budh (grah)

budh
बुध ग्रह का रंगीन चित्र
budh grah ki teen drushya rangeen maanachitron dvaara kramash: 1000 nai.mi, 700 nai.mi evam 430 nai.mi tarangadairghya ki meseinjar antariksh yaan dvaara bheji gayi chhavi.
upanaam
visheshan markyooriyn, markyooriyl, budheeya[1]
yug J2000
upasaur
  • 69,816,900 ki.mi
  • 0.466 697 eyoo
apasaur
  • 46,001,200 ki.mi
  • 0.307 499 eyoo
ardh mukhya aksh
  • 57,909,100 ki.mi
  • 0.387 098 eyoo
vikendrata 0.205 630[3]
parikraman kaal
  • 87.969 1 d
  • (0.240 846 a)
  • 0.5 markyuri saur diwas
sanyuti kaal 115.88 d[3]
ausat parikraman gati 47.87 km/s[3]
maadhya konaantar 174.796°
jhukaav
aaroh paat ka anulamb 48.331°
Argument of perihelion 29.124°
upagrah koi naheen
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya
  • 2,439.7 ± 1.0 ki.mi[5][6]
  • 0.3829 pruthvi
sapaatata 0[6]
tal-kshetrafal
  • 7.48×a107 ki.mi2[5]
  • 0.147 pruthvi
aayatan
  • 6.083×a1010 ki.mi3[5]
  • 0.056 pruthvi
dravyamaan
  • 3.3022×a1023 ki.graag[5]
  • 0.055 pruthvi
maadhya ghanatv 5.427 gra/sein.mi3[5]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan
palaayan veg 4.25 ki.mi/sein[5]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 10.892 kimi/ghanta (3.026 mi/sek)
aksheeya naman 2.11′ ± 0.1′[7]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan
  • 18 h 44 mi. 2 se.
  • 281.01°[3]
uttari dhruvavanaman 61.45°[3]
albedo
satah ka taapamaan
0°aau, 0°aap[11]
85°aau, 0°aap[11]
nyoon maadhya adhi
100 K 340 K 700 K
80 K 200 K 380 K
spasht parimaan −2.6[9] to 5.7[3][10]
koneeya vyaas 4.5" – 13"[3]
vaayu-mandal[3]
satah par daab naamamaatr
sanghatan

budh (Mercury), sauramandal ke aath grahon mein sabse chhota aur soorya se niktatam hai. iska parikraman kaal lagbhag 88 din hai. pruthvi se dekhne par, yeh apni kaksha ke irdagird 116 divso mein ghoomta najar aata hai jo ki grahon mein sabse tej hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] garmi banaae rakhane ke lihaaj se iska vaayumandal chunki kareeb kareeb naganya hai, budh ka bhoopatal sabhi grahon ki tulana mein taapamaan ka sarvaadhik utaar-chadhaav mahasoos karta hai, jo ki 100 K (−173°aC; −280°aF) raatri se lekar bhoomadhya rekheeya kshetron me din ke samay 700 K (427 °aC; 800 °aF) tak hai. vaheen dhruvon ke taapamaan sthaayi rup se 180 K (−93 °aC; −136 °aF) ke neeche hai. budh ke aksh ka jhukaav sauramandal ke anya kisi bhi grah se sabse kam hai (ek deegri ka kareeb 130), parantu kaksheeya vikendrata sarvaadhik hai. budh grah apasaur par upasaur ki tulana mein soorya se kareeb 1.5 guna jyaada door hota hai. budh ki dharati kretaron se ati padi hai tatha bilkul hamaare chandrama jaisi najar aati hai, jo ingit karta hai ki yeh bhoovaijnyaaanik rup se arabo varshon tak mrutapraaya raha hai.

budh ko pruthvi jaise anya grahon ke samaan mausamon ka koi bhi anubhav naheen hai. yeh jakada hua hai isliye iske ghoornan ki raah sauramandal mein adviteeya hai. kisi sthir khade sitaare ke saapeksh dekhne par, yeh har do kaksheeya pradakshina ke daramyaan apni dhoori ke irdagird theek teen baar ghoom leta hai. soorya ki or se, kisi aise frem of rifreins mein jo kaksheeya gati se ghoomta hai, dekhne par yeh harek do budh varshon mein maatr ek baar ghoomta najar aata hai. is kaaran budh grah par koi paryavekshak ek diwas harek do varshon ka dekhega.

