bruhaspati (grah)

bruhaspati Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
Jupiter by Cassini-Huygens.jpg
kaisini se li gayi bruhaspati ki chhavi, kaala dhabba yuropa ki parachhaai hai.
upanaam
visheshan baahari grah
yug J2000
upasaur 81,65,20,800 ki.mi.
(5.458104 kh.E.)
apasaur 74,05,73,600 ki.mi.
(4.950429 kh.E.)
ardh mukhya aksh 77,85,47,200 ki.mi.
(5.204267 kh.E.)
vikendrata 0.048775
parikraman kaal 4,332.59 din
11.8618 varsh
10,475.8 bruhaspati saur diwas[3]
sanyuti kaal 398.88 din[4][a]
ausat parikraman gati 13.07 ki.mi./se.[4]
maadhya konaantar 18.818°
jhukaav 1.305° kraantivruttase
6.09° sooryaki bhoomadhyarekha se
0.32° avikaari satah se[5]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 100.492°
Argument of perihelion 275.066°
upagrah 64
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 69,911 ± 6 ki.mi.[6][7]
vishuvateeya trijya 71,492 ± 4 ki.mi.[6][7]
11.209 pruthvi
dhruveeya trijya 66,854 ± 10 ki.mi.[6][7]
10.517 pruthvi
sapaatata 0.06487 ± 0.00015
tal-kshetrafal 6.1419×aa1010 ki.mi.2[7][8]
121.9 pruthvi
aayatan 1.4313×aa1015 ;ki.mi.3[4][7]
1321.3 pruthvi
dravyamaan 1.8986×aa1027 ki.gra.[4]
317.8 pruthvi
1/1047 soorya[9]
maadhya ghanatv 1.326 gram/se.mi.3[4][7]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 24.79 meter/sekand2[4][7]
2.528 g
palaayan veg 59.5 ki.mi./sekand[4][7]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
9.925 ghanta[10] (9 ghanta 55 meenat 30 sekand)
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 12.6 ki.mi./sekand
45,300 ki.mi./ghanta
aksheeya naman 3.13°[4]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan 268.057°
17 ghanta 52 meenat 14 sekand[6]
uttari dhruvavanaman 64.496°[6]
albedo 0.343 (Bond)
0.52 (geom.)[4]
satah ka taapamaan
1 bar level
0.1 bar
nyoon maadhya adhi
165 K[4]
112 K[4]
spasht parimaan -1.6 se -2.94[4]
koneeya vyaas 29.8" — 50.1"[4]
vaayu-mandal[4]
satah par daab 20–200 kilo paaskal[11] (baadal parat)
skel haait 27 ki.mi.
sanghatan
89.8±aa2.0% haaidrojan (H2)
10.2±aa2.00% heeliym
~0.3% methane
~0.026% amoniya
~0.003% haaidrojan dyooteraaid (HD)
0.0006% ithen
0.0004% jal
barf:
amoniya
jal
amoniym haaidrosalfaaid(NH4SH)

bruhaspati soorya se paanchavaaain aur hamaare sauramandal ka sabse bada grah hai. yeh ek gas daanav hai jiska dravyamaan soorya ke hajaaravein bhaag ke baraabar tatha sauramandal mein maujood anya saat grahon ke kul dravyamaan ka dhaai guna hai. bruhaspati ko shani, Arun aur varun ke saath ek gaiseeya grah ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. in chaaron grahon ko baahari grahon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

yeh grah praacheen kaal se hi khagolavidon dvaara jaana jaata raha hai[12] tatha yeh anekon sanskrutiyon ki pauraanik kathaaon aur dhaarmik vishvaason ke saath juda hua tha. roman sabhyata ne apne devata jupitr ke naam par iska naam rakha tha.[13] ise jab pruthvi se dekha gaya, bruhaspati -2.94 ke saapeksh kaantimaan tak pahunch sakta hai, chhaaya daalne laayak paryaapt ujjaval,[14] jo ise chandrama aur shukr ke baad aasmaan ki ausat truteeya sarvaadhik chamakeeli vastu banaata hai. (mangal grah apni kaksha ke kuchh binduon par bruhaspati ki chamak se mel khaata hai).

bruhaspati ek chauthaai heeliym dravyamaan ke saath mukhya roop se haaidrojan se bana hua hai aur iska bhaari tatvon se yukt ek chattaani kor ho sakta hai.[15]apne tej ghoornan ke kaaran bruhaspati ka aakaar ek chapata upagol (bhoomadhya rekha ke paas chaaron or ek maamooli lekin dhyaan dene yogya ubhaar liye hue) hai. iske baahari vaataavaran mein vibhinn akshaanshon par kai pruthak drushya pattiyaan najar aati hai jo apni seemaaon ke saath bhinn bhinn vaataavaran ke parinaamasvaroop banti hai. bruhaspati ke vishmayakaari 'mahaan laal dhabba' (Great Red Spot), jo ki ek vishaal toofaan hai, ke astitv ko 17 veen sadi ke baad tab se hi jaan liya gaya tha jab ise pehli baar doorabeen se dekha gaya tha. yeh grah ek shaktishaali chumbakeeya kshetr aur ek dhundhale graheeya valaya pranaali se ghira hua hai. bruhaspati ke kam se kam 64 chandrama hai. inmein vo chaar sabse bade chandrama bhi shaamil hai jise geleeliyn chandrama kaha jaata hai jise san 1610 mein pehli baar gaileeliyo gailili dvaara khoja gaya tha. gainimeed sabse bada chandrama hai jiska vyaas budh grah se bhi jyaada hai. yahaaain chandrama ka taatparya upagrah se hai.

bruhaspati ka anek avsaron par robotik antariksh yaan dvaara, vishesh roop se pehle paayoniyr aur vauyajar mission ke dauraan aur baad mein gaililiyo yaan ke dvaara, anveshan kiya jaata raha hai. February 2007 mein new horaaejnj plooto sahit bruhaspati ki yaatra karne wala antim antariksh yaan tha. is yaan ki gati bruhaspati ke gurutvaakarshan ka istemaal kar badhaai gayi thi. is baahari graheeya pranaali ke bhavishya ke anveshan ke liye sanbhavat: agala lakshya yooropa chandrama par barf se dhake hue taral saagar shaamil hain.

anukram

gathan

bruhaspati praathamik taur par gaison aur taral padaarthon se bana hua hai. chaar gaiseeya grahon mein sabse bada hone ke saath yeh 1,42,984 kimi vishuvavruttiya vyaas ke saath sauramandal ka bhi sabse bada grah hai. bruhaspati ka 1.326 gram /se.mi.3 ka ghanatv gaiseeya grahon mein doosra sarvaadhik, lekin sabhi chaar sthaleeya grahon se kam hai.

raasaayanik sanrachana

bruhaspati ka upari vaayumandal 88-92% haaidrojan aur 8-12% heeliym se bana hai aur dhyaan rahe yahaaain pratishat ka taatparya anuon ki maatra se hai. heeliym parmaanu ka dravyamaan haaidrojan parmaanu se chaar guna jyaada hota hai. yeh sanrachana tab badal jaati hai jab iske dravyamaan ke anupaat ko vibhinn paramaanuon ke yogadaan ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai. is prakaar vaataavaran lagbhag 75 % haaidrojan aur 24 % heeliym dravyamaan dvaara aue shesh ek pratishat dravyamaan anya tatvon se milkar bana hota hai. iske aatanrik bhaag mein ghane padaarth milte hai, is tarah mote taur par vitran 71% haaidrojan, 24% heeliym aur 5% anya tatvon ke dravyamaan ka hota hai. khagolashaastriyon ka maanana hai ki bruhaspati ke kendreeya bhaag mein haaidrojan bhayankar dabaav se kuchalakar dhaatu haaidrojan ke roop mein maujood hai. bruhaspati ka chumbakeeya kshetr hamaare saur mandal ke kisi bhi anya grah se adhik shaktishaali hai aur vaigyaanik kehte hain ki iski vajah bruhaspati ke andar ki dhaatu haaidrojan hai.[16]

bruhaspati ke vaayumandal mein methane, jal vaashp, amoniya aur silikaun aadhaarit yaugik mile hai. isame kaarban, ithen, haaidrojan salfaaid, fosfaain aur salfar ke hone ke bhi sanket mile hai. vaayumandal ke baahyatam parat mein jameen hui amoniya ke kristal hote hain. avarakt paraabaingani maapan ke maadhyam se jaanchane par beinjeen aur anya hydrocarbon ki maatra bhi paayi gayi hai. haaidrojan aur heeliym ka vaayumandaleeya anupaat aadya saur neehaarika ki saiddhaantik sanrachana ke bahut kareeb hain. oopari vaayumandal mein niyaun ki maatra 20 bhaag prati das lakh hai, jo soorya mein prachur maatra mein lagbhag 10 bhaag prati das lakh hoti hai. bruhaspati ke vaayumandal mein bhaari akriya gaison ki prachurata soorya se lagbhag do se teen guna jyaada hai.

