british Bhaarat mein riyaasatein

15 August 1947 se poorv sanyukt Bhaarat ka maanachitr jismein deshi riyaasaton ke tatkaaleen naam saaf dikh rahe hain.

british Bhaarat mein riyaasatein (angreji:Princely states; uchchaaran:"prinsli stets") british raaj ke dauraan avibhaajit Bhaarat mein naamamaatr ke svaayatt raajya the. inhein aam bolachaal ki bhaasha mein "riyaasat", "rajavaade" ya vyaapak arth mein deshi riyaasat kehte the. ye british saamraajya dvaara seedhe shaasit naheen the balki bhaarateeya shaasakon dvaara shaasit the. parantu un bhaarateeya shaasakon par paroksh roop se british shaasan ka hi niyntran rahata tha.

san 1947 mein jab Hindustan aajaad hua tab yahaaain 565 riyaasatein theen. inmein se adhikaansh riyaasaton ne british sarkaar se lokaseva pradaan karne evam kar (tax) vasoolane ka 'theka' le liya tha. kul 565 mein se keval 21 riyaasaton mein hi sarkaar thi aur Mysore, Hyderabad tatha Kashmir naam ki sirf 3 riyaasatein hi kshetrafal mein badi theen. 15 August,1947 ko britaaniyon se mukti milne par in sabhi riyaasaton ko vibhaajit Hindustan (Bhaarat adhiraajya) aur vibhaajan ke baad bane mulk Pakistan mein mila liya gaya.

15 August 1947 ko british saarvabhaum satta ka ant ho jaane par kendreeya gruh mantri sardaar vallabhabhaai Patel ke neeti kaushal ke kaaran Hyderabad, Kashmir tatha joonaagadh ke atirikt sabhi riyaasatein shaantipoorvak bhaarateeya sangh mein mil gayeen. 26 October ko Kashmir par Pakistan ka aakraman ho jaane par vahaaain ke mahaaraaja hari Singh ne use bhaarateeya sangh mein mila diya. Pakistan mein sammilit hone ki ghoshana se joonaagadh mein vidroh ho gaya jiske kaaran praja ke aavedan par raashtrahit mein use Bhaarat mein mila liya gaya. vahaaain ka navaab Pakistan bhaag gaya. 1948 mein sainik kaarravaai dvaara Hyderabad ko bhi Bhaarat mein mila liya gaya. is prakaar Hindustan se deshi riyaasaton ka ant hua.

anukram

parichay tatha itihaas

san 1919 mein bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki maanachitr. british saashit kshetr va svatantr riyaasaton ke kshetron ko darashaaya gaya hai.

mugal tatha maraatha saamraajyon ke patan ke parinaamasvaroop bhaaratavarsh bahut se chhote bade raajyon mein vibhkt ho gaya. inmein se sindh, bhaavalapur, Delhi, avadh, ruhelakhand, Bengal, Karnataka Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, joonaagadh aur soorat mein muslim shaasak the. Punjab tatha sarahind mein adhikaansh sikkhon ke raajya the. Assam, maneepur, kachhaar, tripura, jayantiya, tanjor, kurg, traavanakor, sataara, kolhaapur, Nagpur, gvaaliyr, Indore, Baroda tatha rajputana, bundelakhand, baghelakhand, Chhattisgarh, udeesa, kaathiyaavaad, madhya Bhaarat aur himaanchal pradesh ke raajyon mein hindu shaasak the.

british East indiya company ke sambandh sarvapratham vyaapaar ke uddeshya se soorat, Karnataka, Hyderabad, Bengal aadi samudratat par sthit raajyon se hue. tadantar fraanseesiyon ke saath sangharsh ke samay raajaneetik mahattvaakaanksha ko prerana mili. iske falasvaroop saamraajya nirmaan ka kaarya 1757 isavi se praarambh hokar 1856 tak chalta raha. is ek shataabdi mein deshi raajyon ke aapasi jhagadon se laabh uthaakar company ne apni kootaneetik sainik shakti dvaara saare Bhaarat par saarvabhaum satta sthaapit kar li. anek raajya uske saamraajya mein vileen ho gaye. anya sabhi usaka sanrakshan praapt karke company ke adheen ban gaye. yeh adheen raajya 'riyaasat' kahe jaane lage. inki sthiti uttarottar asantoshajanak tatha daaainvaadol hoti gayi. riyaasaton ki shakti ksheen hoti gayi, unki seemaaeain ghatati gayeen aur svatantrata kam hoti chali gayi.

