buladaug

Bulldog
Whitebulldog.jpg
anya naam British Bulldog
English Bulldog
mool desh England[1]
visheshata
jeevan kaal 8-12 years
kutta (Canis lupus familiaris)

buladaug kutton ki ek prajaati ka ek prachalit naam hai, jise english buladaug athva british buladaug bhi kaha jaata hai. buladaug ki anya prajaatiyon mein American buladaug athva French buladaug bhi hote hain. buladaug ek majaboot va bhaari kutta hota hai, jiska chehara jhurriyon se bhara tatha ek vishisht chapati naak hoti hai. ameriki kenel club (ekesi), di kenel club (Britain) tatha United kenel club (yookesi) dvaara inke prajanan sambandhi maanakon ki dekharekh ki jaati hai.

anukram

vivran

aakaar

ekesi (AKC) champion bladalaain se khaalis 6 maheene ka buladaug pilla

buladaug prajaati ki visheshata chaude kandhe aur mel khaata hua sar hoti hai. buladaug ke maathe ke agale hisse par khaal ki moti part hoti hai, saath hi gol, kaali, tatha chaudi drushti waali aankhein, chhota thoothan, jispar ek vishisht mod, jise "rop" kaha jaata hai tatha gale ke neech latakati khaal, neeche ki aur mude honth tatha nukeele daant hote hain. iske baal chhote, seedhe tatha aakarshak hote hain tatha iske rang laal, halka peela, safed, brindal (laharon athva pattiyon ke roop mein mishrit rang) tatha in sabhi ke saath chitkabare rang bhi paae jaate hain.

America mein, ek aam english buladaug ka vajn vayask nar ka 45 paund tatha vayask maada ka 45 paund maana jaata hai. Britain mein is prajaati ka maanak vajn nar ke liye 55 paund tatha maada ke liye 50 paund maana gaya hai.

haalaanki kuchh shvaan prajaatiyon ki poonchh janm ke kuchh samay baad hi ya to kaat di jaati hai athva use koi aakaar de diya jaata hai, buladaug un gini-chuni prajaatiyon mein se hain, jinki poonchh praakrutik roop se chhoti tatha mudi hui hoti hai.

svabhaav

apni prasiddh "badamijaaj" abhivyakti ke baavajood, aam taur par buladaug vinmr hote hain, haalaanki chhoti dooriyon mein ve bahut tej daud sakte hain. ve dostaana aur milnasaar hote hain, parantu kabhi kabhi jiddi bhi ho jaate hain. vaakyaansh "buladaug ki tarah jiddi" isi tathya se shithil taur par juda hua hai. stainali koren ki rachana di inteleejens of daugs mein is prajaata‍ai ne 80 mein se 78vaan sthaan paate hue kaamkaaji/aajnyaaakaari kutton mein sabse neeche ki shreni arjit ki hai.

prajanakon nein is prajaati ki aakraamakata ko kam karne mein safalta praapt ki hai aur aamtaur se is prajaati ko achhe svabhaav wala kutta maana jaane laga hai. buladaug ka apne ghar evam parivaar se itna lagaav ho jaata hain ki ve kisi manushya saathi ke bina baade se baahar nikalne ka prayaas bhi naheen karte. apne dostaana svabhaav ke kaaran hi buladaug bachchon, anya kutton tatha anya paalatoo jeevon ke saath aasaani se rah lete hain.

svaasthya

under-baait ke saath vayask mahila buladaug

buladaug club is prajaati ki ausat aayu 8 se 12 varsh aankata hain,[2][3] haalaanki Britain mein kiye gaye ek sarvekshan ke anusaar yeh 6.5 varsh maani gayi hai. sarvekshan mein pata chala ki buladaug ki mrutyu ke pramukh kaaran hradaya sambandhi rog (20%), Cancer (18%) tatha adhik aayu (9%) the. jinki mrutyu adhik aayu ke kaaran hui, unki ausat aayu 10 se 11 varsh rahi.[4]

