brajabuli

brajabuli us kaavyabhaasha ka naam hai jiska upayog uttar Bhaarat ke poorvi pradeshon arthaat mithila, Bengal, Assam tatha udeesa ke bhakt kavi pradhaan roop se Krishna ki leelaaon ke varnan ke liye karte rahe hain. Nepal mein bhi brajabuli mein likhe kuchh kaavya tatha naatakagranth mile hain. is kaavyabhaasha ka upayog shataabdiyon tak hota raha hai. isavi san ki 15veen shataabdi se lekar 19veen shataabdi tak is kaavyabhaasha mein likhe pad milte hain.

yadyapi "brajabuli saahitya" ki lambi parampara rahi hain, fir bhi "brajabuli" shabd ka prayog isavi san ki 19veen shataabdi mein milta hai. is shabd ka prayog abhi tak keval bangaali kavi ishvarachandr gupt ki rachana mein hi mila hai.

vyutpatti

"brajabuli" shabd ki vyutpatti tatha brajabuli bhaasha ki utpatti ko lekar vidvaanon mein bahut matabhed hai. yahaaain ek baat ko spasht kar dena aavashyak hai ki brajabuli, brajabhaasha naheen hai. vyaakaran sambandhi donon ki apni-apni alag-alag visheshataaeain hain, vaise bhaashaatattav ki drushti se yeh sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki brajabuli ka sambandh brajabhaasha se hai. brajabuli ke padon mein brajabhaasha ke shabdon ka prayog adhik dekhne ko milta hai.

brajabuli ki utpatti avahatth se hui. avahatth sambandhi thodi si jaankaari praapt kar lena aavashyak hai. kaalakram se apabhransh saahitya ki bhaasha ban chuka tha, ise 'parinishthit apabhransh' kah sakte hain. yeh parinishthit apabhransh uttar Bhaarat mein Rajasthan se asam tak kaavyabhaasha ka roop le chuka tha. lekin yahaaain yeh bhool naheen jaana chaahiye ki apabhransh ke vikaas ke saath-saath vibhinn ksheintron ki boliyon ka bhi vikaas ho raha tha aur baad mein chalakar un boliyon mein bhi saahitya ki rachana hone lagi. is prakaar paravarti apabhransh aur vibhinn pradeshon ki viksit boliyon ke beech jo apabhransh ka roop tha aur jiska upayog saahitya rachana ke liye kiya gaya use hi avahatth kaha gaya hai. dau॰ suneetikumaar chatarji ne batalaaya hai ki shauraseni apabhransh arthaat avahatth madhyadesh ke alaava Bengal aadi pradeshon mein bhi kaavyabhaasha ke roop mein apna aadhiptya jamaae hue tha. yahaaain ek baat ki or dhyaan dilaana aavashyak hai ki yadyapi avahatth kaavyabhaasha ke roop mein grahan kiya gaya tha fir bhi yeh svaabhaavik tha ki praant vishesh ki chhaap usapar lagti, iseeliye kaavyabhaasha hone par bhi vibhinn anchalon ke shabd, prakaashanabhangi aadi ko ham usamein pratyaksh karte hain.

"brajabuli" shabd ki vyutpatti ke sambandh mein kuchh logon ne anumaan lagaaya hai ki "brajaavali boli" ka roopaantar "brajaali buli" mein hua aur "brajaali buli" "brajabuli" bana. yeh klisht kalpana hai. vaastav mein adhik tarkasangat yeh lagta hai ki is bhaasha mein Krishna ki leelaaon ka varnan hai ataev Krishna ki leelaabhoomi "braj" ke saath iska sambandh jod is bhaash ko "brajaboli" samjha gaya hoga jo baingala ke uchchaaran ki vishishtata ke kaaran "brajabuli" ban gaya hoga.

saahitya

brajabuli mein likhe pad mithila, Bengal, asam aur Orissa mein paae gaye hain. asami saahitya mein brajabuli ka pramukh sthaan hai. asam ki brajabuli ki rachanaaon mein asami bhaasha ka svabhaavat: sammishran hai. asam ke vaishnav bhakt kaviyon mein daasya bhaav ki pradhaanata hai. ve braj se adhik prabhaavit the. Bengal tatha udeesa ke bhakt kaviyon mein bhi kaheen-kaheen daasya bhaav ke darshan hote hain lekin unamein sakhya aur madhur bhaav ki pradhaanata hai. Bengal aur udeesa ka vaishnav-shakti-saahitya raadha aur Krishna ki leelaaon se otaprot hai, lekin asami ke brajabuli saahitya mein raadha ka vaisa sthaan naheen diya gaya hai. mithila mein vidyaapati ke padon mein raadha ki pramukhata hai. brajabuli ke kuchh naatak bhi mile hain lekin ye naatak keval Nepal aur asam mein hi praapt hue hai. Bengal ya udeesa mein brajabuli ke naatak abhi tak naheen mile hain.

asam ke bhakt kaviyon mein shankaradev (1449 E.-1568 E.) tatha unke shishya maadhavadev (1498 E.-1596 E.) ka mukhya sthaan hai. asam ke janajeevan tatha saahitya par shankaradev tatha unke anuyaayiyon ka gahra prabhaav pada. brajabuli ko in logon ne apne prachaar ka saadhan banaaya. udeesa ke bhakt kaviyon mein rai raamaanand ka pramukh sthaan tha. ye udeesa ke gajapati raaja prataap rudr (raajatvakaal 1504 E.-1532 E.) ke ek uchch adhikaari the. chaitanya mahaaprabhu aur rai raamaanand ke milan ka jo varnan chaitanya sanpradaaya ke krushnadaas kaviraaj ne "chaitanya charitaamrut" mein kiya hai usase pata chalta hai ki madhur bhakti ke rahasyon se donon poorn parichit the. udeesa ke anya kaviyon mein prataaparudr, maadhaveedaasi, rai chanpati ke naam aate hain.

Bengal mein gaudeeya vaishnav sanpradaaya ke bhakt kaviyon ki sankhya bahut adhik hai. unamein kuchh ke naam yon hain : yashoraaj Khan (16veen shataabdi ka praarambh), muraari gupt (16veen shati ka praarambh), vaasudev ghosh, raamaanand Basu, dvij haridaas, paramaanandadaas, jnyaaanadaas (1530 E. ke lagbhag inka janm hua), narottamadaas, krushnadaas kaviraaj, govindaraaj kaviraaj. brajabuli ke antim shreshth kavi ke roop mein raveendranaath thaakur ka naam liya ja sakta hai. unki "bhaanusinh thaakurer padaavali" san 1886 E. mein prakaashit hui. brajabuli ke pad, bhaasha aur bhaav ki drushti se atyant madhur hain.

baahari kadiyaaain