braisikesi

bresikesi kul ka ek paudha

braisikesi ya krooseeferi dvidl vanaspatiyon ka ek jagadvyaapi kul hai. is kul ke antargat 350 vansh tatha 2500 jaatiyaaain milti hain. iske paudhe sarvatr milte hain, parantu adhikaansh uttari samasheetoshn bhaag mein paae jaate hain. mooli, shalagam, bandhagobhi, foolagobhi, sarason is kul ke kuchh pramukh paudhein hain.

krooseeferi ke pratinidhi visheshat: uttari samasheetoshn evam bhoomadhyasaagareeya bhoobhaagon mein adhik paae jaate hain. ismein lagbhag 1,900 upajaatiyon ki tatha praaya: sabhi kshup (koi koi gulmak) shreni ki vanaspatiyaaain hain. inmein kuchh varshaayu, kintu adhikaansh shaakeeya, bahuvarshaayu hoti hain. ye prati varsh naveen hokar utpann hoti rahati hain. kisi mein khaadya padaarthon ke sanchaya ke kaaran mool kaand evam patraadi sthool aur maansal hote hain. yeh kul ahifen kul (Papave raceae) aur kareer kul (Capparidaceae) se kuchh milta julata hain, parantu nimnaankit lakshanon se yukt iska vaishishtya spasht hota hai.

pattiyaaain praaya: ekaantar, (alternate) anupapatr aur ekakosha, sashaakh, ya ni:shaakh evam romon se yukt hoti hain. pushpamanjari ekavardhyaksh (racene) athva samashikh (corymb) hoti hai aur niptr tatha niptrak praaya: sarvada anupasthit paae jaate hain. pushp ubhayalingi, niytaakaar aur adhojaaya (hypogynous) hote hain, jinka pushpasootr K+ 2C8 A2+8G(2) hota hai. yahaaain ke K2= kailiks (Calyx, baahyadal punj) C = kaurola (Corolla, dalapunj); A=endrosiym (Androecium pumang) G= gaainaasiym (Gynacium jaayaang).

baahya talapunj (Calyx) mein chaar svatantr baahyadal do chakron arthaat‌ do paarshveeya dharaatal ke bheetari chakron, mein sthit rahate hain. dalapunj (corolla) mein chaar svatantr dal ek hi chakr mein aur vikrn samatalon (diagonal planes) mein nikalte hain. ye di kalaai ke aakaar ke, arthaat‌ neeche patale aur oopar chaude, tatha samakon par mudkar baahar ki or faile rahate hain. inki is svastik aakruti ke kaaran hi is kul ka naam krooseeferi pada hai. pumang (Andrcecium) chhah punkaseron ka hota hai. ise chaturdeerghak (tetradynamous) kehte hain, kyonki punkaseron mein do chhote, paarshveeya samatal aur baahari chakr mein, tatha chaar bade madhya samatal aur bheetari chakr mein, rahate hain. inke paraagakosh (anthers) antarmukh (introrse) hote hain. jayaang (Gynaecium) madhya dharaatal mein paraspar sanyukt do stri kesaron ka hota hain. andaashaya dvighvar, parantu jaraayunyaas (placentation) bhittilgn hota hain. donon or ke jaraayu bhaatar ki or kramash: badhkar ek patala parada bana lete hain, jise replam (Replum, kootapati) kehte hai. antraashaya mein beejaand (ovules) adhobhaav (anatropous) athva vakraavat (campylotropous) hote hain. doosare prakaar ke beejaandon se bane hue beejon mein bhroon aur bhroonakosh is tarah vakrit hote hain ki moolaankar (radicle) beej ke ek bhaag mein aur beejapatr (Cotyledons) doosare bhaagon mein rahate hain. donon jaraayujasandhiyon ke theek oopar do vartikaagr (stigma) aur inke neeche chhoti vartika (style) hoti hai.

paraagan praaya: keeton dvaara hota hai. punkesaron ke mool ke paas madhukosh hote hain, jinse madhu sravit hokar paarshveeya baahyadalon ke putaakaar (saccate) aadhaar bhaagon mein ekatr hota hai. pruthak‌aapakvata (dichogamy) aadi anukool avasthaaon ke kaaran keetaadikon dvaara upper paraagan hota rahata hai, parantoo sabhi mein antat: swayam paraagan bhi anivaarya roop se hota hai.

fal shinbitulya (fali samaan) aur sfoti (dehiscent) hote hain motaai athva chaudaai ke lagbhag teen guna ya adhik lamba hone par inhein silikva (Siliqua) aur chhota hone par silikula (Silicula) kehte hain. pakane aur sookhane par falaavaran (pericarsp) donon sandhiyon par neeche se fatata hua do bhaagon mein pruthak‌ ho jaata hai aur donon jaraayu, unase sambaddh beej aur beej ki antarbhiti sab ek saath beech mein rah jaati hai. fal belanaakaar athva chipta, kabhi beejon ke beech beech mein sankuchit, kabhi asfoti evam ekabeej aur kabhi mooaingafali ki tarah bhaumik bhi hota hai. chipta hone par fal ka chipit paarshv antarbhiti ke samaantar, ya usase samakon par, hota hai. beej abhroonaposhi (nonendospermic) aur beejakavach (tasta) praaya: kled (muscilage) yukt hota hai, jisse bheegane par ye lasalase ho jaate hain. fal, beej, garbh evam garbhakosh aadi ke uparyukt lakshan kulaantargat (genera) vanshon ke pruthakkaran mein bahut upayogi hote hain.

upayogita ki drushti se is kul ki samast vanaspatiyaaain ullekhaneeya hain. inmein sarason, raai, mooli, teenon prakaar ki gobhi aur salajam khaadyaapayogi, chanasur, khaakaseer, todari, skarvi ghaas aur haurs raidish chikitsaapayogi tatha vaal flaavar, maithiola, naistarshiym tatha kaithadeetapat shobhanaarth udyonopayogi hote hain. is kul ki vanaspatiyon mein praaya: gandhak ke yaugik paae jaate hain. inke kaaran avasthaavishesh mein durgandh utpann hoti hai. skarvi aadi kuchh rogon mein vanaspatiyon upayogi maani jaati hain.

braisikesi kul ke kuchh paudhon ke chitr

inhein bhi dekhein