1757 se 1856 tak ki sthiti

1756 tak Karnataka aur tanjaavur kshetr british company ke adheen ho gay. 1757 mein Bengal bhi uske prabhaav kshetr mein aa gaya. 1761 tak Hyderabad ke nijaam usaka mitr ban gaya. 1765 mein Bengal ki svatantrata samaapt ho gayi. isi varsh Allahabad ki sandhi dvaara Delhi ke samraat shaah aalam aur avadh ke navaab shujaauddaula ke saath company ki maitri ho gayi tatha bhaarataya riyaasaton ke saath uske sambandhon ka vaastavik sootrapaat hua.

1765 se 1798 tak maraatha, Afghaanon tatha Mysore ke sultaanon ke bhaya ke kaaran aatmaraksha ki bhaavana se prerit hokar company ne aarakshan neeti dvaara padosi raajyon ko antarim raajya banaaya jisse nav nirmit british raajya shaktishaali mitr raajyon se ghir kar surakshit ban gaya. is avasaravaadi neeti ko avadh aur Hyderabad riyaasat ke saath kaaryaanvit kiya gaya. iske anusaar dikhaave ke liye unke saath samaanata ka vyavahaar kiya gaya. parantu vaastavikta yeh thi ki is prakriya mein unhein adheen banaane, unki sainik shakti ksheen karne tatha uske sampann bhaagon par adhikaar karne ke kisi avsar ko company ne apne haath se baahar na jaane diya. riyaasaton ke prati jitni neetiyaaain company ne bhavishya mein apanaayeen unamein se adhikaansh avadh mein poshit huin. is kaal mein company ne Mysore tatha maraatha raajya mein foot daalkar Hyderabad ke sahayog se unke viruddh yuddh kiye. avadh ko ruhelakhand hadapne mein sahaayata dekar Rampur ka chhota raajya bana diya. traavanakor aur kurg company ke sanrakshan mein aa gaye.

1799 se 1805 tak Lord velejli ki agragaami neeti ke falasvaroop soorat, Karnataka tatha tanjor ke raajyon ka ant ho gaya. avadh, Hyderabad, Baroda, poona aur Mysore sahaayak sandhiyon dvaara company ke shikanje mein buri tarah jakad liye gaye. ab ve keval ardh svatantr raajya bhar rah gaye the iske atirikt unki aur kuchh bhi haisiyat na thi. unki baahya neeti par bhi british shaasan ka niyntran ho gaya. sainik shakti ghata di gayi. raajyon mein unheen ke kharch par sahaayak sena rakhi gayi jiske bal par aantarik aakramanon tatha vidrohon se unki raksha ki gayi. raajaaon ki gatividhiyon par drushti rakhane tatha british hiton ki suraksha evam vruddhi ke liye unki raajadhaaniyon mein british pratinidhi rahane lage. raajyon se british virodhi sabhi videshi hata diye gaye. antarraashtreeya jhagadon ka faisala british company karne lagi. ye apamaanajanak sandhiyaaain deshi raajyon ke liye aatmavinaash tatha british saamraajya ke liye vikaas shrrunkhala ki mahatvapoorn kadiyon ke samaan theen. yuddh mein paraast hokar Nagpur aur gvaaliyr bhi usi jaal mein fains gaye. bharatapur ne british aakramanon ko vifal banaane ke pashchaat sandhi kar li. isi samay se riyaasaton ke shaasak anuttaradaayi hone lage tatha unke aantarik shaasan mein anek bahaanon se british rejeedent hastakshep karne lage.

1805 se 1813 tak british company ne deshi raajyon ke prati hastakshep na karne ki neeti apanaayi. is kaaran traavanakor tatha sarahind ke raajya uske adheen ho gaye. satalaj Punjab ki seema bana di gayi. sindh aur Punjab company ke mitr ban gaye.