spektroskopi ke aadhaar par, shani sanrachana mein bruhaspati ke samaan samjha jaata hai lekin anya do gaiseeya grahon yoorenas aur nepchyoon ke paas apekshaakrut bahut kam haaidrojan aur heeliym hai. vaayumandaleeya pravishti jaanch ke abhaav ki vajah se, bruhaspati se pare baahari grah uchch gunavatta vaale bhaari tatvon ki bahutaayat sankhya mein kami kar rahe hain.

dravyamaan

pruthvi aur bruhaspati ki tulana
bruhaspati ki soorya aur pruthvi se tulana

bruhaspati ka dravyamaan hamaare saur mandal ke anya sabhi grahon ke sanyukt dravyamaan ka 2.5 guna hai. yeh itna bada hai ki soorya ke saath iska beriseintar soorya ki satah ke oopar soorya ke kendra se 1.068 saur trijya par sthit hai. yadyapi is grah ki trijya pruthvi se 11 guna badi hai par yeh apekshaakrut bahut kam ghana hai. bruhaspati ka aayatan 1321 pruthveeyon ke baraabar hai, to bhi dravyamaan pruthvi se maatr 318 guna hai.[4] bruhaspati ki trijya soorya ki trijya ka lagbhag 1/10 hai aur iska dravyamaan saur dravyamaan ka hajaaravaaain hissa maatr hai isliye donon nikaayon ka ghanatv samaan hai. ek "bruhaspati dravyamaan" (MJ ya MJup) ko praay: anya pindon ke dravyamaan ki ek ikaai ke roop mein, vishesharoop se gair-saureeya grah aur bhoore baunon ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye gair-saureeya grah HD 209458-b ka dravyamaan 0.69 MJ jabki COROT-7b ka dravyamaan 0.015 MJ vyakt kiya jaata hai.

saiddhaantik model se sanket milta hai ki agar bruhaspati ka vartamaan dravyamaan bahut adhik badh jaae to yeh grah sikud jaaega. dravyamaan mein maamooli parivartan se iski trijya mein koi khaas antar naheen hoga aur lagbhag 500 M (1.6 bruhaspati dravyamaan) se adhik hone par aatanrik bhaag gurutv bal ke antargat sankuchit ho jaaega aur padaarth ki maatra badhne ke baavajood grah ke aayatan mein kami hogi. badhte dravyamaan ke saath sankuchan ki prakriya paryaapt taarakeeya prajvalan praapt karne tak jaari rahegi, jaise ki 50 bruhaspati dravyamaan ke aaspaas bhoore baune ka uchch-dravyamaan. parinaamasvaroop, bruhaspati ki sanrachana aur vikaasavaadi itihaas ke anuroop ise bade vyaas vaale grah ke jaisa maana gaya.

yadyapi bruhaspati ko ek sitaara banane hetoo haaidrojan sanlayan ke liye 75 guna bada hone ki aavashyakta hogi, sabse chhote laal bauna taare ki trijya bruhaspati se lagbhag 30 pratishat adhik hai. iske baavajood, bruhaspati abhi bhi soorya se praapt garmi ki tulana mein adhik vikrit karta hai aur yeh praapt kul saur vikirn ke baraabar hi ushma ki maatra apne andar utpaadit karta hai. yeh atirikt taapeeya vikirn ooshmapravaigiki prakriya ke maadhyam se kelvin-helmaholtj tantr dvaara utpann hoti hai. is prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop grah mein prativrsh lagbhag 2 se.mi. sankuchan hota hai. pehle jab yeh grah bana tha tab yeh bahut hi tapt tha aur iska vyaas bhi vartaamaan se do guna tha.

aatanrik sanrachana

aisa lagta hai bruhaspati ka ghana kor tatvon ke ek mishran ke saath bana hai, jo kuchh heeliym yukt taral haaidrojan dhaatu ki parat se dhanka hai aur iski baahari parat mukhya roop se aanavik haaidrojan se bani hui hai.[17] is aadhaarbhoot rooparekha ke alaava vahaaain abhi bhi kaafi anishchitta hai. itni gaharaai ke padaarthon par taap aur daab ke gunon ko dekhte hue praay: iske kor ko chattaani jaisa maana gaya hai parantu iski vistrut sanrachana agyaat hai. san 1997 mein gurutvaakarshan maap dvaara kor ke astitv ka sujhaav diya gaya tha[17] jo sanket kar raha hai ki kor ka dravyamaan pruthvi ke dravyamaan ka 12 se 45 guna ya bruhaspati ke kul dravyamaan ka lagbhag 4 % -14% hai.[18][19]

iska kor kshetr ghane dhaatu haaidrojan se ghira hua hai jo baahar ki or bruhaspati ki trijya ke lagbhag 78% tak faila hai. heeliym va niyaun varsha ki boondon ke roop mein is parat se hokar teji se neeche ki or barasate hai, jisse upari vaayumandal mein in tatvon ki bahutaayat mein kami ho jaati hai.

dhaatu haaidrojan ki parat ke oopar haaidrojan ka paaradarshi aantarik vaayumandal sthit hai. is gaharaai par taapamaan kraantik taapamaan ke oopar hota hai jo haaidrojan ke liye keval 33 kelvin hai.[20] is avastha mein drav aur gas mein koi bhed naheen rah jaata hai, tab haaidrojan ko param kraantik taral avastha mein hona kaha jaata hai. upari parat mein gas ke jaisa vyavahaar karna haaidrojan ke liye adhik sugam hota hai jo neeche ki or vistaar ke saath 1000 ki॰mee॰ gaharaai tak bana rahata hai[18] aur adhik gaharaai mein yeh taral jaisa hota hai. ek baar neeche utar jaane par gas dheere dheere garm aur ghani hoti jaati hai lekin bhautik roop se iski koi spasht seema rekha naheen hai.[21][22]

bruhaspati ke andar kor ki or jaane se taap aur daab mein teji se vruddhi hoti hai. yeh maana jaata hai ki 10,000 K (kelvin) taapamaan aur 200 GPa (geega paaskal) dabaav ke charan sankraman kshetr par, jahaan haaidrojan apne kraantik bindu se adhik garm hoti hai - dhaatu ban jaati hai. kor ki seema par taapamaan 36,000 K aur aantarik dabaav 3,000–4,500 GPa hone ka anumaan hai.[18]

Diagram of Jupiter's moons, surface, and interior
kata hissa, bruhaspati ke bheetari bhaag ki banaavat dikhaata hai, ek chattaani kor taral dhaatu haaidrojan ki gahari parat se ghira hua hai.

vaayumandal

bruhaspati par sauramandal ka sabse bada graheeya vaayumandal hai jo unchaai mein 5000 ki॰mee॰ tak faila hua hai. bruhaspati par koi dharaatal naheen hai, isliye saadhaaranataya vaayumandal ke aadhaar ko us bindu par maana jaata hai jahaan vaayumandaleeya daab 10 baar ikaai ke baraabar ya pruthvi ke satahi dabaav ka 10 guna ho.

