bundelakhand ka itihaas

bundelakhand Bhaarat ke madhya ka bhaag hai, jo uttar pradesh evam madhya pradesh mein padta hai. iska vistrut itihaas hai.

anukram

itihaas

puraataatvik saahityik shodhon ki vipulata ne itne naye tathya prastut kiye hain ki bhaaratavarsh ke samagr itihaas se panaraalekhan ki aavashyakta prateet hone lagi hai. "bundelakhand' ka itihaas bhi isi prakaar nayi shodhon ke sandarbh mein aalekhan ki apeksha rakhata hai. "bundelakhand 'shabd madhyakaal se pehle is naam se prayog mein naheen aaya hai. iske vividh naam aur unke upayog aadhunik yug mein hi hue hain. beesaveen shati ke praarambhik dashak mein raayabahaadur mahaaraajasinh ne bundelakhand ka itihaas likha tha. isame bundelakhand ke antargat aane waali jaageeron aur unke shaasakon ke naamon ki ganana mukhya thi. deevaan pratipaal Singh ne tatha panna darbaar ke prasiddh kavi "Krishna' ne apne sroton se bundelakhand ke itihaas likhe parantu ve vidvaan bhi saamaajik saanskrutik chetanaaon ke prati udaaseen rahe.

pan0 harihr nivaas Dwivedi ne "madhya Bhaarat ka itihaas' granth mein bundelakhand ki raajanaitik, dhaarmik, saanskrutik upalabdhiyon ki charcha prakaaraantar se ki hai. is granth mein kuchh sthaanon par bundelakhand ka itihaas bhi aaya hai. ek uttam prayaas pan0 gorelaal tivaari ne kiya aur "bundelakhand ka sankshipt itihaas' likha jo ab tak ke grantho se sabse alag tha parantu tivaareeji ne bundelakhand ka itihaas samaajashaasreeya aadhaar par likh kar keval raajanaitik ghatnaaon ke aadhaar par likha hai.

bundelakhand sudoor ateet mein shabar, kol, kiraat, pulind aur nishaadon ka pradesh tha. aaryon ke madhyadesh mein aane par jan jaatiyon ne pratirodh kiya tha. vaidik kaal se bundelon ke shaasanakaal tak do hajaar varshon mein is pradesh par anek jaatiyon aur raajavanshan ne shaasan kiya hai aur apni saamaajik-saanskrutik chetna se in jaatiyon ke mool sanskaaron ko prabhaavit kiya hai. vibhinn shaasakon mein maurya, sung, shak, hun, kushaan, naag, vaakaatak, gupt, kalachuri, chandel, Afghan, mugal, bundela, baghel, gaud, maraath aur angrej mukhya hain.

i0 poo0 321 tak vaidik kaal se mauryakaal tak ka itihaas vastut: bundelakhand ka "pauraanik-itihaas' maana ja sakta hai. iske samast aadhaar pauraanik granth hai.

pauraanik itihaas :

samast bhaarateeya itihaason mein "manu' maanav samaaj ke aadi purush hain. inki khyaati kosal desh mein ayodhya ko rajdhani banaane aur uttam-shaasan vyavastha dene mein hai. mahaabhaarat aur raghuvansh ke aadhaar par maana jaata hai ki manu ke uparaant isvaaku aaai aur unke teesare putr dandak ne vindhayaparvat par apni rajdhani banaai dhi. manu ke samaanaantar budh ke putr purukha maane gaye hain inke prapautr yayati the jinke jyeshth putr yadu aur uske putr koshtu bhi janapad kaal mein chedi (vartamaan bundelakhand) se sanbanddh rahe hain. ek anya parampara kaalidaas ke "abhigyaan shaakuntal' se is prakaar milti hai ki dushyant ke vanshaj kuru the jinke doosare putr ki shaakha mein raaja uparichr-vasu hue the. inki khyaati vishesh kar shaurya ke kaaran hui hai. inke utraraadhikaariyon ko bhi chedi, matsya aadi praanto se sambandhit maana gaya hai. baharahaal pauraanik kaal mein bundelakhand prasiddh shaasakon ke adheen raha hai jinmein chandravanshi raajaaon ki vistrut soochi milti hai. puraanakaaleen samast janapadon ki sthiti bauddhakaal mein bhi milti hai. chedi raajya ko praacheen bundelakhand maana ja sakta hai. bauddhakaal mein shaampak naamak bauddh ne baagudha pradesh mein Bhagwan budd ke naakhoon aur baal se ek stoop ka nirmaan karaaya tha. vartamaan marahoot (varadaavati nagar) mein iske avashesh vidyamaan hain.

bauddh kaaleen itihaas ke sambandh mein bundelakhand mein praapt tatyugeen avasheshon se spasht hai ki bundelakhand ki sthiti mein is avadhi mein koi lakshaneeya parivartan naheen hua tha. chedi ki charcha na hona aur vats, avanti ke shaasakon ka mahatva darshaaya jaana is baat ka pramaan hai ki chedi inmein se kisi ek ke adheen raha hoga. pauraanik yug ka chedi janapad hi is prakaar praacheen bundelakhand hai.

mauryakaal :

mauryon ke pehle ka raajanaitik jo ki bundelakhand kshetr ki charcha karta ho upalabdh naheen hai. vartamaan khojon tatha praacheen vaastukala, chitrakala, moortikla, bhittichitron aadi ke aadhaar par kaha ja sakta hai ki janapad kaal ke baad praacheen chedi janapad baad mein pulind desh ke saath mil gaya tha.

sabse praacheen saakshya "Aaron' ki paraataatvik khojon aur utkhananon se upalabdh hue hain. ye saakshya 300 i0 poo0 ke maane gaye hain. is samay Aaron ka shaasak dharmapaal tha jiske sambandh mein mile sikkon par "erikin' mudrit hai. tripuri aur ujjayini ke samaan Aaron bhi ek ganatantr tha. mauryashaasan ke aate hi samast bundelakhand (jinmein Aaron bhi tha) usame vileeyat hua. matsya puraan aur vishnu puraan mein maurya shaasan ke 130 varshon ka yeh saakshya hai-

uddharishyati kautilya sabha dvaadasheem, sutaan.
muktva maheen varsh shalo mauryaan gamishyati..
ityete dansh mauryaastu ye mokshyanint vasundharaam.
sapt treenshachhatan poorn tebhya: shubhङaaag gamishyati.

maurya vansh ke teesare raaja ashok ne bundelakhand ke anek sthaanon par vihaaron, mathon aadi ka nirmaan karaaya tha. vartamaan gurgi (golaki math) ashok ke samay ka sabse bada vihaar tha. bundelakhand ke dakshini bhaag par ashok ka shaasan tha jo uske ujjayini tatha vidisha me rahane se pramaanit hai. paravarti mauryashaasak durbal the aur kai anek kaaran the jinki vajah se apne raajya ki raksha karne me samarth na rahai falat: is pradesh par shuङag vansh ka kabja hua jise vishnu puraan tatha matsya puraan mein is prakaar diya hai -

teshaamante pruthiveen das shuङagamokshyanti.
punyamitrassena patissvaaminan hatva raajyan karishyati..

vishnu puraan

tubhya: shuङagamishyati.
pushyaminnastu senaani rudradhrutya s vruhadathaal
kaarayishyeet vai raajyan shat trishanti samaanrup:..

matsya puraan

vruhadthon ko bhaaskar punyamitr ka raajya kaayam hona vaan ke "hashacharit' se bhi samarthit hai. shuङag vansh bhaargav chvayan ke vanshaadhar shunak ke putr shonak se udbhool hai. inhonne 36 varshon tak is kshetr mein raajya kiya. iske uparaant gardabhilla aur naagon ka adhikaar is pradesh par hua. Bhagwat puraan aur vaayupuraan mein kileekala kshetr ka varnan aaya hai. ye kileekala kshetr aur raajya vindhyapradesh (naagaud) tha. naagon dvaara sthaapit shivaalyon ke avashesh bhramara (naagaud) baijanaath (reevaaain ke paas) kuhara (ajayagadh) mein ab bhi milte hain. naagon ke prasiddh raaja chhaanaag, trayanaag, vahinaag, chakhanaag aur bhavanaag pramukh naag shaasak the. bhavanaag ke uttaraadhikaari vaakaatak maane gaye hain.

puraanakaal mein bundelakhand ka apna ek mahatva tha, maurya ke samay mein tatha unke baad bhi yeh pradesh apni garima banaae hue tha tatha is kshetr mein kai mahatvapoorn kaarya hue.

vaakaatak aur guptashaasan:

dau॰ vee0 pi- miraanshi ke anusaar vaakaatak vansh ka sarvashreshth raaja vindhyashakti ka putr pravarasen tha. isne apne saamraajaya ka vistaar uttar mein narmada se aage tak kiya tha. puraanon mein aaye varnan ke anusaar usane parik naamak nagari par adhikaar kiya tha jise vidisha raaj ke naagaraaj daihitr shishuk ne apne adheen kar rakha tha. purika pravarasen ke raajya ki rajdhani bhi rahi hai.

vaakaatak raajya ki parampara teen rupon mein pai jaati hai - k) svatantr vaakaatak saamraajya kh) guptakaaleen vaakaatak saamraajaya g) gupton ke uparaant vaakaatak saamraajaya

kunteedevi agnihotri ka vichaar hai ki san 345 se vaakaatak gupton ke prabhaav mein aaye aur paaainchaveen shataabdi ke madhya tak unke aashrit rahe hain. katipya vidvaan vindhyashakti ke samay se san 255 tak vaakaatakon ka kaal maanate hain. ye jhaaainsi ke paas baagaat sthaan se udbhoot hai at: bundelakhand se inka vishesh sambandh raha hai.

pramukh vaakaatak shaasak

1) pravarasen pratham san 275 i0 se335 i0 2) rudrasen pratham 335 i0 se 360 i0 3) pruthveesen 360 i0 se 385 i0 4) rudrasen dviteeya 390 i0 se 410 i0 5) pravarasen dviteeya 410 i0 se 440 i0 6) narendrasen 440 i0 se 460 i0 7) pruthveesen dviteeya 460 i0 se 480 i0 8) harisen

itihaasakaaron ke anusaar harisen ne pashchimi aur poorvi samudra ke beech ki saari bhoomi par raaj kiya tha.

guptavansh ka udbhav uttari Bhaarat mein chaturth shataabdi mein hua tha. cheeni yaatri hyenasaang jis samay bundelakhand mein aaya tha, us samay bhaarateeya nepoliyn samudragupt ka shaasanakaal tha. usane vaakaatakon ko apne adheen kar liya tha. kalachuriyon ke udbhav ka samay bhi isi ke aaspaas maana gaya hai. samudragupt ki digvijya aur "Aaron' par usaka adhikaar shilaalekhon aur taamrapaton ke aadhaar par sabhi itihaasakaaron ne maana hai, "Aaron' ki puraataatvik khojon ko pro॰ krushnadatt Vajpayee ne apni pustika "saagar throo ejej' mein prastut kiya hai.