jaanvaron ke liye aarthopedik foundation ke aankadon se sanket milta hai ki 1979 se 2009 ke beech (36 varsh) 467 buladaug par kiye gaye pareekshan ke anusaar 73.9% koolhe ki displesiya se peedit the, jo ki kisi bhi prajaati ke liye sarvaadhik hai.[5] isi prakaar, british pashu-chikitsak sangh/kenel club dvaara ki gayi hip displesiya scoring skeem mein bhi buladaug ko sabse khraab ank praapt hue, haalaanki ismein sirf 22 buladaug par hi pareekshan kiye gaye the.[6] petelar lakseshan ek aur beemaari hai jo 6.2% buladaug ko prabhaavit karti hai.[7]

is prajaati ke kutton mein intaradijitl gaanthon ka hona aam hai, ye aisi gaathein hoti hain jo pair ke panjon ke beech hoti hain. inke kaaran kutton ko kuchh pareshaani hoti hain, parantu inka ilaaj pashu-chikitsak athva anubhavi pashu-svaami ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. unhein saans ki pareshaani bhi ho sakti hai.

anya samasyaaon mein cheri I, jo ki aankh ki palak ke bheetari hisse mein aaye ubhaar ki sthiti hoti hai (iska ilaaj pashu-chikitsak dvaara kiya ja sakta hai), kuchh elarjiyaan, tatha adhik umr vaale buladaug mein koolhe ki samasyaaen aadi shaamil hain. pillon ka prajanan aksar sijeriyn sekshan vidhi se kiya jaata hai, kyonki praakrutik janm ki prakriya mein inka bada sar maan ki naal mein fans jaata hai. haalaanki, praakrutik roop se pillon ko janm dena kisi buladaug ke liye asvaabhaavik naheen hai. 80% se adhik buladaug sijeriyn sekshan vidhi ki sahaayata se hi janm lete hain.[8] buladaug ke chehare par padi silvaton athva "rop" ko niyamit roop se roj saaf kiya jaana chaahiye, anyatha nami ikaththa hone se anachaahe sankraman ka khatra ho sakta hai. iske atirikt praakrutik roop se mudi hui buladaug ki poonchh kuchh kutton mein shareer ke saath itni kadi ho jaati hai ki unhein niyamit roop se safaai ke saath thoda maraham lagaane ki aavashyakta padti hai.

sabhi kutton ki hi tarah buladaug ko bhi rojaana vyaayaam ki aavashyakta hoti hai. samuchit roop se vyaayaam na karne par buladaug ka vajn badh jaata hai, jisse hradaya tatha fefadon ki samasyaaon ke saath hi jodon se sambandhit samasyaaen bhi ho sakti hain.

buladaug taapamaan ke prati bahut samvedansheel hote hain. garm mausam vaale kshetron aur garmiyon ke maheenon ke dauraan atirikt saavadhaani barati jaani chaahiye. unhein adhikaadhik paani aur chhaaya upalabdh karaaye jaane ke atirikt avashya hi seedhi ooshma se bhi bachaaya jaana chaahiye. unhein svasth aur surakshit rakhane ke liye vaataanukoolan tatha khulaapan aavashyak hai. buladaug ke pairon ke pad se sarvaadhik paseena niklata hai. aap dekheinge ki buladaug vaastav mein taail ya cement jaise thande farsh ka aanand lete hain. vah inhein thanda rakhane mein madad karti hai. aisi samasyaaen jinki vajah se hava ka maarg avaruddh ho jaata hai, sabhi "chhote-chehare" vaale kutton ki tarah hi buladaug ke shareer ka bhi taapamaan badh jaata hai aur isse inki mrutyu tak ho sakti hai. is avarodh ke kaaran hi ve kharraate lete hain tatha unki saans mein se bhaari aavaaj aane lagti hai, unke kharraaton ki dhvani kaafi oonchi hoti hai. in sabhi samasyaaon par aasaani se niyantran paaya ja sakta hai, sirf aapko sajag rahate hue apne buladaug ko in asurakshit sthitiyon se bachaane ko taiyaar rahane ki aavashyakta hai. (EngBulldogs.com)