baadal parat

vauyajar 1 se liya gaya bruhaspati ke oopar baadalon ka chitr.

bruhaspati sada amoniya kristal aur sanbhavat: amoniym haaidrosalfaaid ke baadalon se dhanka rahata hai | yeh baadal tropopaaus mein sthit hain aur vibhinn akshaanshon ki dhaariyon mein vyavasthit hai, inhein ushnakatibandheeya kshetron ke roop mein jaana jaata hai | in dhaariyon ko halke rang ke kshetron (zones) aur gahre rang ki pattiyon (belts) mein up-vibhaajit kiya gaya hai | in paraspar virodhi parisancharan aakrutiyon ki paarasparik kriya toofaan aur astavyastata ka kaaran hoti hai | kshetron mein pavan ki gati 100 meter/sekand (360 ki.mi./ghanta) hona aam baat hai | kshetron ki chaudaai, rang aur teevrata mein varsh dar varsh bhinnata dekhi gayi hai lekin uname itni sthirta bani rahati hai ki khagolavid pahachaanakar unhein koi naam de sake.

baadal parat ki gaharaai lagbhag 50 ki॰mee॰ hai aur yeh baadalon ke kam se kam do pataavon (decks) se milkar bani hai. ek neechala mota pataav aur ek patala saaf suthara kshetr | bruhaspati ke vaataavaran mein bijli ki chamak ke pramaan milne se lagta hai ki amoniya parat ke bheetar jaleeya baadalon ki ek patali parat ho sakti hai. bijli ki yeh chamak jaleeya dhruvata (polarity) ke kaaran hoti hai jo jaleeya baadalon ko bijli utpaadan ke liye aavashyak pruthak aavesh banaane saksham banaati hai | yeh vidyuteeya chamak pruthvi par hone waali bijli ki chamak se hajaar guna tak shaktishaali ho sakti hai | badhti aatanrik garmi se prerit hokar jaleeya baadal garaj ka roop le sakte hai.

bruhaspati ke baadalon ka naarangi aur bhooraapan yaugikon dvaara umadne ke kaaran hai aur rangon mein yeh badlaav tab hota hai jab soorya ka paraabaingani prakaash ise ujaagar karta hai.

vishaal laal dhabba aur anya chhote bhanvar

bruhaspati ka great red spot

bruhaspati par sabse jaani pahachaani aakruti vishaal laal dhabba ya great red spot hai | yeh pruthvi se bhi bada ek prati chakravaati toofaan hai jo bhoomadhyarekha ke dakshin mein 22° par sthit hai | iske astitv ko san 1831 se ya isse bhi pehle san 1665 se jaan liya gaya tha | ganiteeya model bataate hai ki yeh toofaan shaashvat hai aur is aakruti ka astitv chirsthaayi hai | is toofaan ka aakaar itna paryaapt hai ki ise 12 se.mi. eparchar ya usase jyaada ke bhoo-aadhaarit dooradarshi se aasaani se dekha ja sakta hai |

yeh andaakaar dhabba chh: ghante ki avadhi ke saath vaamaavart ghoornan karta hai | iski lambaai 24 - 40,000 ki॰amee॰ aur chaudaai 12 - 14,000 ki॰amee॰ hai | yeh itna bada hai ki isame teen pruthviyaan sama jaae | is toofaan ki adhiktam unchaai upari baadalon se bhi 8 ki॰amee॰ oopar hai |

bruhaspati ke great red spot ke aakaar mein kam ho rahi hai (15 May 2014)[23]

is gaiseeya grah ke ashaant vaataavaran mein is tarah ke toofaan hona aam baat hai | bruhaspati par safed aur bhoore rang ke benaam aneko chhote dhabbe hai | safed dhabbe upari vaataavaran ke bheetar apekshaakrut shaant baadal se milkar bane hai iske vipreet bhoore dhabbe garm hote hai aur saamaanya baadal parat ke bheetar bante hai |

isse pehle ki vauyajar is aakruti ki toofaani pravrutti ki pushti karta, yeh jaan liya gaya tha ki is dhabbe ka sambandh is grah ki kisi gahari rachana se naheen tha aur is baat ke pukhta pramaan the - jaise ki iski ghoornan gati apne ird gird maujood vaataavaran ki apeksha bhinn hai aur kabhi yeh tej ghoomta hai to kabhi bahut dheeme | yeh toofaani dhabba apne darj itihaas ke dauraan kisi bhi sambhaavit niyat aavarti nishaani ke saapeksh grah ke chaaron or kai baar yaatra kar chuka hai |

graheeya chhalle

bruhaspati ke chhalle

bruhaspati mein ek dhundhali valaya pranaali hai jo mukhyat: teen bhaago me bani hai. androoni chhalla, apekshaakrut chamakeela mukhya chhalla aur baahari patala chhalla. aisa lagta hai ki yeh chhalle shani ke chhallon jaise barfeele na hokar dhul se bane hai. sanbhavat: iska mukhya chhalla aidraasteeya (Adrastea) aur meetas (Metis) chandrama ki saamagri ke chhitkane se bana hai. yeh aam taur par chaaaind par vaapas girne waali vah saamagri hai jise bruhaspati ke shaktishaali gurutvaakarshan ne apni or khinch liya hai. is ghoomti saamagri ki kaksha ki disha bruhaspati ki or hai. isi tarah, theebi (Thebe) aur aimalatheeya (Amalthea) chandrama, sanbhavat: do alag alag ghatakon ki dhoolayukt baahari chhalle banaate hai. aimalatheeya ki kaksha ke saath vahaaain chattaani chhalle ke bhi pramaan mile hai jo isi chandrama ke malabe se bane ho sakte hai.

megnetosfeyar

bruhaspati ka maignetosfeyar, bheetar maujood chaar gailileeyan upagrah.

bruhaspati ka vyaapak chumbakeeya kshetr ya megnetosfeyar pruthvi ki tulana mein 14 guna shaktishaali hai | bhoomadhyarekha par 4.2 gaus (0.42 mili tesla mT) se lekar dhruvon par 10-14 gaus (1.0-1.4 mili tesla mT) tak ka vichran ise sauramandal ka sabse shaktishaali chumbakeeya kshetr banaata hai (saur dhabbo ko chhodkar) | aisa maana ja raha hai ki iski utpatti bhanvar dhaaraaon se hoti hai jo dhaatu haaidrojan kor ke bheetar suchaalak padaarthon ke ghoomane se banti hai | aayo (Io) chandrama par jvaalaamukhi badi maatra mein salfaradaai aaksaaid gas utsarjit kar apni kaksha ke saath-saath gas tauras banaata hai | yeh gas megnetosfeyar mein aayanikrut hokar salfar aur okseejan aayan utpaadit karti hai | yeh donon paraspar, bruhaspati ke vaayumandal se utpann haaidrojan aayanon se milkar bruhaspati ke vishuvavrutt tal mein ek plaajma chaadar banaate hai | is chaadar mein plaajma grah ke saath-saath ghoomane lagta hai aur chumbakeeya disk ki tulana mein chunbakeeya dvidhruveeya viroopan ka kaaran banta hai. plaajma chaadar ke bheetar ilektron ek shaktishaali radio tarang utpann karte hai jo 0.6 -0.3 mega hartj paraas ka visfot paida karta hai

bruhaspati par aurora, teen chamakadaar bindu bruhaspati ke chandrama hain, aayo (baain or), geneemed (tal par) aur yooropa (yeh bhi tal par)I iske alaava, behad chamakadaar kareeb-kareeb vruttaakaar kshetr mukhya andaakaar kahalaata hai tatha dhundhala dhruveeya aurora dekha ja sakta haiI


is grah se 75 bruhaspati ardh vyaas ki doori par saur vaayu ke saath megnetosfeyar ke sampark se bo shauk paida hoti hai | bruhaspati ka megnetosfeyar, megnetopaaus se ghira hai jo megnetoshilth ke androoni kinaare par sthit hai | megnetoshilth, megnetosfeyar aur bo shauk ke beech ka kshetr hai | saur vaayu isi kshetr se takaraakar bruhaspati ke megnetosfeyar ko taan deta hai aur tanaav ka yeh vistaar shani ki kaksha ke paas pahuainchane tak jaari rahata hai | bruhaspati ke chaaron bade chandramaaon ki kakshaaen megnetosfeyar ke andar sthit hai jo saur vaayu se inki raksha karta hai |

bruhaspati ka megnetosfeyar, grah ke dhruveeya kshetron se teevr dhaara ki radio utsarjan ke liye jimmedaar hai | aayo chandrama par jvaalaamukhi gatividhi, bruhaspati ke megnetosfeyar mein gas feink kar grah ke aaspaas kanon ka tauras banaati hai | jaise hi aayo tauras se hokar hokar gujarata hai takaraahat se aalfaven tarang utpann hoti hai jo aayanit padaarth ko vahan kar bruhaspati ke dhruveeya kshetron mein le jaati hai | parinaamasvaroop, saaiklotronn mesar tantr ke maadhyam se radio tarange utpann hoti hai aur yeh oorja ek shanku aakaar ki satah ke saath baahar ki or failati hai | jab pruthvi is shanku ko kaatati hai, bruhaspati se rediyon utsarjan, saur rediyon utsarjan se adhik ho sakta hai |

parikrama evam ghoornan

bruhaspati 77 karod 80 lakh ki॰mee॰ ki ausat doori se soorya ki parikrama karta hai tatha harek chakkar 11.86 varsh mein lagaata hai

bruhaspati ekamaatr grah hai jiska soorya ke saath saajha dravyamaan kendra soorya ke aayatan se baahar sthit hai |[24] bruhaspati ki soorya se ausat doori 77 karod 80 lakh kimi (5.2 khagoleeya ikaai) hai tatha soorya ka ek poorn chakkar harek 11.86 varsh mein lagaata hai |shani ki tulana mein do-tihaai kaksheeya avadhi, sauramandal ke in do bade grahon ke madhya 5:2 ka parikraman taalamel (orbital resonance) banaata hai |[25] arthaat bruhaspati soorya ke paaainch chakkar aur shani soorya ke do chakkar samaan samay mein lagaate hai| iski andaakaar kaksha pruthvi ki tulana mein 1.31° jhuki hui hai | 0.048 vikendrata (eccentricity) ke kaaran bruhaspati ki soorya se doori vividhtaapoorn hai | iske upasaur aur apasaur ke beech ka fark 7.5 karod kimi hai |

bruhaspati ka aksheeya jhukaav bahut kam, keval 3.13° hone se, pruthvi aur mangal jaise mahatvapoorn mausami parivrtanon ka is grah ko koi bhi anubhav naheen hai |[26]

bruhaspati ka ghoornan sauramandal ke sabhi grahon mein sabse tej hai, yeh apne aksh par ek ghoornan 10 ghante se thode kam samay mein poora karta hai, jisse bhoomadhyarekheeya ubhaar banta hai jo bhoo-aadhaarit dooradarshi se aasaani se dikhaai deta hai | is ghoornan ko 24.79 meter/sekand2 bhoomadhyarekheeya satahi gurutvaakarshan ki tulana mein, bhoomadhyarekha par 1.67 meter/sekand2 kendraabhimukh tvaran(centripetal acceleration) ki jarurat hoti hai, is tarah bhoomadhyarekheeya satah par parinaami tvaran keval 23.12 meter/sekand2hota hai | is grah ka aakaar chapata upagol jaisa hai, jiska arth hai iske bhoomadhyarekha ke aarapaar ka vyaas, inke dhruvon ke beech ke vyaas se 9275 ki.mi.adhik lamba hai |[22]

chooainki bruhaspati ek thos grah naheen hai, iske upari vaayumandal mein anek ghoornan gatiyaaain hai | iske dhruveeya vaayumandal ka ghoornan, bhoomadhyarekheeya vaayumandal se 5 minute lamba hai | gatiyon ki teen pranaaliyon ko saapekshik nishaani ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya hai, vishesharoop se jab vaayumandaleeya lakshanon ka abhilekh kiya jaata hai | pranaali I 10° uttar se 10° dakshin akshaanshon par laagoo, 9 ghante 50 minute 30.0 sekand par sabse kam avadhi | pranaali II iske uttar aur dakshin ke saare akshaanshon par laagoo, ghoornan avadhi 9 ghante 55 minute 40.6 sekand | pranaali III ko pehle radio khagolavid ne paribhaashit kiya tha, yeh grah ke maignetosfeyar se mel khaata hai, yeh avadhi bruhaspati ki aadhikaarik ghoornan avadhi hai |[27]

avlokan

bruhaspati aur chandrama ka sanyojan
is baahari grah ki pratigaami gati pruthvi ke sandarbh mein usaki saapekshik sthiti ke kaaran hai.

bruhaspati saamaanyat: aakaash mein chautha sabse chamakadaar nikaaya hai (soorya, shukr grah aur hamaare chandrama ke baad);[28] kisi samay par mangal grah bruhaspati se ujjaval dikhaai deta hai | yeh pruthvi ke sandarbh mein bruhaspati ki sthiti par nirbhar karta hai. yeh drushya parimaan mein bhinn ho sakte hain jaise nimn vimukhata par -2.9 jaisi tej chamak se lekar soorya ke saath sanyojan ke dauraan -1.6 jaisa mand | bruhaspati ka koneeya vyaas bhi isi tarah 50.1 se 29.8 aark sekandon tak badalta hai |[4] anukool vimukhata tab pai jaati hai jab bruhaspati apasaur se hokar gujar raha hota hai | yeh sthiti pratyek chakkar mein ek baar pai jaati hai | jaise bruhaspati March 2011 mein apasaur ke nikat pahuncha, September 2010 mein ek anukool vimukhata thi |[29]

soorya ke chaaron or, bruhaspati ke saath kaksheeya daud mein, pruthvi pratyek 398.2 dinon par bruhaspati ko paar kar leti hai, is avadhi ko ek sanyuti kaal kaha jaata hai | is sthiti mein, bruhaspati prushthabhoomi sitaaron ke sandarbh mein pratigaami gati antargat gujarata dikhaai deta hai | yahi kaaran hai, is ek avadhi ke liye bruhaspati raatri aasmaan mein peechhe jaata hua prateet hota hai, ek pashch gati ka pradarshan karta hai |

bruhaspati ki 12-varsheeya kaksheeya avadhi, raashichkr ke darjan jyotisheeya chinhon se mel khaati hai aur yeh chinhon ke aitihaasik mool ho sakte hai |[30] yahi kaaran hai, pratyek baar jab bruhaspati vimukhata tak pahuainchata hai, yeh poorv ki or lagbhag 30 ° khisak gaya hota hai, jo ek raashi-chakr ki chaudaai hai |

chooainki bruhaspati ki kaksha pruthvi ki kaksha se baahar ki or hai, bruhaspati ka sthiti kon, jaisa pruthvi se dekha gaya, kabhi 11.5° se adhik naheen hota hai | yahi kaaran hai, jab bhoo-aadhaarit doorabeen ke maadhyam se ise dekha jaata hai, grah hameinsa lagbhag poori tarah se pradeept dikhaai deta hai | keval bruhaspati ke liye antariksh yaan mission ke dauraan hi is grah ka arddh chandraakaar roop praapt kiya gaya |[31]

anusandhaan evam anveshan

poorv-doorabeen anusandhaan

almaagest model mein pruthvi (⊕) ke saapeksh bruhaspati (☉) ki oordhv gati .