Aaron ke do naam milte hain "erikn aur "svabhonagar'.

svabhonagar se spasht hai ki yeh vaibhav ki nagari rahi hai. hata tahaseel (vartamaan damoh jila) ke sakaur gram mein 24 sono ke sikke mile hain jinmein guptavansh ke raajaaon ke naam ankit hain. isse spasht hai ki gupton ke samay mein bundelakhand ek vaibhavashaali pradesh tha. skandagupt ke uparaant bundelakhand budhagupt ke adheen tha. iski dekharekh maandaleek sushmichandr karta tha. sushmichandr ne maitraayaneeya shaakha ke maatruvishnu aur dhaanya vishnu braahmanon ko Aaron ka shaasak banaaya tha jiski pushti "eran' ke stambh se hoti hai. sushmichandr gupt ka shaasan yamuna aur narmada ke beech ke bhaag par maana gaya hai.

gupton ki adheenata sveekaar karne vaalon mein uchhakalp aur parivraajakon ka naam liya jaata hai. paaainchavi shataabdi ke aaspaas uchhakalpon ki raajasatta ki sthaapana hui thi. odhadev is vansh ka prateek tha. is vansh ke chauthe shaasak vyaaghradev ke vaakaatakon ki adheenata sveekaar kar li thi. iske shaasakon mein jayanaath aur sharvanaath ke shaasanakaal ke anek daanapatr upalabdh hue hain jinse pata chalta hai ki uchhakalpon ki rajdhani "uchhakalp' (vartamaan ooainchehara) mein thi. inke shaasan mein aane vaale bhoobhaag ke "mahaakaantar' pradesh kaha jaata hai. isi ke paas parivraajakon ki rajdhani thi. vikram ki chauthi sadi mein parivraajakon ne apne raajya ki sthaapana ki thi. inka raajya vamrmaraajya bhi kaha jaata hai. vamrmaraajya par baad mein naagaud ke parihaaron ne apna shaasan jama liya tha.

paaainchavi shataabdi ke ant tak hoon shaasakon dvaara bundelakhand ka shaasan karna itihaasakaaron ne sveekaar kiya hai. hoonon ka pramukh toramaan tha jisne gupton ko paraajit karke poorvi maalava tak apna saamraajya badhaaya tha. eran ke varaahamoorti shilaalekh mein toraman ke aishvarya ki charcha hai. itihaasakaaron ke anusaar bhaanugupt aur toramaan harshavardhan ke poorv ka samay andhakaaramaya hai. cheeni yaatri hyaanasaang ke yaatra vivran mein bundelakhand ka shaasan braahman raaja ke dvaara chalaaya jaana bataaya gaya hai. bundelakhand ko hmash saamraajay ke baahar maana gaya hai. kaalaantar mein braahman raaja ne swayam harsh ki adheenata sveekaar kar li thi. harsh ke uparaant araajakata ki sthiti mein bundelakhand dhaar naresh bhoj ke adhikaar mein aaya. iske baad soorajapaal kachhavaaha, tejakarn, vajradaama, keertiraaj aadi shaasak hue par inhonein koi ullekhaneeya yogadaan naheen diya.

kalachuriyon ka shaasan:

san 647 se 1200 i0 ke aaspaas tak kannauj mein anek shaasak hue, inmein yashovamrman, aayudh, raajakul, pratihaar, gaahadvaal, shaakambhari ke chauhaan (ajayaraaj, vigraharaaj chaturth vaansaladev aur pruthveeraaj truteeya pramukh hain. isi samay desh par muslim aakraman bhi hue. madhyakaal tak Assam mein bhaaskar varman, Bengal mein paalaraajakul ka prabhaav badha to tripuri mein kalachuri jejaakamukti (bundelakhand) mein chandel, maalava mein paramaal tatha aanhivaad mein chaalukya raajakulon ki shakti mein sanvarddhan hua. bundelakhand mein kalachuriyon aur chandelon ka prabhaav deerghakaal tak raha.

kalachuriyon ki do shaakhaayein hain -

ratnapur ke kalachuri aur tripuri ke kalachuri. bundelakhand mein tripuri ke kalachuriyon ka mahatva hai. yeh vansh puraanon mein prasiddh haidhyavanshi kaartaveerya arjun ki parampara mein maana jaata hai. iske sansthaapak mahaaraaj kokkal ne (jabalapur ke paas) tripuri ko apni rajdhani banaaya ataev yeh vansh tripuri ke kalachuriyon ke naam se vikhyaat hai. praacheen kaal mein narmada ke sheersh sthaaneeya pradesh se mahaanadi ke pradesh ka vistrut bhoobhaag chedi janapad ke naam se prasiddh tha. madhyakaal mein ise "dahaal' kaha jaane laga. kovakal badi soojhaboojh evam dooradrushti wala utsaahi vyakti tha ; usane uttar ke chandelon ki badhti hui shakti se laabh uthaane ke liye chandel kumaari natta devi se vivaah kiya.