January 2009 mein, BBC (BBC) ke vruttachitr pedigri daugs ekspojd/0} ke pradarshan ke baad, di kenel club ne svasthya sambandhi samasyaaon se nipatne ke liye buladaug ke saath hi saath 209 anya prajaatiyon ke liye sanshodhit maanak jaari kiye. press ne anumaan lagaaya ki shvaans sambandhi samasyaaon tatha sar ke aakaar va kandhon ki chaudaai ke kaaran hui prajanan sambandhi pareshaaniyon ko door karne ke liye kiye gaye upaayon ke kaaran prajaati mein parivartan ke roop mein chhota sar, khaal ki kam silvatein, lamba thoothan tatha ek lamba evam patala shareer ho jaayega, jiska british buladaug breed kaaunsil ne virodh kiya.[9]

itihaas

Phillip rinegal dvaara 1790 se ek buladaug ka chitr.

shabd "buladaug" ka sarvapratham prayog varsh 1500 ke aaspaas ke saahitya mein kiya gaya, jahaan is shabd ki vartani bondog athva boldog ke roop mein prayog ki gayi. aadhunik vartani ke saath shabd ka pehla sandarbh 1631 ya 1632 mein presavik etan dvaara likhe gaye patra mein hai, jahaan usane likha "prokyor mi too gud buladaugs, end let dem bi seint baai the first ship".[10] iske naam mein shabd "bul" ka prayog is kutte ko saandon ke khel mein daudaane ke kaaran kiya jaane laga. mool buladaug ko bahut kroor tatha barbar hone ke saath hi saahasi tatha dard ke prati asamvedansheel hona hota tha. 1835 se kutton ki ladaai ko khel ke roop mein England mein gair-kaanooni bana diya gaya. isliye puraane english buladaug ki upayogita samaapt ho chali thi tatha England mein uske paas kuchh hi din bache the. haalaanki, apravaasiyon ko nayi duniya mein aise kutton ki aavashyakta thi, jiske parinaamasvaroop mool buladaug ke sabse najdeeki vanshaj, American buladaug ki utpatti hui. jabki England mein logon ne un avaanchhit "bhayaanak" visheshataaon ko samaapt karne aur shreshth gunon ko bachaane tatha un par jor dene ka prayaas praarambh kiya. kuchh peedhiyon ke bheetar hi, angreji buladaug shreshth shaareerik gunon ka namoona ban gaya, parantu inmein vah maulik kroorata, kshamata, shakti, gati tatha buddhimtta naheen thi.

17veen shataabdi mein buladaug ka prayog kutton ki ladaai (saath hi saath bhaaloo ke saath ladaai mein bhi) mein kiya jaane laga - yeh 17veen sadi ka ek lokapriya jue ka khel tha jismein daanv lagaane vaale baithate the tatha prashikshit buladaug ek khoonte se bandhe saand ke oopar se chhalaang lagaate the. buladaug ke aakraman ka sabse vishisht tareeka pashu ke thoothan par aakraman karke usaka dam ghontane ka prayaas hota tha.[11]

champion raudane ston, 1907

haalaanki, buladaug ki shurooaati bhoomika keval khel tak hi seemit naheen thi. New York mein madhya 17veen sadi mein vahaan ke Governor richrd nikols ke netrutv mein shahar ki gasht lagaane mein buladaug ka prayog kiya jaata tha. choonki jangali saandon ko gherana tatha kisi maarg par le jaana khatarnaak kaarya tha, iseeliye buladaug ko unki naak ko tab tak pakade rahane ke liye prashikshit kiya jaata tha, jab tak unke gale mein rassi daal kar unhein baandh na liya jaaye.[12]. Britain mein pashu kroorata adhiniyam, 1835 ke dvaara kutton ka upayog anya kutton athva anya pashuon ke saath ladaane mein karna gairkaanooni bana diya gaya tha, parantu kutton ke vikreta bill George dvaara buladaug ko paalatoo pashu ke roop mein protsaahit kiya jaata raha.[13]

samay ke saath maulik english buladaug ka prajanan pag ke saath karaaya gaya. parinaamasvarup laghushirsk khopadi wala chhota tatha chauda kutta praapt hua. haalaanki aaj ke buladaug majboot dikhte hain, parantu ve vah kaam naheen kar sakte jiske liye moolaroop se unhein banaaya gaya tha, udaaharan ke liye ve saand ke saath daudne tatha uske dvaara feinke jaana sahan naheen kar sakte tatha itne chhote thoothan se ve majabooti se pakad naheen sakte.