bruhaspati ka prekshan 7veen ya 8veen shataabdi ipoo ke bebeeloneeyan khagolavidon se hota chala aa raha hai |[32] cheeni khagol vigyaan itihaasakaar, ji jejhong ne daava kiya hai ki ek cheeni khagolashaastri gain di ne bina drushya saadhanon ki sahaayata ke 362 i.poo. mein bruhaspati ke chandramaaon mein se ek ki khoj ki hai | yadi sahi hai, yeh gaililiyo ki khoj se lagbhag do sahasraabdiyon pehle ki baat hogi |[33][34] apni doosari sadeen ki almaagest kruti mein, hellenistik khagolavid klaadiys tolemas ne pruthvi ke saapeksh bruhaspati ki gati ki vyaakhya ke liye, deferents aur epicycles par aadhaarit ek bhookendreeya graheeya model ka nirmaan kiya, jisne pruthvi ke chaaron or iski kaksheeya avadhi 4332.38 ya 11.86 varshon ke roop mein di |[35] 499 mein, bhaarateeya ganit aur khagol vigyaan ke uttam yug se ek ganitjnya-khagolashaastri, aaryabhatt, ne bhi bruhaspati ki kaksheeya avadhi ka anumaan 4332.2722 din ya 11.86 varshon ke roop mein lagaane ke liye ek bhookendreeya model ka prayog kiya tha |[36]

bhoo-aadhaarit dooradarshi anusandhaan

san 1610 mein, gaileeliyo gailili ne ek dooradarshi ka upayog kar bruhaspati ke chaar bade chandramaaon- aayo, yuropa, gainimeed aur kaileesto ki khoj ki, yeh gaililiyaai chandrama ke roop mein jaane jaate hai aur pruthvi ke alaava anya chandramaaon ka pehla dooradarsheeya avlokan maana jaata hai | yeh gaileeliyon ki bhi khagoleeya gati ki ek pratham khoj thi jiske kendra par spasht roop se pruthvi naheen thi | yeh koparniks ke 'grahon ki gati ka soorya keindreeya siddhaant' ke paksh mein ek pramukh baat thi; gaililiyo ke is koparniks siddhaant ke mukhar samarthan ne unhein nyaayik jaanch ke bhayaavah ghere mein la khada kiya |[37]

san 1660 ke dauraan, bruhaspati par dhabbon aur rangeen pattiyon ki khoj ke liye kaisini ne ek nai doorabeen ka upayog kiya aur dhyaan se dekha to grah chapata dikhaai diya | vein grah ki ghoornan avadhi ka anumaan lagaane mein bhi saksham the |[38] 1690 mein kaisini ne dekha ki vaataavaran bhinn bhinn ghoornan ke adheen chalaayamaan hai |[18]

vauyejar 1 se li gayi bruhaspati ki tasveer, great red spot aur gujarata hua ek safed andau॰

vishaal laal dhabba, bruhaspati ke dakshini golaarddh mein ek prakhyaat andaakaar aakruti hai, ise 1664 mein Robert huk dvaara pehle dekha gaya ho sakta hai aur 1665 mein giyovanni kaisini dvaara, haalaanki yeh vivaadaaspad hai | aushadh vikreta henarik schvaabe ne 1831 mein vishaal laal dhabbe ke vistaar ko dikhaane ke liye sabse pehle gyaat aarekhan prastut kiya |[39]

laal dhabba kathit taur par 1878 mein vishisht banane se pehle 1665 aur 1708 ke beech kai avsaron par drushti se kho gaya tha | yeh 1883 aur 20 veen sadi ke shuroo mein lupt hone ke roop mein darj hua tha |[40]

giovaanni borelli aur kaisini, donon ne bruhaspati chandramaaon ke gatiyon ki saavadhaaneepoorvak saaraneeyaaain banaai, isne un samayon ke poorvaanumaanon ki anumati di jab chandrama grah ke aage ya peechhe se gujareinge | san 1670 ke dvaara, yeh dekha gaya ki jab pruthvi ki or se bruhaspati, soorya ke vipreet paksh par tha, yeh ghatna 17 minton ki pai, baad ke varshon se aur adhik ki ummeed hai | ole romar ne tarkon se nishkarsh nikaala ki drushti taatkaalik naheen hai (ek nishkarsh, jise kaisini ne pehle nakaar diya tha[38]) aur samay ki is visangati ka upayog prakaash ki gati ka aakalan karne ke liye kiya tha |[41]

san 1892 mein, i.i.barnaard ne California mein leek vedhashaala par 36 inch (910 mimi) varttak ke saath bruhaspati ke ek paaainchavein upagrah ka nireekshan kiya | apekshaakrut is chhote nikaaya ki khoj ne, jo unki paini drushti ka ek saakshi tha, unako sheeghrata se prasidd bana diya | baad mein is chandrama ko aimalatheeya naam diya gaya tha |[42] seedhe drushya avlokan dvaara khoja gaya yeh aakhri graheeya chaaaind tha |[43] iske pashchaat atirikt aath upagrah, 1979 mein vauyejar 1 pravishthi yaan ki udaan se pehle khoje gaye the |


Europeeya dakshini vedhashaala ke doorabeen dvaara li gayi bruhaspati ki avarakt chhavi.

san 1932 mein, roopart vildat ne bruhaspati ke varnakram mein amoniya aur methane ki avashoshan pattiyon ki pehchaan ki |[44]

teen deerghaayu pratichkravaateeya aakrutiyon ko safed ande kaha gaya jo 1938 mein dekhe gaye the | kai dashakon ke liye ve vaataavaran mein alag visheshataaon ke roop mein banein rahein, kabhi kabhi ek doosare ke nikat aa jaate lekin kabhi bhi vileen naheen hue | antat:, unamein se do andon ne 1998 mein vilay kar diya, fir 2000 mein teesare ko apne saath mila liya aur oval bi.A. ho gaya |[45]

radio dooradarshi anusandhaan

san 1955 mein, barnaard bark aur keneth freinkalin ne bruhaspati se aane waali 22.2 megaahartaj rediyon sanketo ki bauchhaaron ka pata lagaaya |[18]bauchhaaron ki yeh avadhi grah ke ghoornan se mel khaai aur ve is jaankaari ka upayog kar ghoornan dar ko parishkrut karne mein bhi saksham the | bruhaspati se aane waali rediyon bauchhaarein do roopon mein pai gayi thi: kai second tak chalne waali lambi bauchhaarein (L - bauchhaarein) aur chhoti bauchhaarein (S - bauchhaarein) jiski avadhi sekand ke saunvein bhaag se kam thi |[46]

vaigyaaniko ne paaya hai ki bruhaspati se prasaarit radio sanketon ke teen roop the |

  • dekaameetrik rediyon bauchhaarein (dasiyon meter ki tarang dairdhya ke saath) bruhaspati ke ghoornan ke saath badalti hai aur bruhaspati ke chunbakeeya kshetr ke saath aayo ke sampark se prabhaavit ho rahi hai |[47]
  • deseemeetrik radio utsarjan (tarangadairya seinteemeetar mein maapa gaya), 1959 mein pehli baar Frank drek aur hen hvaatum dvaara avalokit ki gayi |[18]is sanket ki utpatti bruhaspati bhoomadhya rekha ke aaspaas ki ek tauras aakaar ki patti se hui thi | yeh sanket, bruhaspati ke chunbakeeya kshetr mein tvarit ilektraunon se saaiklotraun vikirn ke kaaran hota hai |[48]
  • taapeeya vikirn bruhaspati ke vaataavaran mein garmi dvaara utpaadit hota hai|[18]

antariksh prob ke saath anveshan

1973 ke baad se kai svachaalit antariksh yaanon ne bruhaspati ka daura kiya hai, vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya paayoniyr 10 antariksh yaan hai, bruhaspati ke itna paryaapt kareeb pahuchane wala pehla antariksh yaan, jo sauramandal ke is bade grah ke gunon aur tathyon ki jaankaari vaapas bhej sake |[49][50] sauramandal ke bheetar anya grahon ke liye udaan, oorja ki keemat par sampann hoti hai ; jo antariksh yaan ke veg mein shuddh parivartan ya dhakka ya delta-v ke dvaara varnit kiya jaata hai | pruthvi se bruhaspati ke liye, nimn pruthvi kaksha se hohamaann sthaanaantaran kaksha mein pravesh ke liye ek 6.3 ki.mi./sekand delta-v ki aavashyakta hoti hai |[51] tulana ke liye, nimn pruthvi kaksha par pahuchane ke liye 9.7 ki.mi./sekand delta- v ki jarurat hogi |[52] saubhaagya se, bruhaspati pahuchane ke liye graheeya udaanon ki oorja ki jarurat ko gurutvaakarshan ki sahaayata se kam kiya ja sakta hai,[53] anyatha lambi avadhi ki udaan ki keemat kaafi ho sakti hai |