prataapi kovakaladev ke putr mugdhatung aur keyooravanrsh ne abhootapoorv unnati ki thi. bilhari ke shilaalekh ke anusaal keyooravarsh ne gaud, karnaatalaat aadi deshon ki sriyon se raajamahal ko sushobhit kiya tha aur usase kailaas se setubandh tak ke shatru bhayaakraant the. keyooravarsh ke prataap ka varnan raajashekhar ne vidshaal manjika naatak mein bhi kiya hai.

kalachuriyon ne lakshamanadev, gangeyadev, karn, gayaakarn, narasinh, jayasinh aadi ka shaasan kaal samruddhipoorn maana jaata hai. inhonne 500 varsh tak shaasan kiya jise san 1200 ke aaspaas devagadh ke raaja ne samaapt kar diya aur fir chandelon ke adheen aaya. harshavardhan ke samay chandel raajya ek chhoti si ikaai thi parantu uske baad yeh vistaar paakar dasveen shataabdi tak ek shaktishaali raajya ban gaya.

chandelon ka shaasan:

mahoba chandelon ka kendra tha. harshavardhan ki mrutyu ke baad gaharavaaron ne is par adhikaar kar liya tha. gaharavaaron ko paraajit karne vaale parihaar the. smith aur keenadham ne is janashruti ka samarthan apne granthon mein kiya hai. keshavachandr mishr ka kathan hai ki chandraatreya se nannuk ke raajyakaal tak ka (san 740 se 831 tak) 10 varsh tak ka samay chandelon ke udaya ka kaal hai. is vansh ke pramukh shaasak muni chandraatreya, nrupati bhoobhujaam aur nannuk hain. dhang ke khajuraaho shilaalekh se iska pramaan milta hai. isi sandarbh me kokkal ke lekh aur taamrapatron se prabhoot saamagri milti hai.

chandelon ki utpati vivaadaaspad hai. Dr smith, keenandham, vaidya aur hemachandr rai ke maton mein bahut bhinnata hai. kivdanti ke anusaal hemaavati ke putr ka chandrama se utpann hona chandel kahalaaya hai. janm sambandhi vrutaant mein chandelon ka kalin mein rahana, pratham prataapi shaasak banana bhi shaamil hain. mahaakavi chand ne bhi chandelon ke raajavanshon ki vistrut soochi di hai. chandelon ka aadi purush nannuk maana jaata hai. ise praarambh me raaja na maankar naagabh dviteeya (pratihaar shaasak) ke sanrakshan mein viksit hone wala shaasak bataaya gaya hai. aisa saakshya dhang ke khajuraahe - abhilekh mein bhi mila hai.

chandelon ki apni parampara hai. nannuk aadi shaasak hain. iske baad vaakyapati ka naam aata hai. vaakyapati ke do putr hue jayashakti aur vijyashakti. jayashakti ko vaakyapati ke baad sinhaasan mein baithaaya gaya aur iske naam se hi bundelakhand kshetr ka naam "jejaak-mukti' pada. madanapur ke shilaalekh aur alaberuni ke Bhaarat sambandhi yaatra vivran mein is tathya ko samarthan milta hai. alabaruni ne jejaak mukti ke sthaan par "jejaahuti' shabd ka prayog kiya hai.

jayashakti ke baad vijyashakti gaddi par baitha. isne koi mahatvapoorn kaarya nahi kiye parantu uske putr raaheel ki khyaati apne paraakram ke liye vishesh hai. keshav chandr mishr ne likha hai ki "yadi chandel shaasak raaheel ke kaaryon ka sinhaavalokan kiya jaaye to gyaat hoga ki 900 i0 se 915 i0 tak ke 15 varshon ke shaasan kaal me usane sainyabal sangathit kiya, use mahatvaashaali banaaya aur ajayagadh ki vijay karke aitihaasik sainik kendra sthaapit kiya. kalachuri se vaivaahik sambandh jodkar usane prabhaavashaali kaarya kiya.' raahil ke baad chandel raajya ki svatantr satta ka aur vikaas hota hai. chandelon ne solahaveen shataabdi tak shaasan kiya. shaasakon mein pramukh is prakaar hain -

  1. nannuk san 831 i0
  2. vaakpati san 845 i0
  3. yashovamrman 930 i0
  4. dhang san 950 i0
  5. gand san 1000 i0
  6. vidyaadhar 1025 i0
  7. vijyapaal 1040 i0
  8. devavarma 1055 i0
  9. keertivrma san 1060 i0
  10. sallakshan vamrman 1100 i0
  11. jayavarman 1110 i0
  12. pruthveevarman 1120
  13. madanavarman 1129 i0
  14. paramardi 1165 i0
  15. trailokyavarman 1203 i0
  16. veeravamrman 1245 i0
  17. bhojavarma 1282 i0
  18. veeravarma dviteeya 1300 i0
  19. keertiraaya 1520 i0
  20. raamachandr 1569 i0

chandelon ke saath durgaavati ka bhi naam liya jaata hai.

chandel kaal mein bundelakhand mein moortikla, vaastukala tatha anya kalaaon ka vishesh vikaas hua. "aalha' ke rachayita jageenak maane jaate hain. ye chandelon ke sainik salaahakaar bhi the. pruthveeraaj se chandelon se sambandh bhi aalha mein darshaaye gaye hain. san 1182-83 mein chauhaanon ne chandelon ko sirsaagadh mein paraajit kiya tha aur kalin ka kila loota tha.