1817-1818 mein kai raajya laard hestingj ki aakraamak neeti ke shikaar bane. maraatha sangh ko nasht karke sataara ka chhota sa raajya bana diya gaya. rajputana, madhya Bhaarat tatha bundelakhand ke sabhi raajya satat mitrata tatha suraksha ki sandhiyon dvaara company ke karadaata raajya ban gaye. gvaaliyr, Nagpur tatha indaur par pehle se adhik apamaanajanak sandhiyaaain laad di gayeen. Bhopal ne pratirkshaatmak sandhi dvaara angrejon ki adheenata maan li. ameer khaaain, gfoor khaaain tatha kareem khaaain ko kramash: tonk, jaavara tatha ganeshapur ki riyaasatein di gayeen. nateeja yeh hua ki british saarvabhaum satta saare Hindustan mein fail gayi.

1857 ki sashastr kraanti

laard emaharst ke shaasanakaal mein kachhaar, jayantiya aur tripura british sanrakshan mein aa gaye. maneepur svatantr mitr raajya ban gaya. bharatapur ki shakti nasht kar di gayi. Lord William beintink ne kurg, Mysore tatha jayantiya ko kushaasan ke bahaane tatha kachhaar ko uttaraadhikaari na hone ke kaaran hadp liya. Lord okalaind ne maandavi, kolaava, jaalaun tatha karnool riyaasaton par adhikaar kar liya. Lord elanabara ne sindh jeet liya tatha gvaaliyr ki sainik shakti nasht kar di. rlaard haardingj ne Punjab ki shakti sankuchit kar di tatha Jammu aur Kashmir ke raajya ka nirmaan kiya. Lord dalahauji ke samay riyaasaton par vishesh prakop aaya. usane Nagpur, sataara, jhaaainsi, sambhalapur, Udaipur, jaitapur, vaghaat tatha karauli ke shaasakon ko putr god lene ke adhikaar se vanchit karke unke raajyon ko hadp liya; Hyderabad se baraar le liya; tatha kushaasan ka aarop lagaakar, avadh ko angreji raajya mein mila liya. in aapattijanak neetiyon ke kaaran riyaasaton mein asantosh fail gaya jo 1857 ki sashastr kraanti ka kaaran bana. kraanti ke samay svaarth se prerit hokar adhikaansh deshi shaasak company ke prati svaamibhkt bane rahe.

kraanti ke pashchaat Bhaarat mein 562 riyaasatein theen jinke antargat 46 pratishat bhoomi thi. inke prati adheenasth sahayog ki neeti apanaayi gayi tatha ye saamraajya ke majaboot stambh samajhe jaane lage. inke shaasakon ko putr god lene ka adhikaar diya gaya. raajya-sanyojan neeti ko tyaagakar riyaasaton ko chirsthaayitv pradaan kiya gaya tatha saamraajya ki suraksha evam gathan hetu unka sahayog praapt kiya gaya. 1859 mein gadhvaal ke raaja ke mrutyoparaant uske auras putr ko uttaraadhikaari maankar tatha 1881 mein Mysore riyaasat ke pun:sthaapan dvaara nai neeti ka pushteekaran hua. kramash: vibhinn sandhiyon ka mahatva jaata raha aur unke aadhaar par sabhi riyaasaton ke saath ek si neeti apnaane ki pratha chal padi. unamein chhote bade ka bhedabhaav salaamiyon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par kiya gaya.

mahaaraani Victoria ki adheenata mein

1876 mein deshi shaasakon ne mahaaraani Victoria ko Bhaarat ki samraajnyai maankar usaki aadheenata sveekaar kar li. tadantar british shaasan ki or se unhein upaadhiyaaain di jaane lageen. press, rel, taar tatha daak dvaara ve british sarkaar ke nikat aate gaye. chungi, vyaapaar, aavapaashi, mudra, durbhiksh tatha yaataayaat sambandhi unki neetiyaaain british Bhaarat ki neetiyon se prabhaavit hone lagi. unki koi antarraashtreeya sthiti hi na rahi. kushaasan, atyaachaar, raajadroh tatha uttaraadhikaar sambandhi jhagadon ko lekar riyaasaton mein british sarkaar ka hastakshep badh gaya. is neeti ke nimnalikhit kuchh udaaharan hi paryaapt hain -

(1) 1865 mein jhaabuaa ke raaja par 10000 dand lagaana;

