaato ek har ki' mein bundeli ki adbhut chhata hai. padmaakar ka abhidhaamoolak chitran kabhi-kabhi itna satahi ho gaya hai ki vah ashleelta ke star par pahuainch jaata hai. faag se padmaakar ne bhi ekaadh sthaan par aisa abhidhaatmak prayog kar diya hai. padmaakar ke baad shrrungaar kaal ke kaviyon mein kaavyaadesh dene ki kshamata naheen rahi thi. rup saahi, Damodar Dave, manchit ne alankaar aur naayika bhed ko mahatva diya hai to navalasinh kaayasth ke krutitv ""raas panchaadhyaayi, aalha raamaayan, raamachandr vilaas, rupak raamaayan mein kavi aur chitrakaar donon ka samanvaya hua hai. prataap saahi charakhaari, ratanes vandeejan ke putr maane jaate hain. naayak-naayikaaon aur vyangya chitran mein ye padmaakar ke samaan pratibhaashaali hain. inke vimb chitran ke aadhaar par inhein doosra padmaakar bhi kaha jaata hai. nares, orachha naresh tejasinh aur sujaanasinh ke aashray mein rahe hain. inhonne jhaaainsi ki raani ko poore itihaas ke saath chitrit karne ki cheshta ki hai. pajanera ka krutitv evam vyaktitv unka "pajanes prakaash' hai. ye poornat: bundeli ke kavi hain par braj aur faarasi ke shabdon ka prayog yathaasthaan karte hain.

padmaakar ke prapautr gadaadhar bhatt, sardaar kavi, bhagavant kavi, bundelakhand ke aise kavi hain jinhonne chhitput rachanaaon mein hi apni pratibha dikhaai hai.

shrrungaar kaavya kaal ke pradeya ke sambandh mein yeh kehna abheesht hoga ki mugalakaal ke shaasakon ke virodh mein chhote-chhote deshi raajya uth khade hue. reetikaaleen kavi ne inke aashrit rahakar ek shataabdi tak jeevika kamaai aur bahoomoolya krutiyaaain di. saanskrutik unmesh ka saara kaarya chhatrasaal ke manch se hatate hi praaya- samaapt ho gaya. shrrungaar kaavya ki charam seema dhor shrangaar'ya yon kahein ki abhidhaatmak kaavya mein hui. kuchh kaviyon ne alabatta lakshan granthon ka nirmaan kiya. padmaakar, prataapasinh, navalasinh, kaayasth aadi ke kaavya mein svasth shrrungaar saamane aaya. samast kaal ka pramukh ras shrrungaar hi raha par veer aur shaant ras ko bhi abhivyakti mili. desh ki raajanaitik sthiti aur arthavyavastha ne bundelakhand ke logon ko bhaagyavaadi saamantaashrit adhik banaaya. bhaasha ki drushti se nishchit hi achhe prayog hue. bundeli adhyetaaon ke liye athaarahaveen-unneesaveen vikrami vishesh mahatva ki hai kyonki is samay ke kaviyon ka sthaaneeya bhaasha mein hi apni abhivyakti prastut karni padi hai.

aadhunik kaal

vi.san. 1950 se 2000 vi. tak

shrrungaar kaavya ki pravruttiyaaain praarambhik dashakon tak hi seemit rahi hai. isi samay san 1857 ki gadar ki bhoomika bani svatantrata ke liye uttarabhaarat aur bundelakhand ke veeron ne anek balidaan diye. ye balidaan vyaktigat bhoomika par hote-hote raashtreeya mahatva ke ho gaye. Jhansi ki raani, naana saahab, taatya tope, navaab baanda aadi ne ek jhande tale khade hokar kraanti ka baana pahana. unke anuyaayiyon mein bakhtabali, mardanasinh jaise kraantiveeron ke naam liye jaate hain. angreji shaasan dheeme-dheeme sthaapit hota gaya aur nae praant bane. bundelakhand uttarapradesh aur madhyapraant mein vibhaajit ho gaya. sanvat 1900 se 195 vikrami ki krutiyon ka poora lekha-jokha tak naheen mil paaya kyonki kraanti dabaane ke prayaas mein ye krutiyaan kaal ke gart mein dab gayi. kuchh ka pata chala jo ab shanai:-shanai: saamane aa rahi hai.

aadhunik kaal mein chaar prakaar ke kavi milte hain. pratham varg mein kavi aate hain jinhonne ateet ke charitron ko aadhaar banaakar tatha sanskruti, dharm, deshabhaktiprak rachanaayein ki. dviteeya varg ke kaviyon ne aadhunik chetna evam svaatantrayonmukh vichaaradhaara ko theth bundeli mein prastut kiya. truteeya varg ke kaviyon ne sfut chhandon mein kaavya rachanaayein prastut ki. samasyaapoorti inhein shrrungaarakaal se viraasat mein mili. chaturth varg mein lokakaavya shaili apnaane vaale kaviyon ne graameen jeevan ko prastut kiya.

pratham varg ke kaviyon ne braj aur bundeli ke saath khadi boli ke shabdon ka prayog kiya. inhonne bhale hi mishrit bhaasha mein kaavya likha par uchchaaran se ve krutiyon ko bundeli mein hi padhte hain.