udaan abhiyaan

udaan abhiyaan
antariksh yaan niktatam
pahuainch
doori
paayoniyr 10 December 3, 1973 1,30,000 ki.mi.
paayoniyr 11 December 4, 1974 34,000 ki.mi.
vauyejar 1 March 5, 1979 3,49,000 ki.mi.
vauyejar 2 July 9, 1979 5,70,000 ki.mi.
yuleeses February 8, 1992[54] 4,08,894 ki.mi.
February 4,2004[54] 12,00,00,000 ki.mi.
kaisini December 30,2000 1,00,00,000 ki.mi.
new horijons February 28, 2007 23,04,535 ki.mi.
vauyejar 1 ne bruhaspati ki is tasveer ko 24 January 1979 ko liya tha.

san 1973 ke praarambh mein, anek antariksh yaanon ne graheeya udaan ki kaushalataaon ka pradarshan kiya hai, jisne unako bruhaspati ke avlokan kshetr ke bheetar la diya | paayoniyr mission ne bruhaspati ke vaayumandal aur unke chandramaaon ki pehli najadeeki chhaviyon ko praapt kiya | usane paaya ki grah ke paas ka vikirn kshetr ummeed se kaheen jyaada shaktishaali tha, lekin donon antariksh yaan is vaataavaran mein jeevit rahane mein kaamayaab rahe | is antariksh yaan ke prakshep path ka upayog graheeya pranaali ke aakalan ko bade paimaane par parishkrut karne ke liye kiya gaya | grah dvaara radio sanketon ko dhankane ka parinaam bruhaspati ke vyaas aur dhruveeya sapaat raashi ke behtar maap ke roop mein hua |[30][55]

chh: varsh baad, vauyejar mission se gailileeyan chandramaaon ki samajh mein behad sudhaar hua aur bruhaspati ke chhallon ki khoj hui | usane yeh bhi pushti ki ki vishaal laal dhabba pratichkravaati tha | chhaviyon ki tulana se pata chala hai ki paayoniyr mission ke baad laal dhabbe ka rang badal gaya tha aur yeh badlaav naarangi se gahre bhoore rang ki or tha | aayanit paramaanuon ke tauras ki khoj aayo ke kaksheeya path ke saath saath hui thi aur chandramaaon ki satahon par jahaan jvaalaamukhi paae gaye, kuchh mein footane ki prakriya chal rahi thi | jaise hi antariksh yaan grah ke peechhe se gujara, raatri paksh ke vaataavaran se isne bijli ki chamak avalokit ki |[56][30]

bruhaspati se muthabhed ke liye agala mission, yoolises saur yaan ne, soorya ke chaaron or ek dhruveeya kaksha praapt karne ke liye udaan kalaabaaji ka pradarshan kiya | is gujaarein ke dauraan antariksh yaan ne bruhaspati ke megnetosfeyar ke adhyayanon ka sanchaalan kiya | yoolises ke paas camera naheen hone se, koi chhavi naheen li gayi| chh: saal baad ek doosari udaan bahut adhik se adhik doori par thi |[54]

san 2000 mein, kaisini yaan ne, shani maarg ke liye, bruhaspati se udaan bhari aur kabhi grah se bani kuchh uchch-spashtata ki chhaviyaaain pradaan ki | 19 December 2000 ko, antariksh yaan ne himaaleeya chandrama ki tasveer ko kaid kiya, parantu satah vivran dikhaane ke liye spashtata bahut hi nimn thi |[57]

new horijons yaan ne, plooto maarg ke liye, gurutvaakarshan ki sahaayata se bruhaspati se udaan bhari | iski niktatam pahuainch 28 fravari 2007 par thi |[58]yaan ke kaimaron ne aayo par jvaalaamukheeyon se nirgam plaajma ki ganana ki aur vistaar mein sabhi chaaron gailileeyan chandramaaon ka adhyayan kiya tatha saath hi saath baahari chandramaaon himaaleeya aur elaara se yeh lambi-doori ka avalokanakarta bana |[59]4 sitmbar 2006 ko isne joveeyan pranaali ki tasveerein lena shuroo kiya |[60][61]

gaililiyo mission

antariksh yaan kaisini se bruhaspati ka drushya.

ab tak keval gaililiyo ne bruhaspati ka chakkar lagaaya hai, jo 7 December 1995 ko bruhaspati ke chaaron or ki kaksha mein chala gaya | isne saat saal se adhik grah ka chakkar lagaaya, tatha sabhi gaililiyaai chandramaaon aur aimalatheeya ki bahu-udaanon ka vaahak bana | is antariksh yaan ne dhoomaketu sumekar-levi 9 ki takkar ka bhi saakshya diya jab yeh 1994 mein bruhaspati par pahuncha aur ghatna ke liye ek adviteeya laabhaprad avsar diya | uchch-praapti radio prasaaran enteena ki asafal tainaati ke kaaran iski mool design kshamata simit thi, haalaanki bruhaspati pranaali ke baare mein gaililiyo se praapt jaankaari vyaapak thi |[62]

ek vaayumandaleeya pravishthi yaan July 1995 mein antariksh yaan se chhoda gaya tha, jisne 7 December ko grah ke vaayumandal mein pravesh kiya | isne pairaashoot se vaayumandal ki 150 ki॰mee॰ ki yaatra ki, 57.6 minton ke liye aankade ekatrit kiye aur us dabaav ke dvaara kuchal diya gaya, jiske adheen vah us samay tha (153 ° se. taapamaan par, pruthvi ke saamaanya daab ka lagbhag 22 guna) |[63]uske baad vah pighl gaya hoga aur sanbhavat: vaashpeekrut ho gaya hoga | gaileeliyon yaan ne bhi durbhaagya se isi tarah ke isse bhi adhik drut parivartan ka anubhav kiya, jab 21 sitmbar 2003 ko ise jaanaboojh kar 50 ki.mi./ sekand se adhik veg se is grah ki or chalaaya gaya, yeh aatmaghaati kadam ek upagrah ko bhavishya ki kisi bhi sambhaavit durghatana se aur sanbhavat: dooshit hone se bachaane ke liye uthaaya gaya tha aur yeh upagrah hai, yuropa - ek chaaaind jismein jeevan ko sharan dene ki sambhaavana hai, aisi dhaarana rahi hai |[62]

bhavishya ke prob aur radd mission

kaisini yaan ki drushti mein 1 January 2001 ko bruhaspati aur aayo

naasa ke paas haal mein ek mission antargat ek dhruveeya kaksha se bruhaspati ka vistaar mein adhyayan chal raha hai | joono naamak, yeh antariksh yaan 2011 mein prakshepit hua aur 2016 ke ant tak yathaasthaan pahuainch jaaega |[64]

yuropa bruhaspati pranaali mission (EJSM), bruhaspati aur unke chandramaaon ke anveshan ke liye naasa / isa ka sanyukt prastaav hai | February 2009 mein yeh ghoshana ki gayi thi ki isa / naasa ne is mission ko taaitan shani pranaali mission se aage praathamikta di |[65][66] is mission ke liye isa ka yogadaan abhi bhi, isa ki anya pariyojanaaon ke saath vitteeya kheenchtaan se joojh raha hai |[67] iski prakshepan tithi 2020 ke aaspaas hogi | yuropa bruhaspati pranaali mission, naasa ke netrutv waali bruhaspati yooropa parikrama yaan aur isa ke netrutv waali bruhaspati gainimeed parikrama yaan donon ko shaamil karta hai |[68]