sabse puraana ekal nasl ki visheshata wala club di buladaug club (England) hai, jise varsh 1878 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. is club ke sadasya landan mein aksar Oxford street par sthit blue post pab mein mila karte the. vahaan unhonne is prajaati ke prajanan ki parishuddhata ka pratham maanak viksit kiya. 1891 mein do shreshth buladaug ori tatha daukaleef ek mukaabale mein sammilit hue, jo yeh dekhne ke liye tha ki donon mein se kaun jyaada door tak ja sakta tha. ori mool buladaug ki yaad dilaata tha, patali haddiyon wala tatha bahut balishth. daukaleef aadhunik buladaug ki tarah thigna tatha bhaari tha. us varsh daukaleef ko vijeta ghoshit kiya gaya. haalaanki kuchh logon ka tark tha ki buladaug ka puraana roop adhik daksh va kaaryaksham tha, aadhunik roop ko chaahane vaalon dvaara adhik pasand kiya gaya, kyonki chalne ki is pratiyogita mein yeh siddh hua ki yeh bhi utana hi daksh va balishth tha.

20 veen sadi ki shuruaat mein ch. raudani ston ka moolya $5000 aanka gaya jab use vivaadaspad aayarish-ameriki raajanaitik hasti richrd krokar dvaara khreeda gaya.

lokapriya shubhankar

mool haindasam dain, yel vishvavidyaalaya ke shubhankar.

british/angreji buladaug lokapriya roop se England athva United kingadam ka pratinidhitv karte hain. yeh prajaati sanyukt raajya marine kor ka aadhikaarik shubhankar hai tatha kai thikaanon ke apne shubhankar bhi hain. unataalees ameriki vishvavidyaalaya apne shubhankar ke roop mein buladaug ka prayog karte hain.[14]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kaumpaaniyn daug
  • kaumpaaniyn daug group
  • molosar
  • gair-khilaadi samooh

sandarbh

  1. Wilcox, Charlotte (1999). The Bulldog. Capstone Press. pa॰ 5. ISBN 0-7368-0004-2.
  2. geting staarted in buladaug buladaug club of America
  3. frikventali aaskd kveschan on the buladaug, 'Britain naishanal breed' buladaug nasl parishad
  4. "2004 Purebred Dog Health Survey". Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/download/1527/hsbulldog.pdf. abhigman tithi: 20 August 2010.
  5. "Hip Dysplasia Statistics: Hip Dysplasia by Breed". Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. http://www.offa.org/stats_hip.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-10.
  6. "British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia Scheme - Breed Mean Scores at 01/11/2009". British Veterinary Association. http://www.bva.co.uk/public/documents/BMS_hip_2010(1).pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 fravari 2010.
  7. http://www.offa.org/patluxstatbreed.html
  8. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00902.x
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  9. Valerie Elliott (14 January 2009). "Healthier new bulldog will lose its Churchillian jowl". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article5512620.ece. abhigman tithi: 14 January 2009.
  10. Farman, Edgar (1899, 2010). The Bulldog - A Monograph. Read Books. pa॰ 1. ISBN 1-4446-5786-0.
  11. Fogle, Bruce (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Doring Kindersley (DK). ISBN 0-7894-6130-7.
  12. Ellis, Edward Robb (2005). The Epic of New York City - A Narrative History. Basic Books, New York. ISBN 978-0-7867-1436-0.
  13. the maastif end bulamaastif haindabuk, di.bi.olif, 1988. bosavel press.
  14. Janik, Kinga (July 6, 2007). "Bulldogs Best at Bolstering School Spirit?". Georgetown Journalism. http://journalism.georgetown.edu/kingajanik.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-22.