chandelon ki keerti ke anek shilaalekh hain. devagadh ke shilaalekh mein chandel vaibhav is prakaar darshaaya hai - "$ nam: shivaaya. chaandel vansh kumudendu vishaal keerti: khyaato babhoov nrup sanghanataahin padm:.' chandelon ke pramukh sthaan khajuraaho, ajayagadh, kalinjar, mahoba, dudhahi, chaandapur aadi hain. chandel abhilekh se spasht hai ki paramaar naresh bhoj ke samay me videshi aakramanakaariyon ka taaainta lag gaya tha. kalin ko lootane ke liye muhammad kaasim, Mehmood gajnavi, shahaabuddeen Gauri aadi aarya aur vipuladhan apne saath le gaye. kutubuddeenaebak muhammad Gauri ke dvaara yahaan ka shaasak banaaya gaya tha uske marne ke baad svatantr hua aur changejakhaaain ke aakraman tak shaasak bana raha.

bundelakhand mein kalin ka kila sabhi baadashaahon ko aakarshan ka kendra raha aur ise praapt karne ke sabhi ne prayatn kiya. hindu aur musalmaan raajaaon mein iske nimitt anek ladaaiyaan huin. khilji vansh ka shaasan sanvat 1377 tak maana gaya hai. alaauddeen khilji ko uske mantri malik kaafoor ne maara, mubaarak ke banane par khusaro ne use samaapt kiya. kalinjar aur ajayagadh chandelon ke haath mein hi rahe. isi samay narasinharaaya ne gvaaliyr par apna adhikaar kiya. baad mein ya tomaron ke haath mein chala gaya. maanasi tomar gvaaliyr ke prasiddh raaja maane gaye hain.

bundelakhand ke adhikaansh raajaaon ne apni svatantr satta banaani praarambh kar di thi fir ve kisi na kisi rup mein Delhi ke takht se jude rahate the. baabar ke baad humaayooain, Akbar, jahaangeer aur shaahajahaaain ke shaasan smaraneeya hai.

bundelon ka shaasan:

bundel kshatreeya jaati ke shaasak the tatha sudoor ateet mein sooryavanshi raaja manu se sanbandhit hain. akshvaaku ke baad raamachandr ke putr "love' se unke vanshajo ki parampara aage badhaai gayi hai aur isi mein kaashi ke gaharavaar shaakha ke karttruraaj ko joda gaya hai. love se karttruraaj tak ke uttaraadhikaariyon mein gaganasen, kanakasen, pradyumn aadi ke naam hi mahatvapoorn hain.

karttruraaj ka gaharavaar hona kisi ghatna ke aadhaar par hain jismein kaashi me oopar grahon ki buri dasha ke nivaaranaarth uske prayatnon mein "grahanivaar' sanjnyaa se vah pukaara jaane laga tha. kaalaantar "grahanivaar' gaharavaar ban gaya.

banaaras ke raajaaon ki anek samay tak sooryavanshi soorya-kulaavantas kaasheeshvar pukaara jaata raha hai. inki parampara is prakaar hai - karttruraaj, mahiraaj, moordharaaj, udayaraaj, garudsen, samarasen, aanandasen, karanasen, kumaarasen, mohanasen, raajasen, kaasheeraaj, shyaamadev, prahmalaadadev, hammeeradev, aasakaran, abhayakaran, jaitakaran, sohanapaal aur karanapaal. karanapaal ke teen putr the - veer, hemakaran aur aribrahm. karanapaal ne hemakaran ko apne saamane hi gaddi par baithaaya tha. ise karanapaal ki mrutyu par shesh do bhaaiyon ne padachyut kar desh nikaala de diya tha.

apne bhaaiyon se trust hokar hemakaran ne raajapurohit gajaadhar se paraamarsh liya. usane vindhayavaasini devi ki pooja ke liye prerit kiya. mirjaapur mein vindhyavaasini devi ki pooja mein chaar narabaliyaaain di gayi, devi prasann hui aur hemakaran ko varadaan diya parantu hemakaran ke bhaaiyon ka atyaachaar hemakaran ke liye ab bhi kam nahi hua. kaalaantar mein usane ek aur narabali dekar devi ko prasann kiya. devi nein paaainchon narabaliyon ke kaaran use pancham ki sanjnyaa di. iske baad vah vindhyavaasini ka param bhakt ban gaya. janasamaaj mein vah "pancham vindhyela' kahalaaya. devi dvaara diye gaye varadaanon ko orachha raajya ke itihaas mein vishesh mahatva diya gaya hai.