(2) 1867 mein gvaaliyr ki sainik shakti mein kami;

(3) usi varsh tonk ke navaab ka padachyut hona tatha uske uttaraadhikaari ki salaami ki sankhya ghataana;

(4) 1870 mein alavar ke raaja ko shaasan se vanchit karna;

(5) malhaararaav Gaikwad ko bandi banaana aur 1875 mein use padachyut karna;

(6) 1889 mein Kashmir ke mahaaraaja prataap Singh ko gaddi se hataana;

(7) 1890 mein maneepur ke raaja ko apadasth karna tatha Yuvraj aur senaapati ko faaainsi dena; aur

(8) 1892 mein kalaat ke shaasak ko padachyut karna.

beesaveen sadi ke praarambh se svaadheenata praapti tak

narendramandal (chembar of prinsej ; 1941)

1899 mein Lord karjan ne riyaasaton ko saamraajya ka avibhaajya ang ghoshit kiya tatha kade shabdon mein shaasakon ko unke kartavyon ki or dhyaan dilaaya. isse kuchh shaasak shankit bhi hue. unki sthiti samruddh saamanton ke tulya ho gayi. 1906 mein teevr raashtravaad ke veg ki rokane mein riyaasaton ke sahayog ke liye Lord minto ne unke prati mitrataapoorn sahayog ki neeti apanaayi tatha saamraajya sevaarth sena ki sankhya mein vruddhi karne ke liye aadesh diya. iske evaj mein pratham vishvayuddh mein riyaasaton ne british sarkaar ko mahatvapoorn sahaayata deeya. Bikaner, Jodhpur, kishnagadh, Patiala aadi ke shaasakon ne ranakshetr mein apna yuddhakaushal dikhaaya.

1919 ke adhiniymaanusaar 1921 mein nareshamandal (ya narendramandal) bana jismein riyaasaton ke shaasakon ko apne saamaanya hiton par vaartaalaap karne tatha british sarkaar ko paraamarsh dene ka adhikaar mila. 1926 mein laard reeding ne british saarvabhaum satta par bal dete hue deshi shaasakon ko british sarkaar ke prati uttaradaayi ghoshit kiya jisse ve aprasann bhi hue. isliye 1929 mein butler committee report mein saarvabhaum satta ki seemaaeain nishchit kar di gayeen. 1930 mein nareshamandal ke pratinidhi golamej sammalen mein sammilit hue. 1935 ke samvaidhaanik adhiniyam mein riyaasaton ko bhaarateeya sangh mein sammilit karne ki anuchit vyavastha rakhi gayi parantu vah kaaryaanvit na ho saki. riyaasaton mein anvarat roop se nirankush shaasan chalta raha. keval Mysore, traavanakor, badoda, Jaipur aadi kuchh riyaasaton mein hi praja parishad ke aandolan se kuchh pratinidhi shaasan sansthaaeain bani. magar adhikaansh riyaasatein pragatiheen evam aviksit sthiti mein hi raheen. dviteeya vishv yuddh mein bhi in riyaasaton ne inglaind ko yathaashakti sahaayata di.

15 August 1947 ko british saarvabhaum satta ka ant ho jaane par kendreeya gruh mantri sardaar vallabhabhaai Patel ke neeti kaushal ke kaaran Hyderabad, Kashmir tatha joonaagadh ke atirikt sabhi riyaasatein shaantipoorvak bhaarateeya sangh mein mil gayeen. 26 October ko Kashmir par Pakistan ka aakraman ho jaane par vahaaain ke mahaaraaja hari Singh ne use bhaarateeya sangh mein mila diya. Pakistan mein sammilit hone ki ghoshana se joonaagadh mein vidroh ho gaya jiske kaaran praja ke aavedan par raashtrahit mein use Bhaarat mein mila liya gaya. vahaaain ka navaab Pakistan bhaag gaya. 1948 mein police kaarravaai dvaara Hyderabad bhi Bhaarat mein mil gaya. is prakaar riyaasaton ka ant hua aur poore desh mein lokatantraatmak shaasan chaaloo hua. iske evaj mein riyaasaton ke shaasakon va navaabon ko Bhaarat sarkaar ki or se unki kshatipoorti hetu niji kosh (privi pars) diya gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh