british kaal mein Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha

bahut praacheen kaal se bhaaratavarsh ka videshon se vyaapaar hua karta tha. yeh vyaapaar sthal maarg aur jal maarg donon se hota tha. in maargon par ekaadhikaar praapt karne ke liye vividh raashtron mein samay-samay par sangharsh hua karta tha. jab islaam ka udaya hua aur arab, faaras misr aur madhya Asia ke vividh deshon mein islaam ka prasaar hua, tab dheere-dheere in maargon par musalmaanon ka adhikaar ho gaya aur Bhaarat ka vyaapaar arab nivaasiyon ke haath mein chala gaya. Africa ke poorvi kinaare se lekar cheen samudra tak samudra tat par arab vyaapaariyon ki kothiyaan sthaapit ho gain. Europe mein Bhaarat ka jo maal jaata tha vah Italy ke do nagar jinoaa aur venis se jaata tha. ye nagar bhaarateeya vyaapaar se maalaamaal ho gaye. ve Bhaarat ka maal kustuntuniya ki mandi mein khareedte the. in nagaron ki dhan samruddhi ko dekhkar Europe ke anya raashtron ko bhaarateeya vyaapaar se laabh uthaane ki prabal ichha utpann is ichha ki poorti mein safal na ho sake. bahut praacheen kaal se Europe ke logon ka anumaan tha ki Africa hokar bhaaratavarsh tak samudra dvaara pahunchane ka koi na koi maarg avashya hai. chaudahaveen shataabdi mein Europe mein ek nae yug ka praarambh hua.

nae-nae bhaugolik pradeshon ki khoj aarambh hui. kolambas ne san 1492 isvi mein America ka pata lagaaya aur yeh pramaanit kar diya ki atalaantik ke us paar bhi bhoomi hai. Portugal ki or se bahut dinon se bhaaratavarsh ke aane ke maarg ka pata lagaaya ja raha tha. ant mein, anek varshon ke prayaas ke anantar san 1498 E. mein vaaskodigaama shubhaasha antareep (cape of good hope) ko paar kar Africa ke poorvi kinaare par aaya; aur vahaaain se ek gujaraati niyaamak ko lekar maalaabaar mein kaaleekat pahuncha.

purtagaalavaasiyon ne dheere-dheere poorvi vyaapaar ko arab ke vyaapaariyon se chheen liya. is vyaapaar se Portugal ki bahut shri-vruddhi hui. dekha -dekhi, dach angrej aur fraanseesiyon ne bhi Bhaarat se vyaapaar karna shuroo kiya. in videshi vyaapaariyon mein Bhaarat ke liye aapas mein pratidvandvita chalti thi aur inmein se har ek ka yeh iraada tha ki doosaron ko hataakar apna akshunya adhikaar sthaapit karein. vyaapaar ki raksha tatha vruddhi ke liye inko yeh aavashyak prateet hua ki apni raajaneetik satta kaayam karein. yeh sangharsh bahut dinon tak chalta raha aur angrejon ne apne pratidvandviyon par vijay praapt ki aur san 1763 ke baad se unka koi prabal pratidvandi naheen rah gaya. is beech mein angrejon ne kuchh pradesh bhi hastagat kar liye the aur Bengal, Bihar udeesa aur Karnataka mein jo navaab raajya karte the ve angrejon ke haath ki kathaputali the. un par yeh baat achhi tarah jaahir ho gayi thi ki angrejon ne kuchh pradesh bhi hastagat kar liye the aur Bengal, Bihar udeesa aur Karnataka mein jo navaab raajya karte the ve angrejon ke haath ki kathaputali the. un par yeh baat achhi tarah jaahir ho gayi thi ki angrejon ka virodh karne se padachyut kar diye jaaenge.

yeh videshi vyaapaari Bhaarat se masaala, moti, javaaharaat, haathi daant ki bani cheejein, dhaake ki malamal aur aaberavaan, mursheedaabaad ka resham, Lucknow ki chheent, ahamadabaad ke dupatte, neel aadi padaarth le jaaya karte the aur vahaan se sheeshe ka saamaan, makhamal saatan aur lohe ke aujaar bhaaratavarsh mein bechne ke liye laate the. hamein is aitihaasik tathya ko naheen bhoolana chaahiye ki Bhaarat mein british satta ka aarambh ek vyaapaarik company ki sthaapana se hua. angrejon ki raajaneetik mahatvaakaanksha tatha cheshta bhi isi vyaapaar ki raksha aur vruddhi ke liye hui thi.

unneesaveen shataabdi ke pehle England ka Bhaarat par bahut kam adhikaar tha aur pashchimi sabhyata tatha sansthaaon ka prabhaav yahaan naheen ki baraabar tha. san 1750 se poorv England mein audyogik kraanti bhi naheen aarambh hui thi. uske pehle Bhaarat varsh ki tarah England bhi ek krushi pradhaan desh tha. us samay England ko aaj ki tarah apne maal ke liye videshon mein baajaar ki khoj naheen karni padti thi. us samay gamanaagaman ki suvidhaaen na hone ke kaaran sirf halki-halki cheejein hi baahar bheji ja sakti theen. bhaaratavarsh se jo vyaapaar us samay videshon se hota tha, usase Bhaarat ko koi aarthik kshati bhi naheen thi. san 1765 mein jab East India company ko mugal baadshah shaah aalam se Bengal, Bihar aur udeesa ki deevaani praapt hui, tab se vah in praanton mein jameen ka bandobast aur maalagujaari vasool karne lagi. is prakaar sabse pehle angrejon ne yahaan ki maalagujaari ki pratha mein her-fer kiya. isko us samay patra vyavahaar ki bhaasha faarasi thi. company ke naukar deshi raajaaon se faarasi mein hi patra vyavahaar karte the.

faujadaari adaalaton mein kaaji aur maulavi musalamaani kaanoon ke anusaar apne nirnaya dete the. deevaani ki adaalaton mein dharm shaastr aur shahar anusaar panditon aur maulaviyon ki salaah se angrej collector mukadamon ka faisala karte the. jab East India company ne shiksha par kuchh vyaya karne ka nishchaya kiya, to unka pehla nirnaya arabi, faarasi aur sanskrut shiksha ke paksh mein hi hua. banaaras mein sanskrut kaalej aur kalakatte mein Calcutta madarasa ki sthaapana ki gayi. panditon aur maulaviyon ko puraskaar dekar praacheen pustakon ke mudrit karaane aur naveen pustakon ke likhne ka aayojan kiya gaya. us samay isaaiyon ko company ke raaj mein apne dharm ke prachaar karne kiya gaya. us samay isaaiyon ko company ke raaj mein apne dharm ke prachaar karne ki svatantrata naheen praapt thi.

bina company se license praapt kiye koi angrej na bhaaratavarsh mein aakar bas sakta tha aur na jaayadaad khareed sakta tha. company ke afsaron ka kehna tha ki yadi yahaan angrejon ko basane ki aam ijaajat de di jaaegi to usase vidroh ki aashanka hai; kyonki videshiyon ke bhaarateeya dharm aur rasm-rivaaj se bhali -bhaanti parichit na hone ke kaaran is baat ka bahut bhaya hai ki ve bhaarateeyon ke bhaavon ka uchit aadar na kareinge. deshaki puraani pratha ke anusaar company apne raajya ke hindu aur musalmaan dharm sthaanon ka prabandh aur nireekshan karti thi. mandir, masjid, imaamabaade aur khaanakaah ke aay-vyaya ka hisaab rakhana, imaaraton ki marammat karaana aur pooja ka prabandh, yeh sab company ke jimme tha. athaarahaveen shataabdi ke ant se England ke paadariyon ne is vyavastha ka virodh karna shuroo kiya. unka kehna tha ki isaai hone ke naate company vidhrmiyon ke dharm sthaanon ka prabandh apne haath mein naheen le sakti.

ve is baat ki bhi koshish kar rahe the ki isaai dharm ke prachaar mein company ki or se koi baadha naheen honi chaahiye. us samay deshi isaaiyon ki avastha bahut shochaneeya thi. yadi koi hindu ya musalmaan isaai ho jaata tha to usaka apni jaayadaad aur beevi evam bachchon par koi hak naheen rah jaata tha. Madras ke ahaate mein deshi isaaiyon ko badi-badi naukriyaan naheen mil sakti theen. inko bhi hinduon ke dhaarmik krutyon ke liye tax dena padta tha. jagannaath ji ka rath kheenchne ke liye rath yaatra ke avsar par jo log begaar mein pakade jaate the unamein kabhi-kabhi isaai bhi hote the. yadi ve is begaar se inkaar karte the to unako beint lagaae jaate the. England ke paadariyon ka kehna tha ki isaaiyon ko unke dhaarmik vishvaas ke pratikool kisi kaam ke karne ke liye vivsh naheen karna chaahiye aur yadi unke saath koi riyaayat naheen ki ja sakti to kam se kam unke saath vaheen vyavahaar hona chaahiye jo anya dharmaabalanbiyon ke saath hota hai. dheere-dheere is dal ka prabhaav badhne laga aur ant mein isaai paadariyon ki maang ko bahut kuchh ansh mein poora karna pada. uske falasvaroop apni jaayadaad se haath naheen dhona padega.

isaaiyon ko dharm prachaar ki bhi svatantrata mil gayi. ab raaj darbaar ki bhaasha angreji ho gayi aur angreji shiksha ko protsaahan dene ka nishchaya hua. dharm-shaastr aur sharah ka angreji mein anuvaad kiya gaya aur ek 'la kameesh' niyukt kar ek naya dand vidhaan aur anya nae kaanoon taiyaar kiye gaye. san 1853 E. mein dharm sthaanon ka prabandh sthaaneeya samitiyaan banaakar unke supurd kar diya gaya. san 1854 mein adaalaton mein jo thode bahut pandit aur maulavi bach gaye the ve bhi hata diye gaye. is prakaar desh ki puraani sansthaaen nasht ho gain aur hindu aur musalmaanon ki yeh dhaarana hone lagi ki angrej unhein isaai banaana chaahate hain. inheen parivrtanon ka aur dalahauji ki hadapne ki neeti ka yeh fal hua ki san 1857 mein ek badi kraanti hui jise sipaahi vidroh kehte hain.

san 1857 ke pehle hi Europe mein audyogik kraanti ho chuki thi. is kraanti mein England sabka aguaa tha; kyonki usako bahut-si aisi suvidhaaen theen jo anya deshon ko praapt naheen thi. England ne hi vaashp yantr ka aavishkaar kiya. Bhaarat ke vyaapaar se England ki poonji bahut badh gayi thi. uske paas lohe aur koyale ki ifaraat thi. kushal kaareegaron ki bhi kami na thi. is naanaavidh kaaranon se England is kraanti mein agrani bana. England ke uttari hisse mein jahaan loha tatha koyala niklata tha vahaan kal kaarkhaane sthaapit hone lage. kaarkhaanon ke paas shahar basane lage. England ke ghareloo udyog-dhandhe nasht ho gaye. masheenon se bade paimaane par maal taiyaar hone laga. is maal ki khapat Europe ke anya deshon mein hone lagi. dekha-dekhi Europe ke anya deshon mein bhi machine ke yug ka aarambh hua. jyon-jyon Europe ke anya deshon mein nai pratha ke anusaar udyog vyavasaaya ki vruddhi hone lagi, tyon-tyon England ko apne maal ke liye Europe ke baahar baajaar talaash karne ki aavashyakta prateet hone lagi. bhaaratavarsh England ke adheen tha, isliye raajaneetik shakti ke sahaare bhaaratavarsh ko sugamata ke saath angreji maal ka ek achha-khaasa baajaar bana diya gaya.

angreji shiksha ke kaaran dheere-dheere logon ki abhiruchi badal rahi thi. Europeeya veshabhoosha aur Europeeya rahan-sahan angreji shikshit varg ko pralobhit karne laga. Bhaarat ek sabhya desh tha, isliye yahaan angreji maal ki khapat mein vah kathinaai naheen prateet hui jo Africa ke asabhya ya arddhasabhya pradeshon mein anubhoot hui thi. sabse pehle is naveen neeti ka prabhaav Bhaarat ke vastr vyaapaar par pada. machine se taiyaar kiye hue maal ka mukaabala karna karaghon par taiyaar kiye hue maal ke liye asambhav tha. dheere-dheere Bhaarat ki vividh kalaaen aur udyog nasht hone lage. Bhaarat ke bheetari pradeshon mein door-door maal pahunchaane ke liye jagah-jagah rel ki sadkein nikaali gain. Bhaarat ke pradhaan bandargaah Calcutta, Mumbai aur Madras Bhaarat ke bade-bade nagaron se sambaddh kar diye gaye videshi vyaapaar ki suvidha ki drushti se dalahauji ke samay mein pehli rel ki sadkein bani theen. ingalaind ko Bhaarat ke kachche maal ki aavashyakta thi. jo kachcha maal in bandaragaahon ko ravaana kiya jaata tha, us par rel ka mahasool riyaayati tha. aantarik vyaapaar ki vruddhi ki sarvatha upeksha ki jaati thi.

is neeti ke anusaar England ko yeh abheesht na tha ki nae-nae aavishkaaron se laabh uthaakar bhaaratavarsh ke udyog vyavasaaya ka naveen paddhati se pun: sangathan kiya jaae. vah Bhaarat ko krushi pradhaan desh hi banaae rakhana chaahata tha, jismein Bhaarat se use har tarah ka kachcha maal mile aur usaka taiyaar kiya maal Bhaarat khareede. jab kabhi bhaarateeya sarkaar ne deshi vyavasaaya ko protsaahan dene ka nishchaya kiya, tab tab England ki sarkaar ne uske is nishchaya ka virodh kiya aur usako har prakaar se nirutsaahit kiya. jab Bhaarat mein kapde ki milein khulne lageen aur bhaarateeya sarkaar ko England se aanevaale kapde par chungi lagaane ki aavashyakta hui, tab is chungi ka lankaashaayar ne ghor virodh kiya aur jab unhonne yeh dekha ki hamaari vah baat maani na jaaegi to unhonne Bhaarat sarkaar ko is baat par vivsh kiya ki bhaarateeya mil mein taiyaar hue kapde par bhi chungi lagaai jaae, jismein deshi milon ke liye pratisparddha karna sambhav na ho.

pablik varks vibhaag kholkar bahut-si sadke bhi banaai gain jiska fal yeh hua ki videshi maal chhote-chhote kasbon tatha gaanvon ke baajaaron mein bhi pahunchane laga. rel aur sadkon ke nirmaan se Bhaarat ke kachche maal ke niryaat mein vruddhi ho gayi aur cheejon ki keemat mein jo antar paaya jaata tha. vah kam hone laga. kheti par bhi iska prabhaav pada aur log jyaadaatar aisi hi fasal bone lage jinka videsh mein niryaat tha. Europeeya vyaapaari hindustaani majadooron ki sahaayata se Hindustan mein chai, kahava, joot aur neel ki kaasht karne lage.

beesaveen shataabdi ke paaainchave dashak mein bhaaratavarsh mein agrejon ki bahut badi pooainji lagi hui thi. pichhle pachaas-saath varshon mein is pooainji mein bahut teji ke saath vruddhi hui. 634 videshi companiyaan Bhaarat mein is samay kaarobaar kar rahi theen. inki vasool hui poonji lagbhag saadhe saat kharab rupaya thi aur 5194 companiyaan aisi theen jinki rajistri Bhaarat mein hui thi aur jinki poonji 3 kharab rupaya thi. inmein se adhiktar angreji companiyaan theen. England se jo videshon ko jaata tha usaka dashamaansh prativrsh Bhaarat mein aata tha. vastr aur lohe ke vyavasaaya hi England ke pradhaan vyavasaaya the aur british raajaneeti mein inka prabhaav sabse adhik tha. Bhaarat par England ka adhikaar banaae rakhane mein in vyavasaayon ka sabse bada svaarth tha; kyonki jo maal ye baahar ravaana karte the uske lagbhag panchamaansh ki khapat bhaaratavarsh mein hoti thi. Bhaarat ka jo maal vilaayat jaata tha usaki keemat bhi kuchh kam naheen thi. England prativrsh chai, joot, rui, tilhan, oon aur chamada Bhaarat se khareedata tha. yadi keval chai ka vichaar kiya jaae to 36 karod rupaya hoga. in baaton par vichaar karne se yeh spasht hai ki jyon-jyon England ka Bhaarat mein aarthik laabh badhta gaya tyon-tyon usaka raajaneetik svaarth bhi badhta gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

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