bruhaspati ke chandramaaon yooropa, geneemed aur kailisto par upasatah taral mahaasaagaron ki sambhaavana ki vajah se, vahaaain ke barfeele chandramaaon ke vistrut adhyayan mein vishesh ruchi rahi hai | vitteeya kathinaaiyon ne pragati ko vilanbit kar diya hai | naasa ke jeemo (bruhaspati-barfeele chandrama parikrama yaan) ko 2005 mein radd kar diya gaya tha |[69] ek yooropeeyan joviyn yooropa parikrama mission ka bhi adhyayan kiya gaya tha |[70] is abhiyaan ka sthaan yuropa bruhaspati pranaali mission ne le liya tha |

chandrama

gailileeyan chandrama, baaen se daaen, soorya se badhti doori ke kramaanusaar: aayo, yuropa, gainimeed, kaileesto.
bruhaspati, gailileeyan chandramaao ke saath

bruhaspati ke 66 praakrutik upagrah hai, inmein se 10 ki॰mee॰ se kam vyaas ke 50 upagrah hai aur in sabhi ko 1975 ke baad khoja gaya hai | chaar sabse bade chandrama aayo, yuropa, gainimeed aur kailisto, gailileeyan chandrama ke naam se jaane jaate hai |

gailileeyan chandrama

sauramandal ke kuchh bade upagrahon, aayo, yuropa aur gainimeed ki kakshaaeain, ek vishisht svaroop banaate hai jise laaplaas rejoneins ke naam se jaana jaata hai | aayo upagrah, bruhaspati ke chaar chakkar lagaane mein jitna samay leta hai, theek utane hi samay mein yuropa poore poora do chakkar aur gainimeed poore poora ek chakkar lagaata hai | yeh rejoneins, teen bade chandramaaon ke gurutvaakarshan prabhaav ke kaaran banta hai jo unki kakshaaon ke aakaar ko vikrut kar andaakaar kar dete hai kyonki pratyek chaaaind apne har ek poore chakkar mein padosi chaaaind se ek hi bindu par atirikt khinchaav praapt karta hai | doosari or, bruhaspati se jvaareeya bal, kakshaaon ko vruttiya banaane ki koshish karta hai |[71]

gaililiyn chandramaaon ki pruthvi ke chandrama se tulana
naam adhav vyaas dravyamaan kaksha ki trijya parikraman kaal
kimi % kigra % kimi % diwas %
aayo ˈaaaɪ.oʊ 3643 105 8.9×aa1022 120 4,21,700 110 1.77 7
yuropa jʊaaˈaaroʊaapə 3122 90 4.8×aa1022 65 6,71,034 175 3.55 13
gainimeed ˈaaɡaaæaanimiːaad 5262 150 14.8×aa1022 200 10,70,412 280 7.15 26
kaileesto kəaaˈaalɪaastoʊ 4821 140 10.8×a1022 150 18,82,709 490 16.69 61

chandramaaon ka vargeekaran

yuropa

vauyajar mission ki khojon se pehle, bruhaspati ke chandrama apne kaksheeya tatvon ki samaanata ke aadhaar par bade hi saleeke se chaar chaar ke chaar samoohon mein vyavasthit kiye gaye the | baad mein, nae chhote baahari chandramaaon ki badi sankhya ne tasveer jatil kar di | ab mukhya chh: samooh maane jaate hai, haalaanki uname se kuchh doosaron se alag hai |

mool up-vibhaajan, aath androoni niyamit chandramaaon ko samooh mein baantana hai jinki kakshaaen bruhaspati ke vishuvavrutt tal ke najadeek hai aur kareeb-kareeb vruttaakaar hai tatha bruhaspati ke saath bane hue lagte hai| shesh chandrama andaakaar aur jhuki kakshaaon ke saath agyaat sankhya mein chhote-chhote aniyamit chandramaaon se milkar bane hai. yeh hadp liye gaye kshudragrahon ya hadp liye gaye kshudragrahon ke khand maane gaye hai|aniyamit chandrama jis samooh mein shaamil hai samaan kaksheeya gun saajha karte hai aur is prakaar vein ek hi mool ki upaj ho sakte hai.[72][73]

niyamit chandrama
androoni samooh
Inner group
androoni samooh ke sabhi chaaron chandramaaon ka vyaas 200 ki॰mee॰ se kam, kaksheeya trijya 2,00,000 ki॰mee॰ se kam aur kaksheeya jhukaav aadha degree se kam hai.
gailileeyan chandrama[74] in chaaro grahon ki khoj gaileeliyon gailili dvaara aur simon maariyaas dvaara samaanaantar ki gayi thi, iski kaksha 4,00,000 ki॰mee॰ aur 20,00,000 ki॰mee॰ ke beech hai, tatha yeh sauramandal ke kuchh bade chandramaaon mein se hai.
aniyamit chandrama
themeesto
Themisto
yeh apne samooh ka ek maatr chandrama hai, iski kaksha gailileeyan chandramaaon aur himaaliya samooh ke beech hai.
himaaleeya samooh
Himalia group
yeh saghan sate chandramaaon ka samooh hai, 1,10,00,000 - 1,20,00,000 ki॰mee॰ doori se bruhaspati ka chakkar lagaate hai.
kaarpo
Carpo
ek aur apne samooh ka akela chandrama, jo anaanke samooh ke androoni kinaare par hai.
anaanke samooh
Ananke group
is pratigaami kaksha samooh ki seema aspasht hai, bruhaspati se ausat doori 2,12,76,000 ki॰mee॰ ke saath ausat jhukaav 149 degree hai.
kaarme samooh
Carme group
yeh ek kaafi alag pratigaami samooh hai, bruhaspati se ausat doori 2,34,04,000 ki॰mee॰ ke saath ausat jhukaav 165 degree hai.
peseefaae samooh
Pasiphaë group
yeh ek chhitra hua aur thoda vishisht pratigaami samooh hai jo sabhi baahyatam chandramaaon ko shaamil karta hai.

saur pranaali ke saath sahabhaagita

yeh chitr bruhaspati ki kaksha mein trojan kshudragrahon ke saath hi mukhya kshudragrah belt ko dikhaata hai.

soorya ke saath-saath, bruhaspati ke gurutvaakarshan prabhaav ne sauramandal ko aakaar dene mein bahut madad ki hai, adhiktar grahon ki kakshaaen soorya ke bhoomadhyarekheeya tal ki bajaay bruhaspati ke kaksheeya tal ke paas sthit hai (keval budh grah ka kaksheeya jhukaav soorya ki bhoomadhyarekha se najadeek hai) | kshudragrah belt mein kirkavud antaraal adhikaanshat: bruhaspati ki vajah se hain aur yeh grah androoni sauramandaleeya itihaas ke chandrapralaya ke liye jimmedaar ho sakta hai |[75]

apne chandramaaon ke saath, bruhaspati ka gurutvaakarshan kshetr un kai kshudragrahon ko bhi niyantrit karta hai jo laagrangiyn binduon ke kshetron mein base hai aur apni-apni kakshaaon mein soorya ke irdagird bruhaspati ka anusaran karte hai | yeh trojan kshudragrah ke roop mein jaane jaate hai, tatha greek camp aur trojan camp mein vibhaajit hai | iname se pehla, 588 echiles (588 Achilles), san 1906 mein maiks volf dvaara khoja gaya ; uske baad do hajaar se adhik aur khoje ja chuke hai,[76] unamein se sabse bada 624 hektor (624 Hektor) hai |

bruhaspati parivaar ke adhiktar laghu-avadhi-dhoomaketu - un dhoomaketuon ke roop mein paribhaashit hai jinke ardhya-mukhya aksh (semi-mejor axis) bruhaspati ke aksho se chhote hai | bruhaspati parivaar ke dhoomaketu, nepchoon kaksha ke paar kuipar belt mein nirmit maane jaate hai | bruhaspati ke saath najadeeki muthabhedon ke dauraan unki kakshaaen ek chhoti avadhi mein tabdeel kar di gayi aur baad mein soorya aur bruhaspati ke saath niyamit gurutvaakarshan prabhaav dvaara vruttaakaar ho gayi |[77]