ek anya katha ke anusaar hemakaran ne devi ke samaksh apni gardan par jab talavaar rakhi aur swayam ki bali deni chaahi to devi ne use rok diya parantu talavaar ki dhaar se hemakaran ke rakt ki paanch boondein gir gayi theen inheen ke kaaran hemakaran ka naam pancham bundela pada tha. oratha darbaar ke patra mein abhi bhi poorvavarti viruddh ke pramaan milte hain jaise - shri sooryakulaavatans kaasheeshvarapancham grahanivaar vindhyalakhandamanlaaheeshvar shri mahaaraajaadhiraaj orachha naresh. choonki hemakaran ko vindhyavaasini devi ka varadaan ravivaar ko mila tha, orachha mein aaj bhi pavaraatr mahotsav mein is din nagaade banaaye jaate hain. mirjaapur sthit gaura bhi hemakaran ke baad gaharavaarapura ke naam se prasiddh hai. iske baad ka chakr badi teji se ghooma aur veerabhadr ne gadauriya raajapooton me aainter chheen liya aur mahoni ko apni rajdhani banaaya. gadhkundaar iske baad bundelon ki rajdhani bani. veerabhadr ke paaainch vivaah aur paaainch putr prasiddh hain - inmein ranadheer dviteeya raani se, karnapaal truteeya raani se, heeraashi, hansaraaj aur kalyaanasinh paincham raani se the. veerabhadr ke baad karnapaal (1087 i0 se 1112 i0) gaddi par baitha. usaki chaar patniyaaain theen. pratham ke kannaarashaah, udayashaah aur jaamashaah paida hue. dviteeya patni se shaunak Dave tatha nannukadev tatha chaturth patni se veerasinhadev ka janm hua.

kannaarashaah (1112 i0 - 1130 i0), shaunakadev (1130 i0-1152 i0), nannukadev (1152i0-1169 i0) orachha ki gaddi par kram se baithe. iske baad veerasinh ke putr mohanapati (1169 i0-1197 i0), abhayabhoopati (1169 i0-1215 i0) gaddi par aaye. arjunapaal abhayabhoopati ka putr tha. ye 1215 i0 se 1231 i0 tak gaddi par raha. usane teen vivaah kiye. doosari raani se sohanapaal ka janm hua. yeh orachha basaane mein vishesh sahaayak maana jaata hai.

orachha ke bundela:

rudraprataap ke saath hi orachha ke shaasakon ka yugaaranbh hota hai. vah sikndar aur Ibrahim lodhi donon se lada tha. orachha ki sthaapana man 1530 mein hui thi. rudraprataap bad neetijnya tha, gvaaliyr ke tomar nareshon se usane maitri sandhi ki. uske mrutyu ke baad bhaarateechandr (1531 i0-1554i0) gaddi par baitha. humaayooain ko jab sherashaah ne padachyut karke sinhaasan kathiyaaya tha tab usane bundelakhand ke jataara sthaan par durg banava kar hindu raajaaon ko damit karne ke nimitt apne putr saleemashaah ko rakha. kalin ka kila keertisinh chandel ke adhikaar mein tha. sherashaah ne is par kiya to bhaarateechand ne keertisinh ki sahaayata li. sherashaah yuddh mein maara gaya aur uske putr saleemashaah ko Delhi jaana pada.

bhaarateechand ke uparaant madhukarashaah (1554 i0-1592 i0) gaddi par baitha. iske baad samay mein svatantr orachha raajya ki sthaapana hui. Akbar ke bulaane par jab ve darbaar mein nahi pahuaincha to saadikh khaaain ko orachha par chadhaai karne bheja gaya. yuddh mein madhukarashaah haar gaye. madhukarashaah ke aath putr the, unamein sabse jyeshth raamashaah ke dvaara baadshah se kshama yaachana karne par unhein orachha ka shaasak banaaya gaya. raajya ka prabandh unke chhote bhaai indrajeek kiya karte the. keshavadaas naamak prasiddh kavi inheen ke darbaar mein the.

indrajeet ka bhaai veerasinh Dave (jise musalmaan lekhakon ne naaharasinh likha hai) sadaiv musalmaanon ka virodh kiya karta tha) use kai baar dabaane ki cheshta ki gayi par asafar hi rahi. abulafajl ko maarane mein veerasinhadev ne saleem ka poora sahayog kiya tha, isliye vah saleem ke shaasak bante hi bundelakhand ka mahatvapoorn shaasak bana. jahaaaingeer ne iski charcha apni daayari mein ki hai.

veerasinh Dave (1605 i0 - 1627 i0) ke shaasanakaal mein orachha mein jahaaaingeer mahal tatha anya mahatvapoorn mandir bane the. jujhaarasinh jyeshth putr the, unhein gaddi di gayi aur shesh 11 bhaaiyon ko jaageerein di gayi. san 1633 i0 mein jujhaarasinh ne god raaja premashaah par aakraman karke chauraagadh jeeta parantu shaahajahaaain nein pratyaakraman kiya aur orachha kho baithe. unhein dakshin ki or bhaagna pada. unke kumaaron ko musalmaan banaaya gaya tatha ve kaheen par dakshin mein hi maare gaye. veerasinh ke baad orachha ke shaasakon mein deveesinh aur pahaadsihan ka naam liya jaata hai parantu ye adhik samay tak raaj na kar sake.

veerasinh ke uparaant champataraaya prataap ka itihaas prasiddh hai. aurangajeb ki sahaayata karne (daara ke viruddh) par unhein orachha se jamuna tak ka pradesh jaageer mein diya gaya tha. Delhi darbaar ke umaraav hote hue bhi champataraaya ne bundelakhand ko svaadheen karne ka prayatn kiya aur ve aurangajeb se hi bheed gaye. san 1664 me champataraaya ne aatmahatya kar li. orachha darbaar ka prabhaav yahaaain se shoonya ho jaata hai.

panna darbaar isi ke baad chhatrasaal ke netrutv mein unnati karta hai. orachha gajetiyr ke anusaar mugal shaasakon nein champataraaya ke parivaar ko gaddi na di aur jujhaarasinh ke bhaai pahaadsinh ko shaasak niyukt kiya. orachha ke paravarti shaasakon ne sujaanasinh (1653 i0-1672 i0), indrameen (1672 i0-1675 i0), yashavant Singh (1675 i0-1684 i0), bhagavant Singh (1684 i0 - 1689 i0), uddotasinh, dattak putr (1689 i0-1736 i0), pruthvi Singh (1736 i0-1752 i0), saavant Singh (1752 i0-1765 i0) tatha hatesinh vikramaajeet, dharamapaal, tejasinh, hameereesinh, prataapasinh ke naam pramukh hain.

chhatrasaal ne bundelakhand ki svatantr satta sthaapit karne mein athak parishram kiya. aurangajeb ne inhein bhi dabaane ki koshish ki par safal na hue. chhatrasaal ne kalin ko bhi apne adhikaar mein kiya. san 1707 i0 sein aurangajeb ke marne ke baad bahaaduragadh gaddi par baitha. chhatrasaal se iski khoob bani. is samay maraathon ka bhi jor badh gaya tha.

chhatrasaal swayam kavi the. chhattarapur inheen ne basaaya tha. kalaapremi aur bhakt ke rup mein bhi inki khyaati thi. dhuvela-mahal inki bhavan nirmaan-kala ki smruti dilaata hai. bundelakhand ki sheersh unnati inheen ke kaal mein hui. chhatrasaal ki mrutyu ke baad bundelakhand raajya bhaagon mein baint gaya. ek bhaag hirdeshaah, doosra jagataraaya aur teesara peshava ko mila. chhatrasaal ki mrutyu 13 May san 1731 mein hui thi.

(k) pratham hisse mein hirdeshaah ko panna, maoo, gadhaakota, kalinjar, shaahagadh aur uske aaspaas ke ilaake mile. (kh) dviteeya hisse mein jagataraaya ko jaitapur, ajayagadh, jarakhaari, bijaavar, sarola, bhooraagadh aur baaainda mila. (g) baajeeraav ko teesare hisse mein kalapi, hata, hrudayanagar, jaalaun, gurasaaya, jhaaainsi, guna, gadhkota aur saagar ityaadi mila.

athaaraveen shataabdi mein hindupat ke vanshaj soneshaah ne chhattarapur ki sthaapana ki. krushnakavi (panna darbaar ke raajakavi) ne ise chhatrasaal dvaara basaaya maana hai. jabki chhattarapur gajetiyr mein ise sonoshaah ka naam hi diya hai. soneshaah ke baad chhattarapur raajya mein prataapasinh, jagataraaj aur vishvanaathasinh aadi raajaaon ne shaasan kiya. soneshaah ke samay mein chhattarapur mein anek mahalon, taalaabon, mandiron ka nirmaan karavaaya.

maraathon ka shaasan:

chhatrasaal ke samay se hi maraathon ka shaasan bundelakhand par praarambh ho gaya tha. us samay orachha ka shaasak bhi maraathon ko chauth deta tha. Delhi ke musalmaan shaasakon dvaara araajakata failaane ke kaaran uttar Bhaarat mein dheeme-dheeme angreji shaasan failata ja raha tha. san 1759 mein ahamadashaah abdaali ke viruddh yuddh mein govindaraav patan maare gaye.

bundelakhand mein angrejon ka aagaman haanikaarak siddh hua. Colonel velejali ne san 1778 mein kalapi par aakraman kiya aur maraathon ko haraaya. kaalaantar mein naana fadnavees ki salaah me maadhav Narayan ko peshava banaaya gaya tatha maraathon aur angrejon mein sandhi ho gayi.

himmat bahaadur ki sahaayata se angrejon nein bundelakhand par kabja kiya. san 1818 i0 tak bundelakhand ke adhikaansh bhaag angrejon ke adheen ho gaye.

bundelakhand me raajavidroh:

san 1847 ka varsh angrejon ke liye iseeliye uttam siddh hua tha kyonki mahaaraaj ranajeet Singh ka putr unke baad Punjab ka raaja banaaya gaya. laard dalahauji is samay Governor general the aur unhonn dileepasinh ko ayogya shaasak bataakar Punjab par kabja jama liya. shivaaji ke vanshaj prataapasinh ko purtagaaliyon se mile rahane ka aarop laga kar sataara mein kaid kiya aur dakshin ka baag apne adheen kiya. jhaaainsi mein gangaadhararaav ki mrutyu ke baad Damodar Rao ko god liya gaya. lakshmi baai ko hataane ke prayatn bhi jaari ho gaye parantu isi samay 1857 ke vidroh ki ghatna ghati. barahamapur, Meerut, Delhi, mursheedaabaad, Lucknow, Allahabad, kaashi, Kanpur, jhaaainsi mein vidroh hua aur kai sthaan par upadrav hue. jhaaainsi par vidrohiyon ne kile par apna adhikaar jamaaya aur raani lakshmeebaai ne kisi prakaar yuddh karke apna adhikaar jamaaya aur raani lakshmeebaai kahalaai.