doosare varg ke kaviyon ne bhaasha, lok sanskruti, lok jeevan, lok vishvaas aadi sabhi mein bundelakhand ki bhaasha ko jeevit rakha hai. teesare varg ke kaviyon mein moolat: khadi boli aur braj ka prayog adhik milta hai. inmein bundeli ke shabd anaayaas aa gaye hain. ye bundeli sanskruti aur maati se door naheen ja paaye hain. chauthe varg ke kaviyon ki rachanaayein lokakaavya ki praan hain. in kaviyon ne adhikaansh mein deevaari, faagein, bhajan aur shrrungaarik geet adhik likhe hain. samast kaviyon ka sankshipt parichay unki pravrutiyon ke aadhaar par is prakaar hai. madan mohan Dwivedi "madaneshad' raaso-kaavya parampara mein ""lakshmeebaai raaso jaisi amoolya kruti prastut karte hain jo dau॰ bhagavaanadaas maahaur ke saanidhya se prakaash mein I. haranaath ne vyaapak kaavya bhaasha apnaai, bundeli charitra deshbhakti, neeti, shrrungaar aadi ko kaavya ka vishay banaaya. Doctor bhavaani prasaad ne bundeli kahaavaton, muhaavaron ko kaavya mein vishay banaakar apne vichaar diye. ainaanand ne siddhaant saar naamak granth likha. sukharaam chaube gunaakar, gaureeshankar sharma, gaureeshankar sudha jagannaath prasaad chaturvedi, pan॰ jaanki prasaad Dwivedi, shivsahaaya chaturvedi, raamachandr bhaargav, ghaaseeraam vyaas aadi anek kaviyon ki krutiyon mein bundelakhand ki saamaajik, saanskrutik aur raajaneetik sthitiyon ka parichay milta hai.

lok sanskruti ke chitrakaaron mein shrrungaar kaavya kaal ke avsaan par isuri, khyaaleeraam aur gangaadhar ke naam saamane aaye jinhonne faag saahitya ko atyadhik samruddh bana diya. unke baad raamacharan hayaaran mitr, hariprasaad "hari', Gauri shankar Dwivedi "shankar', dvaarikesh, sant brujesh sudhaakar shukl shaasri, pan॰ jvaala prasaad jyotishi, shanbhudayaal shreevaastav "brujesh', bhaiyaalaal vyaas, lakshmeenaaraayan pathik, chaturbhuj Dixit, raghunaath prasaad guru, raamadayaal shreevaastav aadi anek kaviyon ne nae vishay, neeti or sanskaaron ke saath'saath bundeli maati aur desh ka gaan kiya. ye kavi desh ki svatantrata dhaara se poornat: sikt evam anupramaanit hain. bundelakhand ke pradeshon mein bant jaane ke baad bundeli sanskruti, janajeevan aur kaavya dhaara mein paryaapt vilamb se yogadaan hua.

atyaadhunik kaavya kaal

san. 2000 vi. se kab tak

vikram ki 20 veen shataabdi mein bundelakhand mein bundeli aur anya pradeshon mein sthaaneeya boliyon ke saahitya ki vipul raashi drushtigt hoti hai. saagar vi.vi. bundeleepeeth se dau॰ balabhadr tivaari ne bundeli kaavya parampara ke teen granth prakaashit kiye jo praacheen aur naveen kaavya dhaara mein shrrunkhala ka kaarya karte hain. aadhunik kaavya-dhaara ka parichay bundeli kaavya parampara bhaag 2 --aadhunik kaavya-- mein milta hai. bundeli ke un kaviyon ko is kruti mein sthaan diya gaya hai jo san 1900 ke baad bundeli janajeevan ko hi chitrit naheen karte balki raashtreeya evam saamaajik parivesh ke prati jaagaruk hain. hindi saahitya mein Dwivedi yug ki avsaan bela mein pan॰ Ramnaresh tripaathi aur videshi bhaashaavidon ne pradeshik bhaasha, sanskruti aur saahitya par vishesh dhyaan diya hai.

chhaayaavaad yug ke saath raashtra prem ki kavitaaon ka vishesh ufaan aata hai. bundelakhand ke munshi raamaadheen khare, narottam das paande "madhu' is bhaavadhaara ki rachanaayein prastut karte hain. san 1920 mein jaliyaanvaala baag ka kaand ghatit hua. angrej sarkaar ki neeti ke virodh mein ghaaseeraam vyaas, raamanaath trivedi, raamanaath, Rao thaakuradaas, Nathuram chaturesh paraasar, nandaraam sharma aadi kaviyon ne anek kavitaaeain likhi hai. ek anya dhaara mein gaureeshankar sharma, jaanki prasaad Dwivedi, sukharaam chaube gunaakar, raamachandr bhaargav, shivsahaaya chaturvedi, lokanaath silaakaari, sudhaakar shukl shaasri, jvaala prasaad jyotishi jaise kavi aate hain jo samaaj aur sanskruti ke vibhinn pakshon par vichaar to karte hi hain saath hi raashtreeya udbodhan ke geet bhi gaate hain. ateet ke Bhaarat ko vaigyaanik drushti se sampann karne ki cheshta mein ve khadi boli aur bundeli donon mein rachanaaeain prastut karte hain.

isi samay ka lok saahitya faag se anupraanit hokar saamane aata hai. insuri, khyaaleeraam, gangaadhar vyaas ke siva anek sfut chhand likhne vaale kaviyon ne samasaamayik aandolan ko apni kavitaaon mein protsaahit kiya hai.

ek anya varg vyaapak kaavya bhaasha apnaakar bhi bundeli ke prabhaav se mukt naheen ho paata hai. ismein dau॰ lakshmi prasaad "rama', gaureeshankar Dwivedi "shankar', haragovind gupta, baalamukund kanhaiya, raamalaal baraaniya "dvijdeen', gaureeshankar panda, saiyyad meer ameer Ali "meer', Nathuram premi evam unke sahayogi ke naam vishesh hai. saarat: bundeli kaavya ke aadhunik kaal mein chaar prakaar ke kavi milte hain.

1. ateet ke charitron ko aadhaar banaakar rachanaayein likhne vaale sanskruti-dharmi aur deshbhakt kavi. 2. aadhunik chetna ke bundeli mein likhne vaale kavi. 3. chhitput vishyon par alp krutitv vaale kavi. 4. lok kaavya shaili ke rachayita kavi.

samast kaviyon mein aadhunik kaal ke poorvaarddh mein jaanki prasaad Dwivedi, shivsahaaya chaturvedi, raamachandr bhaargav, hariprasaad hari, lokanaath Dwivedi silaakaari, sant brajesh, raamacharan hayaaran mitr, sudhaakar shukl shaasri aur jvaala prasaad jyotishi pramukh hai. inki rachanaayein samasyaapoorti shaili se praarambh hokar aadhunik yug ki samasyaaon tak kendrit hain. ye bundelakhand ke jan-jeevan ka khadi boli aur bundeli donon mein chitran karte hain. vishuddh bundeli mein kaavya rachana karne vaalon mein santoshasinh, avadhesh, Babulal khare, maadhav shukl, durgesh, gunasaagar, lakshmi prasaad gupt, neeraj jain aadi hain. inke kaavya mein graamya jeevan, praakrutik Sushma aur dehaat ki samasyaaon ke chitr aate hain.

bundeli ke naye kaavya ka pratinidhitv bhaiyaalaal vyaas "vindhya kokil', chaturbhuj chaturesh, sharmanalaal jain "pathik', ratibhaanu tivaari tej 'kanj', Bhagwan Singh gaud, shanbhudayaal shreevaastav "brajesh', raamakrushn Pande, gorelaal saahoo, mahesh Kumar mishr "madhukar', jeeja bundelakhandi, Kailash madvaiya, prakaash madvaiya, prakaash Saxena, lokeindr Singh "naagar' santosh Singh bundela, ayodhya prasaad chaube, dvaarika prasaad Agrawal, kedaaranaath Agrawal aadi karte hain. in kaviyon mein samakaaleen samaaj, sanskruti aur raajaneeti ke prati jaagarukata hai. ye jameen se jude hue kavi hain. samakaaleen jeevan bodh se sanprukt jeevan drushti ke kaaran bundeli kaavya mein aaj naye prayog bhi ho rahe hain.

kul mila kar bundeli kaavya ki ek nishchit parampara hai jo pichhle saat sau varshon tak faili hui hai. hindi ki samarth boli ka saahitya ismein milta hai. at: yeh kehne mein hamein koi sankoch naheen ki ise bhaasha ka gaurav diya ja sakta hai.

baalmeeki tulasi keshav ne kavita rach di pyaari.. itai fool rahi aadi kaal se kaavya kala ki kyaari.. raashtrakavi ko sughar lekhani bhaashai rup nikhaarai. veer bhoomi bundelakhand khon sagaro desh nihaare.. chandrasakhi bhooshan, padmaakar bhaasha ke ujiyaare.. lok raagini praan isuri bundeli ke taare.. rai praveen veen kavita ki pyaare bol uchaare.. -ratibhaan Singh "kanj'

prem vyaas, rasikendr, gunaakar, laal vineet meer se kavivr. kaavya kala kamaneeya divaakar amar kar gaye naam.. praant yeh hai guniyon ka dhaam, kovid krushnadaas, kavikaare, diggaj ratanalaal param naare. ambuj, kaali, nand Kumar, naval Singh, pajanesh hue the manchit, dvij, avadhesh.

3. bundelakhand mein kavi isliye adhik hote hain ki yahaan ka prakruti saundarya adviteeya hai. -Krishna kaant maalaveeya

vaamadev, sanakaadi aadi mahaariashiyon ki tap sthali hai, yaheen mahaakavi vaalmeeki, tulasi ki kalam chali hai.. gyaani, vedavyaas Krishna dveaipaayan kavi kul keshav, yaheen bihaari, padamaakar, bhooshan ka beeta vaibhav. jaganik ki vaani mein aalha oodal ka shaurya samar jaaga, bhaubhooti kalaadhar, vedavyaas sanskrut ka kaavya bhraman jaaga.

  • Goswami tulaseedaas
  • aachaarya keshavadaas
  • aachaarya padmaakar
  • raashtrakavi maithileesharan gupt
  • vrundaavanalaal sharma
  • siyaaraamasharan gupt
  • dau॰ Ramkumar varma
  • shri ambika prasaad divya
  • kedaaranaath Agrawal

Goswami tulaseedaas

chitrakoot janapad mein raajaapur naamak kasba yamuna nadi ke tat par sthit hai. tulasi ke pratitaamah raajapur aaye the. yahaaain aatmaaraam dube naamak pratishthit sarayoopaareen braahman rahate the. unki dharmapatni ka naam hulasi tha. samvat 1554 vikrami ki shraavan saptami ke din isi dampati ki kokh se abhukt mool nakshatr mein raamabola --tulaseedaas-- ka janm hua. maata ka dehaant doosare din ho gaya, chuniya naamak daasi ne saadhe paaainch varsh tak aayu tak unhein paala. Bhagwan shankar ki prerana se raamashailya par rahane vaale shri anantaanand ji ke priya shishya shri naraharyaanand ji ne is baalak ko Ram bola naam diya. yajnyaopaveet sanskaar kar Ram mantra ki deeksha di.

san. 1583 vi. jeshth shukl 13 ko bharadvaaj gotr ki sundari kanya ratnaavali se unka vivaah hua. patni dvaara promaadhikya dhikkaare jaane par gruh tyaag diya aur saadhoo vesh grahan kiya. vibhinn sthaanon par bhraman karte hue ayodhya pahuainche. chaitr shukl naumi --raamajant tithi-- san. 1631 vi. mein raamacharit maanas ki rachana praarambh ki aur maarg sheersh shukl paksh mein Ram vivaah ke din arthaat 2 varsh 7 maah 26 din mein saaton kaand raamacharit maanas ke poorn kiye. avadhi aur brajabhaasha mein tatha vibhinn kavitv shailiyon mein unhonne dohaavali kavitaavali, baravai raamaayan, raamalala nahachhoo, tatha vinyapatrika ke padon ki rachana ki.

raamacharit maanas ne tatkaaleen hindu jaati ke nairaashya ko samaapt kiya. unamein bhakti bhaav jagaaye. shaiv aur vaishnav sampradaaya ki katuta ko samaapt kar hindu vichaaradhaara ko udaaramana banaaya. hinduon ko atyaachaar, anaachaar ke samaapti ki kiran dikhaai. Goswami tulaseedaas hindi saahitya ke shreshthatam kavi aur rachanaakaar hain. san. 1680 vi. shraavan Krishna truteeya shanivaar ko aseeghaat --Varanasi-- par Ram Ram kehte hue apna bhautik shareer parityaag kiya. unke granthon ka anuvaad Bhaarat ki samast bhaashaaon mein tatha vishv ke anekaanek bhaashaaon mein sampann ho chuka hai. Goswami tulaseedaas ji ki jeevani aur saahitya par anekaanek shodh-prabandh desh aur videsh mein prastut kiye gaye hain. tulaseedaas shodh peeth ayodhya tatha chitrakoot mein sthaapit hain. madhya pradesh shaasan "tulasi puraskaar samaaroh' aayojit karti hai.

Goswami tulaseedaas satya, sheel, saundarya ke apratibh kavi hain. vinaya patrika bhakton ke gale ka haar hai. geetaavali apni sangeetaatmakata ke saath maadhuri evam saras prasangon ke liye lokapriya hai. raamacharit-maanas lokamaanas ka amar kaavya hai. Goswami tulaseedaas ji ne Bhaarat mein hi naheen vishv ko apni mahaneeyata se prabhaavit kaya hai tatha bhavishya mein bhi maanas samaaj ko satprerana dete raheinge.

1. yeh nirvivaad tathya hai ki Goswami tulaseedaas bhaasha ke apratibh adhikaari the. bhaasha par jaisa adhikaar Goswami ji ka tha vaisa aur kisi kavi ka naheen hai.

aachaarya raamachandr shukl

2. "no poet in the world haij evar veen tu the maasej what tulaseedaas haij been tu di people's of dis laind." -edavin greebj

"Goswami tulaseedaas ki kavita to kavita hai hi naheen, main to use sarvottam mahaamantr maanata hooain."

  1. tulasi gang duo bhaye sukavian ke sardaar, inke kaavyan mein mili bhaasha vividh prakaar.
  2. parashuraam par pita hamaare raajaapur sukh bhavan sidhaare. pratham teerth yaatra mahan aaye chitrakoot lakhi ati sukh paaye.

parashuraam soya sukh pai tahi marut sukh svapn dikhaai. basahu jaaya raajaapur dhaama, uttar bhaag subhoomi lalaama. -Baba raghuvar das rachit tulasi charit

"Goswami tulaseedaas ka naam na to aain-A-akabari aur na samakaaleen faarasi itihaasakaaron par aadhaarit Europeeya lekhakon ke granth mein milega, fir bhi vah Bhaarat mein apne samay ke sabse mahaan purush the. vah Akbar se bhi mahaan the kyonki is kavi ne karodon manushyon ke hrudaya par adhikaar kar liya hai aur yeh vijay samraat dvaara yuddh mein praapt kisi bhi vijay athva usaki sabhi vijyon se kaheen adhik chirsthaayi evam mahatvapoorn hai." -vi.A. smith

aachaarya keshavadaas

pitaamah shri Krishna datt mishr tatha pita aachaarya kaashi naath ji orachha darbaar ke pratishthit vidvaan the. isi parivaar mein keshavadaas ji ka janm betava nadi ke tat par tungaaranya --orachha-- mein raamanavami tithi san. 1618 vi. mein hua. orachha naresh mahaaraaj raamasinh ke raajapandit pad par pratishthit, sabha chatur evam vaakapatu the. mahaaraaj ke chhote bhaai indrajeet Singh ka un par guruvat aadar bhaav tha. raaja beerabal, todaramal, abdurraraheem khaanakhaana snehi the. unke prasiddh granth rasik-priya --san. 1648 vi.-- kavi priya --san. 1658 vi.-- ras-gyaan, alankaar-sameeksha ke shreshthatam granth hain. mahaakaavya raamachandrika mein naatakeeya shaili ka samaavesh kar pratibha tatha maulikta ka parichay diya. veerasinhadev charitra, jahaangeer jasachandrika, ratanabaauni mein tatkaaleen sanskruti tatha aitihaasik ghatnaaon ki jhalak praapt hai. nakhashikh tatha chhandamaala mein kaavyaachaarya ki pratibha pratibimbit hai. "raamaalankrut manjari' pingal shaasr ka granth hai. vigyaan geeta adhyaatmak vishyak anootha granth hai. aachaarya keshavadaas mishr kaavya reeti ki ek vishisht pranaali ke pravartak hain. alankaar sanbandhi sameeksha mein unka sthaan adviteeya hai. unki krutiyon mein tatkaaleen vruttiyon ka chitran praapt hai. hindi saahitya ke pratham aachaarya ka nidhan san. 1674 vi. mein hua. raamachandr shukl ke anusaar unka janm san. 1612 vi. hai. shri bhagavaanadeen ke anusaar janm san. 1618 vi. hai. unka jeevan yug ke anurup rangeeni rasikta anekapata tatha rochakata se paripoorn hai. unki samast krutiyon ka aadhaar sanskrut granth maane jaate hain. reeti bhaktikaal mein keshav sarvapramukh kavi hain jinhonne bundeli saahitya ko hi naheen hindi ke reetikaavya ko bhi mahatvapoorn den di hai.