takkar

23 July ko li gayi habal chhavi, 2009 bruhaspati takkar dvaara chhode gaye lagbhag 5,000 meal lambe dhabbe ko dikha raha hai.[78]

bruhaspati ko sauramandal ka vekyoom kleenar kaha gaya hai,[79] vishaal gurutveeya koop aur androoni sauramandal ke paas sthit hone ke kaaran yeh sauramandaleeya grahon ke sabse satat bheeshan takkaron ko jhelata hai |[80]yeh socha gaya tha ki yeh grah dhoomaketu bamabaari se aantarik pranaali ke liye aanshik roop se dhaal ka kaarya karta hai | haal ke computer simuleshan sujhaav dete hai ki bruhaspati, un dhoomaketuon ki sankhya mein hone waali kami ka kaaran naheen hai jo aantarik saur pranaali se hokar gujarte hai, jaise hi iska gurutv andar ki or aane vaale dhoomaketuon ki kakshaaon ko modta hai, mote taur par utani hi sankhya mein unhein baahar nikaal feinkata hai |[81]yeh vishay khagolavidon ke beech vivaadaaspad bana hua hai, jaise kuchh ka maanana ​a​ahai ki yeh kuipar belt se dhoomaketuon ko pruthvi ki or kheenchata hai, jabki anya logon ka maanana ​a​ahai ki bruhaspati kathit oort baadal se pruthvi ki raksha karta hai |[82]

1997 ke aitihaasik khagoleeya aarekhan ke ek sarvekshan ne sujhaav diya ki ho sakta hai 1690 mein khagol vigyaani kaisini ne ek takkar ka nishaan darj kiya ho | sarvekshan ki gayi aath anya ummeedavaaron ki tippaniyaan, ek takkar ke hone ki sambhaavana bahut kam ya na ke baraabar hai |[83] 16 July 1994 se 22 July 1994 ki samayaavadhi ke dauraan, dhoomaketu sumekar-levi 9 (SL9, aupachaarik roop se naamit F2 D/1993) ke 20 se adhik tukade bruhaspati ke dakshini golaarddh se takaraayein, sauramandal ke do nikaayon ke beech ki is takkar ne pehla pratyaksh avlokan upalabdh karaaya | is takkar ne bruhaspati ke vaayumandal ki sanrachana par upayogi aankade pradaan kiye | [84][85]

19 July 2009 ko, pranaali 2 mein lagbhag 216 degree deshaantar par is takkar sthal ko khoj liya gaya tha |[86][87]yeh takkar apne peechhe, bruhaspati ke vaayumandal mein ek kaala dhabba chhod gaya, jo aakaar mein oval beee ke samaan hai | infraared prekshan ne, jahaan yeh takkar hui, ek ujale dhabbe ko dikhaaya hai, jiska arth hai is takkar ne bruhaspati ke dakshin dhruv ke paas ke kshetr mein nichle vaayumandal ko garm kar diya |[88]

takkar ki anya ghatna, jo poorv prekshit takkaron se chhoti hai, 3 June 2010 ko shaukiya khagol vigyaani enthoni vesalein dvaara Australia mein pai gayi aur baad mein fileepeens mein ek aur shaukiya khagol vigyaani dvaara is khoj ko video par kaid kar liya gaya hai | [89]

jeevan ki sambhaavana

san 1953 mein, Miller-ure prayog ne pradarshan kiya ki aadya pruthvi ke vaayumandal mein maujood bijli aur raasaayanik yaugikon ka ek sanyojan, aise kaarbanik yaugik (emino esid sahit) bana sakte hai jo jeevan roopi imaarat ki into ke jaise kaam aa sakte hai | aisa hi krutrim vaataavaran jisme paani, methane, amoniya aur aanavik haaidrojan shaamil ho, sabhi anu abhi bhi bruhaspati ke vaataavaran mein hai | bruhaspati ke vaayumandal mein ek shaktishaali oordhvaadhar vaayu parisancharan pranaali hai, jo in yaugikon ko vahan kar nichle kshetron mein le jaaega | vaayumandal ke aatanrik bhaag ke bheetar ka uchch taapamaan in rasaayanon ko tod dega, jo pruthvi -sadrushya jeevan ke gathan mein baadha pahuchaaega |[90]

yeh maana jaata hai ki pruthvi ki tarah bruhaspati par jeevan ki adhik sambhaavana naheen hai, vahaan ke vaayumandal mein paani ki keval chhoti si maatra hai aur bruhaspati ki bheetari gaharaai mein sambhaavit thos satah asaadhaaran dabaav ke adheen hogi | san 1976 mein, vauyajar mission se pehle, yeh dhaarana thi ki amoniya ya jal-aadhaarit jeevan bruhaspati ke oopari vaayumandal mein viksit ho sakta hai | yeh parikalpana sthaleeya samudra ki paaristhitiki par aadhaarit hai jiske anusaar sheersh star par saral sanshleshak plavak hai, nichle star par yeh plavak machhali ka bhojan hai aur samudri shikaari, jo machhali ka shikaar karte hai |[91][92]

bruhaspati ke chandramaaon mein se kuchh par bhoomigat mahaasaagaron ki upasthiti ne jeevan ki adhik sambhaavana hone ki atkalon ko janm diya hai |

pauraaniki

bhaarateeya pauraanik kathaaon mein bruhaspati grah ke devata

bruhaspati grah ko praacheen kaal se jaan liya gaya tha | yeh raat ko aasmaan mein nagn aankhon se dikhaai deta hai aur kabhi kabhi din mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai jab soorya neeche ho |[93] bebeeloniyn se, yeh nikaaya unke devata mardk ka pratinidhi hai | ve kraantivrutt ke saath is grah ki lagbhag 12-varsheeya kaksheeya avadhi ka istemaal unki raashi chakr ke nakshatron ko paribhaashit karne karte the |[30][94]

romanon ne iska naam jyoopitr rakha (letin: Iuppiter, Iūapiter), jo roman pauraanik kathaaon ke pramukh devata hai, jiska naam aadya-Bhaarat-Europeeya sambodhan parisar *Dyēau-pəaater (panjeekrut:*Dyēaus-pəatēar, arth:' ' he pita aakaash ke devata ' ' ya ' 'he pita diwas ke devata ' ') se aata hai |[95]

jovian bruhaspati ka visheshaneeya roop hai, iska praacheen visheshaneeya roop jovial hai, jo madhya yug mein jyotishiyon dvaara niyojit tha, jiska arth ' ' khushi ' ' ya ' ' aanandit ' ' bhaav se aaya hai jise bruhaspati ke jyotisheeya prabhaav ke liye uttaradaayi thaharaaya gaya hai |[96]

cheeni, Koreai aur jaapaaneeyon ne grah ko kaashth taare ke jaisa nirdisht kiya, jo paanch cheeni tatvon par aadhaarit hai |[97]vaidik jyotish mein, hindu jyotishiyon ne is grah ka naam devataaon ke dharmaachaarya bruhaspati par rakha aur praay: ' ' guru ' ' kaha gaya |[98]angreji bhaasha mein Thursday (guruvaar), ' ' Thor's day ' ' se liya gaya hai, jarman mithko mein Thor bruhaspati grah ke saath juda hai |[99]

madhya Asiaee-Turkey mithkon mein, bruhaspati ko ' ' Erendiz/Erentüaz ' ' jaisa kaha gaya, jiska arth ' ' eren(?)+yultuz(taara) ' ' hai | ' ' eren ' ' ke arth ke baare mein kai siddhaant hain | iske alaava, in logon ne bruhaspati ki kaksha ki ganana 11 saal aur 300 din ke roop mein ki | vein maanate the ki kuchh saamaajik aur praakrutik ghatanaaeain aasmaan par Erentüaz halachal se judi hai |[100]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
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sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.