budh ki kaksha chunki pruthvi ki kaksha ( shukr ke bhi) ke bheetar sthit hai, yeh pruthvi ke aasmaan mein subah mein ya shaam ko dikhaai de sakta hai, parantu ardharaatri ko naheen. pruthvi ke saapeksh apni kaksha par safar karte hue yeh shukr aur hamaare chandrama ki tarah kalaaon ke sabhi rupon ka pradarshan karta hai. haalaanki budh grah bahut ujjaval vastu jaisa dikh sakta hai jab ise pruthvi se dekh jaae, soorya se iski niktata shukr ki tulana mein ise dekhna aur adhik kathin banaata hai.

anukram

aantarik gathan

sthaleeya grahon ke aakaar ki tulana (baayein se daayein): budh, shukr, pruthvi aur mangal
1. parpatee—a100–300 kimi mota
2. praavaara—a600 kimi mota
3. kroda—a1,800 kimi trijya

budh grah sauramandal ke chaar sthaleeya grahon mein se ek hai, tatha yeh pruthvi ke samaan ek chattaani pind hai. yeh 2,439.7 kimi ki vishuvavruttiya trijya wala sauramandal ka sabse chhota grah hai.[3] budh grah sauramandal ke bade upagrahon genimed aur taaitan se bhi chhota hai, haalaanki yeh unase bhaari hai. budh takareeban 70% dhaatu va 30% siliket padaarth ka bana hai.[12] budh ka 5.427 gram/semi3 ka ghanatv sauramandal mein uchchatam ke doosare kram par hai, yeh pruthvi ke 5.515 gram/semi3 ke ghanatv se maatr thoda sa kam hai.[3] yadi gurutvaakarshan sanpeedn ke prabhaav ko gunanakhando me baant diya jaae, tab 5.3 gram/semi3 banaam pruthvi ke 4.4 gram/semi3 ke asankuchit ghanatv ke saath, budh jis padaarth se bana hai vah saghanatam hoga.[13]

budh ka ghanatv iske andaruni gathan ke vivran ke anumaan ke liye prayukt ho sakta hai. pruthvi ka uchch ghanatv uske prabal gurutvaakarshan sanpeedn ke kaaran kaafi hai, vishesh roop se kor ka, iske viprit budh bahut chhota hai aur uske bheetari kshetr utane sankuchit naheen hue hain. isliye, is tarah ke kisi uchch ghanatv ke liye, iska kor bada aur lauh se samruddh avashya hona chahiye.[14]

bhoovaijnyaaanikon ka aakalan hai ki budh ka kor apne aayatan ka lagbhag 42% hissa gherata hai; pruthvi ke liye yeh anupaat 17% hai. anusandhaan bataate hai ki budh ka ek dravit kor hai.[15][16] yeh kor 500–700 kimi ke siliket se bane meintal se ghira hai.[17][18] merinr 10 ke mission se mile aankado aur bhooaadhaarit prekshanon ke aadhaar par budh ki parpati ka 100–300 kimi mota hona maana gaya hai.[19] budh ki dharati ki ek vishisht sthalaakruti anekon sankeern choteeyon ki upasthiti hai jo lanbaai mein kai sau kilometer tak faili hai. yeh maana gaya hai ki ye tab nirmit hui thi jab budh ke kor va meintal theek us samay thande aur sankuchit kiye gaye jab parpati pehle se hi jam chuki thi.[20]

budh ka kor sauramandal ke kisi bhi anya bade grah ki tulana mein uchch lauh saamagri wala hai, tatha ise samajhaane ke liye kai siddhaant prastaavit kiye gaye hai. sarvaadhik vyaapak roop se sveekaar kiya gaya siddhaant yeh hai ki budh aam kondraait ulkaapind ki tarah hi mool roop se ek dhaatu-siliket anupaat rakhata tha, jo ki sauramandal ke chattaani padaarth mein durlabh samjha gaya, saath hi dravyamaan iske maujooda dravyamaan ka kareeb 2.25 guna maana gaya.[21] sauramandal ke itihaas ke poorv mein, budh grah kai sau kilometer lambe-chaude va lagbhag 1/6 dravyamaan ke kisi kshudragrah dvaara thokar maara hua ho sakta hai.[21] takkar ne mool parpati va meintal ke adhikaansh bhaag ko door chhitk diya hoga aur peechhe apekshaakrut mukhya ghatak ke roop mein ek kor ko chhoda hoga.[21] isi tarah ki prakriya, jise bheemakaaya takkar parikalpana ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, chandrama ke gathan ki vyaakhya karne ke liye prastaavit ki gayi hai.[21]

naamakaran

graheeya pranaali naamakaran ke kaarya samooh ne budh par paanch ghaatiyon ke liye nae naamon ko manjoori di hai: engakor ghaati (Angkor Vallis), kaihokeeya ghaati (Cahokia Vallis), kairal ghaati (Caral Vallis), paaestam ghaati (Paestum Vallis), timged ghaati (Timgad Vallis).[22]

itihaas

roman mithko ke anusaar budh vyaapaar, yaatra aur choryakarm ka devata, yunaani devata harmeesh ka roman roop, devataao ka sandeshavaahak devata hai. ise sandeshavaahak devata ka naam is kaaran mila kyonki yeh grah aakaash me kaafi teji se gaman karta hai.

budh ko isa se 3 sahastraabdi pehle soomeriyn kaal se jaana jaata raha hai. ise kabhi sooryodaya ka taara, kabhi sooryaast ka taara kaha jaata raha hai. greek khagol vijnyaaaniyon ko gyaat tha ki yeh do naam ek hi grah ke hain. heraaklaaites yahaan tak maanata tha ki budh aur shukr pruthvi ki nahi, soorya ki parikrama karte hai. budh pruthvi ki tulana me soorya ke sameep hai isaliye pruthvi se usaki chandrama ki tarah kalaaye dikhaayi deti hai. gaileeleeyo ki doorabeen chhoti thi jisse ve budh ki kalaaye dekh nahi paaye lekin unhone shukr ki kalaayein dekhi thi.

chunbakeeya kshetr

graaf budh ki chunbakeeya kshetr ki shakti dikha raha hai.

apne chhote aakaar va 59-divseeya-lambe dheeme ghoornan ke baavajud budh ka ek ullekhaneeya aur vaishvik chunbakeeya kshetr hai. merinr 10 dvaara liye gaye maapanon ke anusaar yeh pruthvi ki tulana mein lagbhag 1.1% sarvashaktishaali hai. is chunbakeeya kshetr ki shakti budh ke vishuvavrutt par kareeb 300 nT hai.[23] [24] pruthvi ki tarah budh ka bhi chunbakeeya kshetr do dhruveeya hai.[25] pruthvi ke ulat, budh ke dhruv grah ke ghoorni aksh ke kareeb-kareeb seedh mein hai.[26] antariksh yaan merinr-10 va meseinjar donon se mile maapanon ne darshaaya hai ki chunbakeeya kshetr ka aakaar va shakti sthaayi hai.[26]

aisa lagta hai ki yeh chunbakeeya kshetr ek daainemo prabhaav ke maadhyam dvaara utpann hua hai. is lihaaj se yeh pruthvi ke chunbakeeya kshetr ke samaan hai.[15] [27] yeh daainemo prabhaav grah ke lauh-bahul taral kor ke parisancharan ka nateeja raha hoga. vishesh roop se grah ki uchch kaksheeya vikeindrata dvaara uptann shaktishaali jvaareeya prabhaav ne kor ko taral avastha mein rakha hoga jo ki daainemo prabhaav ke liye aavashyak hai.[17]

budh ka chunbakeeya kshetr grah ke aaspaas ki saur vaayu ko modne ke liye paryaapt shaktishaali hai, jo ek megnetosfeyar ki rachana karta hai. is grah ka megnetosfeyar, yadyapi pruthvi ke bheetar sama jaane jitna chhota hai,[25] par saur vaayu plaajma ko faansane ke liye paryaapt majaboot hai. yeh grah ki satah ke antariksh apakshaya ke liye yogadaan deta hai.[26] merinr 10 antariksh yaan dvaara kiye nireekshanon ne grah ke raatri-paksh ke megnetosfeyar mein is nimn oorja plaajma ka pata lagaaya. oorjaavaan kanon ke prasfutan ko grah ke chumbakeeya doom mein paaya gaya, jo grah ke megnetosfeyar ki ek gatisheel gunavatta ko ingit karta hai.[25]

6 October 2008 ko grah ke apne doosare flaaibaai ke dauraan meseinjar yaan ne pata lagaaya ki budh ka chunbakeeya kshetr atyant "risaav" wala ho sakta hai. is antariksh yaan ne chunbakeeya "bavandar" ka saamana kiya - chunbakeeya kshetr ke ainthe hue bandal jo graheeya chunbakeeya kshetr ko antaragraheeya antariksh se jodta hai - jo ki 800 kimi ya grah ki trijya ke ek tihaai tak chaude the. chunbakeeya kshetr saur vaayu dvaara budh ke chunbakeeya kshetr se sampark ke liye jab dhoya jaata, ye "bavandar" bante. (As the solar wind blows past Mercury's field, these joined magnetic fields are carried with it and twist up into vortex-like structures. These twisted magnetic flux tubes, technically known as, form open windows in the planet's magnetic shield through which the solar wind may enter and directly impact Mercury's surface.)[28]

graheeya chunbakeeya kshetr ke antaragraheeya antariksh se judne ki prakriya jo ki brahmaand mein ek saamaanya prakriya hai chumbakeeya punarmiln yaani kahalaati hai. yeh dharati ke chumbakeeya kshetr mein bhi utpann hoti hai jahaaain ye chumbakeeya bavandar ke had tak ban jaati hai. meseinjr upagrah ki gananaaon ke anusaar budh grah par chumbakeeya punarmiln ki prakriya ki raftaar lagbhag 10 guna jyaada hai. budh grah ki soorya se adhik niktata, meseinjr dvaara maape gaye uske chumbakeeya punarmiln ki gati ke sirf tihaai hisse ka kaarak thi.[28]

parikrama, ghoornan evam deshaantar

budh ki kaksha (peeli), taareekhein 2006 ki
soorya ka chakkar kaatate budh va pruthvi ka enimeshan

budh ki kaksha sabhi grahon mein sarvaadhik chapati hai. iski kaksheeya vikeindrata 0.21 hai. soorya se iski doori 46,000,000 se lekar 70,000,000 kimi (29,000,000 se 43,000,000 meal) tak vichrit hai. ek poorn parikrama ke liye ise 87.969 pruthvi diwas lagte hain. daayein baajoo ka rekhaachitr vikeindrata ke asar ko dikhaata hai, jismein budh ki kaksha ek vruttaakaar kaksha ke oopar madhi dikh rahi hai jabki unki arddh pramukh dhuri baraabar hai.

aadhunik khagol vigyaan

soorya ke aage se gujrata hua budh grah, 10 May 2016

abhi tak do antariksh yaan maireenar 10 tatha maisenjar budh grah ja chuke hai. maireenar- 10 san 1974 tatha 1975 ke madhya teen baar is grah ki yaatra kar chuka hai. budh grah ki satah ke 45% hisse ka naksha banaaya ja chuka hai. (soorya ke kaafi sameep hone ki vajah se hone vaale atyadhik prakaash va chakaachaundh ke kaaran habbl doorabeen uske baaki kshetr ka naksha nahi bana paati hai.) mesenjar yaan 2004 me naasa dvaara prakshepit kiya gaya tha. isne 2011 mein budh grah ki parikrama ki. iske pehle January 2008 me is yaan ne maireenar 10 dvaara na dekhe gaye kshetr ki uchch gunavatta waali tasveere bheinji thi.

budh ki kaksha kaafi jyaada vikendreet (eccentric) hai, iski soorya se doori 46,000,000 kimi (perihelion) se 70,000,000 kimi (aphelion) tak rahati hai. jab budh soorya ke najadik hota hai tab usaki gati kaafi dheemi hoti hai. 19 vi shataabdi me khagolashaastreeyon ne budh ki kaksha ka saavadhaani se nirikshan kiya tha lekin nyutan ke niyamon ke aadhaar par ve budh ki kaksha ko samajh nahi pa rahe the. budh ki kaksha nyutan ke niymo ka paalan nahi karti hai. nirikshit kaksha aur ganana ki gayi kaksha me antar chhota tha lekin dashako tak pareshaan karanevaala tha. pehle yeh socha gaya ki budh ki kaksha ke andar ek aur grah (valkan) ho sakta hai jo budh ki kaksha ko prabhavit kar raha hai. kaafi nireekshan ke baad bhi aisa koi grah nahi paaya gaya. is rahasya ka hal kaafi samay baad aainsteen ke saadhaaran saapekshataavaad ke siddhaant (General Theory of Relativity) ne diya. budh ki kaksha ki sahi ganana is siddhaant ke sveekaran ki or pehla kadam tha.

budh ke uttari dhruv ki raadaar chhavi

1962 tak yahi socha jaata tha ki budh ka ek din aur varsh ek baraabar hote hai jisse vah apna ek hi paksh soorya ki or rakhata hai. yeh usi tarah tha jis tarah chandrama ka ek hi paksh pruthvi ki or rahata hai. lekin daaplar siddhaant ne ise galat saabit kar diya. ab yeh maana jaata hai ki budh ke do varsh me teen din hote hai. arthaat budh soorya ki do parikramaaon me apne aksh par teen baar ghoomta hai. budh saur mandal me akela pind hai jiska kaksha/ghurnan ka anupaat 1:1 nahi hai. (vaise bahut saare pindo me aisa koi anupaat hi nahi hai.)

budh ki kaksha me soorya se doori me parivartan ke tatha uske kaksha/ghurnan ke anupaat ka budh ki satah par koi nirikshak vichitr prabhaav dekhega. kuchh akshaanso par nirikshak soorya ko udit hote huye dekhega aur jaise jaise soorya kshitij se upar sheersh bindoo tak aayega usaka aakaar badhata jaayega. is sheersh bindu par aakar soorya rook jaayega aur kuchh der viprit disha me jaayega aur uske baad fir rookega aur disha badal kar aakaar me ghatate huye kshitij me jaakar sooryaast ho jaayega. is saare samay me taare aakaash me soorya se tin guna teji se jaate dikhaayi deinge. nireekshak budh ki satah par vibhinn sthaano par alag alag lekin soorya ki vichitr gati ko dekhega.

budh ki satah par taapamaan 90° kelvin se 700° kelvin tak jaata hai. shukr par taapamaan isse garm hai lekin sthaayi hai.

vaataavaran

budh par ek halka vaataavaran hai jo mukhyat: saur vaayu se aaye paramaanuon se bana hai. budh bahut garm hai jisse ye parmaanu udkar antariksh me chale jaate hai. ye pruthvi aur shukr ke vipreet hai jiska vaataavaran sthaayi hai, budh ka vaataavaran naveen hote rahata hai.

bhoopatal

budh ki satah par gadhdhe kaafi gahre hai, kuchh saikado kimi lambe aur teen kimi tak gahre hai. aisa prateet hota hai ki budh ki satah lagbhag 0.1 % sankuchit huyi hai. budh ki satah par kailorees ghaati hai jo lagbhag 1300 kimi vyaas ki hai. yeh chandrama ke maareeya ghaati ke jaisi hai. shaayad yeh bhi kisi dhoomaketu ya kshudragrah ke takaraane se bani hai. in gaddhon ke alaava budh grah me kuchh sapaat pathaar bhi hai jo shaayad bhootakaal ke jvaalaamukhiya gatividhiyon se bane hai.

jal ki upasthiti

maireenar se praapt aankade bataate hai ki budh par kuchh jvaalaamukhi gatividhiyaan hai lekin ise pramaanit karne ke liye kuchh aur aankade chaahiye. aashcharyajanak roop se budh ke uttari dhruvon ke kretaron me jaleeya barf ke pramaan mile hai.

upagrah

budh ka koi upagrah nahi hai.

khagoliya nireekshan

budh ko sooryaast ke baad ya sooryodaya se theek pehle nagn aankho se dekha ja sakta hai. soorya ke behad nikat hone ke kaaran ise seedhe dekhna mushkil hota hai.

sandarbh

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  3. a aa i E u oo A ai O au "Mercury Fact Sheet [budh grah ke tathya]". naasa godaard space flight center. November 30, 2007. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/mercuryfact.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-28.
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  6. a aa doi: 10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y
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  8. a aa A malamma; vaing di.; haavard, aar. A. (2002). "Photometry of Mercury from SOHO/LASCO and Earth [soho/laasko aur dharati se banaai gayi budh ki fotometri]". ikaaras 155 (2): 253–264. Bibcode 2002Icar..155..253M. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6723.
  9. A malamma (2011). "Planetary magnitudes [graheeya parimaan]". skaai end teleeskop 121(1): 51–56.
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