saagar ki 42 na0 palatan ne angreji hukoomat maanana asveekaar kar diya. baanapur ke mahaaraaj mardanasinh ne angreji adhikaar ke paraganon par kabja karna praarambh kar diya. khurai ka ahamadabakhsh tahaseeladaar bhi mardanasinh me mil gaya. lalitpur, chanderi par donon ne kabja kiya. shaahagadh mein bakhtavali ne apni svatantr satta ghoshit ki. saagar ki 31 nan0 palatan choonki baagi na thi iseeliye usaki sahaayata se mardanasinh ki maalathaun mein dati hui sena ko hataaya gaya, fir 42 nan0 palatan se yuddh hua.

bakhtavali nein 31 nan0 palatan ne shekharamajaan se mel kar liya vidroh ki lahar, saagar, damoh, jabalapur aadi sthaanon mein fail gayi. is samay tak panna ke raaja ki sthiti majaboot thi, angrejon ne unase sahaayata maaaingi. raaja ne turant sena pahuainchaai aur jabalapur ki 52 nan0 ki palatan ko buri tarah daba diya gaya. shanai: shanai: bakhtavali aur mardanasinh ko narahat ki ghaati mein sar haaroj ne paraajit kiya. angreji sena jhaaainsi ki or badhti gayi. jhaaainsi, kaalapi mein angrejon ko datakar mukaabala karna pada. raani lakshmi baai Damodar Rao (putr) ko apni peeth par baaaindhakar mardaane vesh mein kaalapi ki or bhaag gayi. iske baad jhaaainsi par bhi angrejon ka adhikaar ho gaya.

kaalapi mein ek baar fir bakhtavali aur mardanasinh ne raani ke saath milkar sar hyooroj se yuddh kiya. yahaaain bhi use paraajaya haath lagi. vah gvaaliyr pahuainchi aur sindhiya ko haraakar vahaaain bhi shaasak ban baithi par sar hyooroj ne gvaaliyr par achaanak hamla kiya. Rao saahab peshava, taatya tope ka paraabhav, raani ki mrutyu aadi ne poornat: vidroh ki agni ko thanda kar diya. bundelakhand ke saare pradesh is prakaar angreji raajya mein sama gaye.

bundelakhand ka raajavidroh vaastav mein janta ka vidroh na hokar saamanton aur sena ka vidroh tha isi prushthabhoomi mein saanskrutik aur dhaarmik bhaavana ke saath saath svaamibhkti ka put vishesh hai. desh ki seema vastut: saamanto ki jaageeron athva raajyon ki seemaayein theen. saamanton ka dharm janta ka dharm tha at: vidrohiyon dvaara desh par kabja aur dharm ka naash asahya tha jise goli mein lagi charbi ke bahaane hindu aur musalmaanon dono ne vyakti kiya.

kalyaan Singh kudra ne jhaaainsi ki raani lakshmeebaai ki veer gaatha karte hue likha hai - chalat tamancha teg kirch karaal jahaan guraj gumaani girai gaaj ke samaan.

tahaaain ekai bin madhyai ekai taake saamarathyai, ekai dolai bin haththai run maachau ghamaasaan..

jahaaain ekai ek maarain ekai bhuv mein chikaarai, ekai sur pur sidhaarain soor chhod chhod praan.

tahaaain baai ne savaai angarej so bhanjaai, tahaaain raani maradaani jhukajhaari kirvaan..

kavi ne raani ki veerata ka parichay dete hue kaha hai ki raani kis prakaar veerataapoorvak shatru ka saamana karte hue veeragati ko praapt hoti hai.

angreji raajya mein vilyan:

bundelakhadan ki seemaayein chhatrasaal ke samay tak atyant vyaapak theen, is pradesh mein uttar pradesh ke jhaaainsi, hameerapur, jaalaun, baaainda, Madhya Pradesh ke saagar, jabalapur, narasinhapur, hoshangaabaad, mandala tatha maalava sangh ke shivpuri, katera, pichhor, kolaaras, bhind, lahaar aur monder ke jile aur paragane shaamil the. is poor bhoobhaag ka kshetrafal lagbhag 3000 vargameel tha. angreji raajya mein aane se poorv bundelakhand mein anek jaageerein aur chhote chhote raajya the. bundelakhand kamishnari ka nirmaan san 1820 mein hua. san 1835 mein jaalaun, hameerapur, baaainda ke jilon ko uttar pradesh aur saagar ke jile ko Madhya Pradesh mein mila diya gaya, jiski dekh rekh Agra se hoti thi. san 1839 mein saagar aur daamoh jile ko milaakar ek kamishnari bana di gayi jiski dekharekh jhaaainsi se hoti thi. kuchh dinon baad kamishnari ka kaaryaalaya jhaaainsi se naugaaainv aa gaya. san 1842 mein saagar, daamoh jilon mein angrejon ke khilaaf bahut bad aandolan hua parantu foot daalne ki neeti ke dvaara shaanti sthaapit ki gayi. iske baad bundelakhand ka itihaas angreji saamraajya ki neetiyon ki hi abhivyakti karta hai. anek shaheedon ne samay samay par svatantrata ke aandolan chhede parantu gaaaindi ji jaise neta ke aane se pehle kuchh thos upalabdhi sambhav na hui. bundelakhand ka itihaas aadi se ant tak vividhtaaon se bhara hai parantu saanskrutik aur dhaarmik ekta ki yahaaain ek svasth parampara hai.

baahari kadiyaaain