1. keshav sab kabiyn mein meera, jyon mutiyn mein heera. misri si nisri imi, baani bole mor papeera.. tugan bhoomi tap bhoomi orachho, basai betava teera.. raamachandrika saras bakhaani, harai sakal bhav peera..

pandit Kapil Dave tailang

2. jagavandit dvij kul tilk anupam pratibhaavaan kavita kaanan kesari keshav sukavi sujaan

-shankar Dwivedi

3. dekhi keshav ki kavitaayi, rasikn ke man bhaayi. aakhar arath anokhe vivran, varanan ki fulavaayi..n kitoo saral jan man ko aavai samajhat k kathinaai. jinke kaavya kasauti kas ke kaviyn milt bidaai.. kavita karta teen hai tulasi keshav soor. kavita kheti in chuni seela bint majoor..

aachaarya padmaakar

mool naam pyaarelaal ka janm samvat 1810 vikrami mein saagar nagar mein hua. inke pita shri mohanalaal bh saagar ke shaasak raghunaath Rao ke aashrit the. inka janm sthaan baanda bhi maana jaata hai. samvat 1830 vikrami mein none arjun Singh ne inhein apna deeksha guru banaaya. ve rosaai himmat bahaadur ke darbaar mein bhi rahe. banagaanv ke yuddh mein unke saath the. yuddh ka varnan himmat bahaadur virdaavali mein hai. samvat 1890 vi. mein unka shareeraant ganga tat par Kanpur mein hua. unke kaavya mein rup aur yauvan ke manohaari chitr ankit hain. naayika ke shaareerik saundarya ke chitraankan hai. ve ras siddh kavi hain. unke kavita mein jeevan ki sakriyta evam yathaarthata hai. ishvar pacheesi mein sansaar ki asaarata ka chitran hai. unke kaavya mein veer aur shrrungaar ras ka adbhut samanvaya hai. prataapashaah virdaavali, himmat bahaadur virdaavali, arjunaraayasa vyaktirk aitihaasik kaavya granth hai. raamarasaayan antim granth hai. padmaakar hindi saahitya ke shrrungaar, veer evam bhakti bhaav kavita ke liye prasiddh hai. prakruti ka varnan nirpeksh hai. shrrungaar kaavya ke ve agraganya kavi hain. saagar ke soobedaar raghuna# Rao ne padmaakar ki kavita ki saraahana karte hue ek lakh Ru. ka nakad puraskaar diya tha. ve laav-lashkar ke saath yaatra karte the. unki kavita reetikaaleen yug shrrungaar tatha vilaasita ki abhivyakti karti hai. unhonne bundeli shabdon ki vyaapak kaavya ke saath is prakaar sanyukt kiya hai ki ve unamein vileen ho gaye hain. inki bhaasha hi inhein bundelakhand tatha bundeli donon ka shreshth kavi ghoshit karti hai.

tulasi, keshav, padmaakar, gangaadhar laal, bihaari. gayi likhi madhurima jaaki vahi isuri nyaari.. rahe svatantr mandir hindi ki ja hindi ko dhaare. re man chal bundel bhaarati ki aarti utaare..

tulasi kavi keshavadaas hue, aru aadi kavi isi bhoomi mein aaye. gupt, bihaari yahaan janme, chaturesh, ramesh, ne chhand rachaae.. bhooshan ki jab doli uthi tab datr ne kaandhe dai maan badhaae. tulasi ne ghise jab chandan to shreeraam ne maathe mein khaur lagaae..

-pannaalaal upaadhyaaya

ved vyaas, tulasi, keshav ki chhaayi keerti. dhanya kavi bhoomi punya pratibha prasaarini.. raghukul soorya chitrakoot mein rame the yaheen. ati ramaneeya teerth bhoomi moksh kaarini.. shreesh gun gaanoo padh choom choom jhoom jhoom.. he bundel bhoomi hind maanas vihaarini..

-haridaas sharma "shreesh

raashtrakavi maithileesharan gupt

hindi saahitya ke prakhar nakshatr, maaain bhaarati ke varad putr maithileesharan gupt ka janm 3 August san 1886i. mein pita seth raamacharan kanakane aur maata kaushilya baai ki teesari santaan ke rup mein chirgaanv, Jhansi mein hua. maata aur pita donon hi param vaishnav the. "kanakalataaddh naam se kavita karte the. vidyaalaya mein khelakood mein adhik dhyaan dene ke kaaran padhaai adhoori hi rah gayi. ghar mein hi hindi, bangala, sanskrut saahitya ka adhyayan kiya. munshi ajameri ji ne unka maargadarshan kiya. 12 varsh ki aayu mein brajabhaasha mein kavita rachana aarambh kiya. aachaarya mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ke sampark mein bhi aaye. unki kavitaayein khadi boli mein maasik "sarasvati' mein prakaashit hona praarambh ho gayi. pratham kaavya sangrah "rang mein bhang' tatha vaad mein "jayadrath vadh' prakaashit hui. unhonne bangaali ke kaavya granth "meghanaath vadh' "brajaangana' ka anuvaad bhi kiya. san 1914 E. mein raashteeya bhaavanaaon se ot-prot "Bhaarat bhaarati' ka prakaashan kiya. unki lokapriyta sarvatr fail gayi. sanskrut mein likhit "svapnavaasavadatt' ka anuvaad prakaashit karaaya. san 1916-17 E. mein mahaakaavya "saaket' ka lekhan praarambh kiya. urmila ke prati upeksha bhaav is granth mein door kiye. svat: press ki sthaapana kar apni pustakein chhaapana shuru kiya. saaket tatha anya granth panchavati aadi san 1931 mein poorn kiye. isi samay ve raashtrapita Gandhi ji ke nikat sampark mein aaye. 'yashodhara' san 1932 E. mein likhi. Gandhi ji ne unhein "raashtakavi' ki sanjnyaa pradaan ki. san 1941 E. mein vyaktigat satyaagrah ke antargat jail gaye. unki teen patniyaan tatha aath santaan hui. Agra vishvavidyaalaya se unhein di.lit. se sammaanit kiya gaya. 1952-1964 tak raajya sabha ke sadasya manoneet huye. san 1953 E. mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne unhein "padm vibhooshan' se sammaanit kiya gaya. tatkaaleen raashtrapati dau॰ Rajendra prasaad ne san 1962 E. mein abhinndan granth bheint kiya tatha hindu vishvavidyaalaya ke dvaara di.lit. se sammaanit kiye gaye.

isi varsh prayaag mein sarasvati ki svarn jayanti samaaroh ka aayojan hua jiski adhyakshata shri gupt ji ne ki. san 1963 E. mein anuj siyaaraam sharan gupt ke nidhan ne apoornaneeya aaghaat pahunchaaya. 12 December 1964 E. ko dil ka daura pada aur saahitya ka jagamagaata taara ast ho gaya. 78 varsh ki aayu mein do mahaakaavya, 19 khandakaavya, kaavyageet, naatikaayein aadi likhi. unke kaavya mein raashtreeya chetna, dhaarmik bhaavana aur maanaveeya utthaan pratibimbit hai. Bhaarat bhaarati ke teen khand mein desh ka ateet, vartamaan aur bhavishya chitrit hai. ve maanavavaadi, naitik aur saanskrutik kaavyadhaara ke vishisht kavi the. dau॰ nagendr ke anusaar ve raashtrakavi the, sachche raashtrakavi. dinkar ji ke anusaar unke kaavya ke bheetar Bhaarat ki praacheen sanskruti ek baar fir tarunaavastha ko praapt hui thi.

vrundaavanalaal varma

mahaan upanyaasakaar shri vrundaavanalaal varma ka janm maooraaneepur --Jhansi-- mein 9 January san 1889 E. mein hua. unke pita shri ayodhya prasaad shreevaastav kaanoonago the. vidyaarthi jeevan mein hi aapne sheksapeeyar ke chaar naatakon ka hindi anuvaad kiya. san 1913 mein vakaalat shuru ki, san 1909 mein rajput ki talavaar --kahaani sangraha—aaprakaashit hui. "gadh-kundaar', "viraata ki padmini', "Jhansi ki raani', "hans mayoor', "maadhavaraaya sindhiya', "mruganayani', poorv ki or, lalit vikram, bhuvan vikram, ahilyaabaai "keechad' aur "kamal' "devagadh ki muskaan', "raamagadh ki raani', "mahaaraani durgaavati', "ab kya ho', "soti aag', --aitihaasik upanyaas--, "lagan, "sangam', "pratyaagat', kundali chakr, prem ki bheint, mangalasootr, raakhi ki laaj, achal mera koi, baaains ka faans, khilauni ki khoj, kaner, peele haath, neelakanth, kevat, dekha-dekhi, udaya, kiran, aahat, aadi saamaajik upanyaason ka lekhan poorn kiya. angoothi ka daan, kalaakaar ka dand, rashmi samooh, sharanaagat, medhk ka byaah, aitihaasik kahaaniyaan, gaurav gaathaaen, sardaar raane Khan, raashtreeya dhvaj ki aan, ek doosare ke liye ham, aadi kahaaniyaan likhi. Jhansi ki raani, beerabal, chale chalo, naatak tatha teen ekaanki likhe. hrudaya ki hilor, --gadya kaavya--, dabe paanv --shikaar anubhav, sona --aanchalik kahaani--, yuddh ke morche se, --veeragaatha jeevani-- 1857 ke amar veer --skech-- apni kahaani --jeevani-- bundelakhand ke lokagati, kaashmeer ka kaanta, --raajanaitik naatak—abhaarat yeh hai --riportaaj-- aadi vividh rachanaaen likhi. lalitaaditya doobata shankhanaad, amar jyoti, aadi prakaashya hai. aapki vibhinn pustakon ka anuvaad deshi aur videshi bhaashaaon mein sampann hua.

Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara san 1965 E. mein "padam bhooshan' dvaara sammaanit hue. Agra vishvavidyaalaya dvaara san 1968 mein di.lit. upaadhi pradatt huyi. hindi saahitya sammelan prayaag dvaara san 1965 mein ""saahitya vaachaspati upaadhi pradaan ki gayi. "soviyt bhoomi neharu puraskaar', "saahitya academy puraskaaraddh, "hindustaani academy puraskaaraddh tatha "batuk prasaad puraskaar' --kaashi naagari prachaarini sabha Varanasi-- praapt hue. 23 fravari san 1969 E. ko 81 varsh ki aayu mein svargavaasi hue.

shri varma ji ki kahaaniyaan, upanyaas, naatak aadi aanchalikta ka gun liye hue hain. unki tulana ya prerana srot sar vaaltar Scott ko maana jaata hai, yeh bhraamak hai. unki ghatanaachakron ki prushthabhoomi, paatron ki maanasikta tatha vaataavaran shuddhatam bhaarateeya tatha bundelakhandi hai.

budelakhand ka chappa-chappa unka jaana aur chhaana hua tha. yahaaain ke nivsi unki rachanaaon mein anupraanit hain. bundelaand ka samast jeevan unamein pratiflit hai. unka jeevan ek mahaakaavya tha. jismein vividh sarg unki rachanaaen theen. unke jeevan mein bundelakhand ki mitti ki sugandh basi huyi thi aur vahi unki rachanaaon mein bhi mukharit thi. hindi mein ek vahi lekhak the jismein ek vyaapak bhookhand ka ateet, vartamaan aur bhavishya bolata hai. maano vah koi dapann hai jismein yugon ke chitr ubharatein, mitte aur mit-mit kar fir ubharate hain. --pustakaansh "mainne smruti ke deep jalaaen' -shri raamanaath suman san 1976--

siyaaraamasharan gupt

bahumukhi pratibha ke saahityakaar shri siyaaraamasharan gupt ka janm bhaadr poornima samvat 1952 vi. tadnusaar 4 sitmbar 1895 E. ko seth raamacharan kanakane ke parivaar mein shri maithileesharan gupt ke anuj rup mein chirgaanv, Jhansi mein hua tha. primary shiksha poorn kar ghar mein hi gujaraati, angreji aur urdoo bhaasha seekhi. san 1929 E. mein raashtrapita Gandhi ji aur kastooraba ke sampark mein aaye. kuchh samay vardha aashram mein bhi rahe. san 1940 E. mein chirgaanv mein hi neta ji subhaashachandr Bose ka svaagat kiya. ve sant binova ji ke sampark mein bhi aaye. unki patni tatha putron ka nidhan asamaya hi ho gaya. moolat- aap du:kh vedana aur karuna ke kavi ban gaye. saahitya ke aap maun saadhak bane rahe.

'maurya vijay' pratham rachana san 1914 mein likhi. anaath, aardra, vishaad, doorva dal, Bapu, sunanda, gopika aapke khand kaavya hain. maanushi --kahaani sangrah--, punya parv --naatak--, geeta samvaad, --anuvaad--, unmukt geet --naatya--, anurupa tatha amrut putr --kavita sangrah—asarvaprasiddh hai. dainiki nakul, noaakhali mein, jaya hind, paatheya, mrunmayi, aatmosarg kaavyagranth hain. "antim aakaanksha', "naari' aur god upanyaas hai. "jhooth-sach' nibndh sangrah hai. ishopanishd, dhammapad bhagavat geeta ka padyaanuvaad aapne kiya.

deerghakaaleen hindi sevaaon ke liye san 1962 E. mein "sarasvati' heerak jayanti mein sammaanit kiye gaye. aapko san 1941 E. mein "sudhaakar padak' naagari prachaarini sabha Varanasi dvaara pradaan kiya gaya. aapki samast rachanaaen paanch khandon mein sankalit kar prakaashit hai. asamaya hi 29 March 1963 E. ko lambi beemaari ke baad maan sarasvati ke dhaam mein prasthaan kar gaye.

dau॰ Ramkumar varma

ekaanki samraat dau॰ Ramkumar varma ka janm 15 sitmbar san 1905 E. mein mohalla gopaalaganj, saagar mein hua tha. aap Allahabad vishvavidyaalaya se vibhaagaadhyaksh --hindi-- pad se seva nivrut huye. veer hammeer, chittaud vijya—aaprabandh kaavya-- nisheeth, baali vadh, ekalavya, --khand kaavya-- kulalalana, noorajahaaain, bhojaraaj, jauhara—aaaakhyaan geet, pruthveeraaj ki aankhein, reshami taai, rup-rang, kunti ka paritaap, shivaaji, rim-jhim, kaumudi mahotsava—aaaitihaasik ekaanki-- mayoor pankh, khatte-meethe, lalit ekaanki, mere shreshth rang ekaanki prakaashit hain. saahitya ka aalochanaatmak itihaas, kabeer granthaavali --sampaadit-- kabeer ka rahasyavaad, kabeer : ek anusheelan, sansmaranon ke suman bhi prakaashit hain. aapke kaavya sangrah anjali, abhishaap, ruparaashi, chaarumitr, saptakirn, himhaas, smruti ke ankur, rup-rang, riaturaaj, deepadaan, kaamakandala, chandr kiran, Bapu, indradhanush, agnishikha, ashok ka shok aadi hain.

dau॰ varma bahumukhi pratibha ke saahityakaar the. ve shreshth kavi tatha ekaanki lekhan ke adviteeya rachanaakaar the. ek mahaan naatakakaar evam saahitya ke moordhanya adhyeta the. unka pratyek granth saahitya jagat mein prakaashamaan hai. san 1963 E. mein "padm bhooshan' se sammaanit hue.

shri ambika prasaad divya

ajayagadh jila panna ke susanskrut kaayasth parivaar mein shri ambika prasaad, "divya' ka janm 16 March san 1906 E mein hua tha. M. A. --hindi-- saahityaratn upaadhi sampann "divya ji' ne m.pr. shiksha vibhaag mein seva kaarya praarambh kiya, praachaarya pad se seva nivrut huve. aap angreji, sanskrut, rusi, faarasi, urdoo bhaashaavid the. aap bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani the. khajuraaho ki atirupa, preetaadri ki Rajkumari, kaala bhaunra, yogi raaja, sati ka patthar, fajal ka makabara, joothi paatar, jayadurg ka raajamahal, aseem ka seema, premi tapasvi aadi prasiddh aitihaasik upanyaason ki rachana ki. nimiya, manovedana, belakali saamaajik upanyaas likhe. gaaaindhi paraayan, antarjagat, raamadapann, khajuraaho ki raani, divya dohaavali, paavas, pipaasa, srotasvini, pashyanti, chetayanti, ananyamanasa, vichintayanti, bhaaratageet prasiddh mahaakaavya tatha mukt rachanaayein hain. aapne lankeshvar, bhojanandan kans, nirvaan path, teen pag, kaamadhenu, sootrapaat, charan chinh, pralaya ka beej, rupak sarita, rupak manjari, footi aaainkhe, Bhaarat maata, jhaaainsi ki raani, aadi naatak likhe. nibndh vividha, deep sarita, hamaari chitrakala m.pr. shaasana—aachhatrasaal puraskaar-- dvaara puraskrut hai. veemen aaaif khajuraaho angreji ki suprasiddh rachana hai. divya ji ka padya saahitya maithili sharan gupt, naatak saahitya Ramkumar varma tatha upanyaas saahitya vrundaavan laal varma jaise sheersh saahityakaaron ke sannikt hain. aapne keer ke kaagar samaan apna shareer 5 sitmbar 1986 E. ko shikshak diwas samaaroh mein bhaag lete huye hrudaya-gati ruk jaane se tyaag diya. aap aadarsh praachaarya ke rup mein san 1960 mein sammaanit kiye gaye the. divya ji ke upanyaason ka kendra bindu bundelakhand athva bundele naayak hain. bail kali --panna naresh amaan Singh-- jaya durg ka rang mahala—aajayagadh-- sati ka patthar—agathaura ka yuddh-bundelakhand ka mahaabhaarata—aapeetaadre ka Rajkumari --raani durgaavati-- tatha nimiya ki prushthabhoomi bundelakhand ka janajeevan hai. san 1986 E. mein madhya pradesh raashtrabhaasha samiti Bhopal dvaara "divya puraskaar' ka shubhaarambh ahindi pradesh ke naatakakaaron ke liye kiya gaya hai. saahitya sadana—aaakhil bhaarateeya ambika prasaad divya smruti samaaroh dvaara upanyaas vidha hetu tatha do hajaar rupaye ki raashi tatha dviteeya puraskaar "kavita vidha hetu' ghoshit kiye gaye hain. tatha "divyaalok' ka prakaashan bhi sangrahaneeya smaarika ke rup mein prastaavit hai. divya ji ka abhinndan granth prakaashya hai.

kedaaranaath Agrawal

shri kedaaranaath Agrawal ka janm 1 April 1911 E. mein baaainda janapad ke kamaasin gram mein hua. vyavasaaya se aap kushal adhivakta tatha sarkaari vakeel ke rup mein bhi padasth the. "desh desh ki kavita' pratham kaavyaanuvaad prakaashit hua. yug ki ganga, neend ke baadal, gulameinhadi, aag ka aaina, he meri tum, kahe kidaar khari-khari, jamun jal, jo shilaaen tode hain, anahaari hariyaali, kooki koyal khadi ped ki deh, basant mein prasann huyi dharati, --kaavya sangraha—aprakaashit hain. patiya --upanyaas--, khili basti gulaabon ki --sansmaran--, bhi pramukh granth hai. saahitya academy dvaara "apoorva' puraskrut hai. aap "maithileesharan gupt' puraskaar se sammaanit hue tatha hindi saahitya sammelan prayaag dvaara "vidyaavaachaspati' ke upaadhi se alankrut kiye gaye.

aapko janavaadi kavi ke naate san 1973 E. mein soviyt laind puraskaar pradaan kiya gaya tatha rus ka yaatra bhi ki. inki kaavyaprerana swayam ka jeevanadarshan hai. unhonne kisaan evam majadooron ki peeda tatha graameen jeevan ke du:kh dardon ko imaandaari se vyakt kiya hai. maakrsavaadi vichaaradhaara se prabhaavit hokar rachana karte hain, kintu inka vyaktitv svachhand va pragatisheel hai. ve keval kavi hi naheen sookshm vichaarak bhi hain jaisa unke saahityik lekhon se pragat hota hai. ve naye moolyon ki sthaapana karanevaale vidrohi kavi hain. samaaj mein naye jeevan ki nayi kiran ka svaagat karte hain. sangharsh aur vidroh ke prati unka drushtikon svasth hai. unke bimb naveen tatha saaragarbhit hote hain. unki bhaasha saral va chubhati hui hai. kedaaranaath Agrawal puraskaar samaaroh baad mein praarambh ho gaya hai. Bapu ji ka dehaant 22 June san 2000 ko ho gaya.